My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Idealism; is a generally thought to be the creation of the Greek philosophy, Plato (427-347 B.C ) the pupil of Socrates, a famous Greek teacher and philosopher who lived in Athens. Plato wrote down Socrates ideas and his method, which was the dialogue.

1.2. 1.Generic Notions ;Plato thought that education, in particular, was important as a means of moving individuals collectively toward achieving the good. He believed that the state should play an active role in education and that it should encourage the brighter students to follow a curriculum that was more abstract and more concerned with ideas rather than with concrete matter.

1.2.1. 2.Goal of Education; responsibility of those who achieve the realization of truth to enlighten others. Moreover idealists subscribe to the notion that education i8 transformation. Ideas can change lives.

1.3. 3.Role of the Teacher; an idealist teacher supports moral education as a means of linking ideas to action. Last the idealist teacher sees herself or himself as a role model in the classroom to be emulated by students

1.4. 4.Methods of Instruction ; Idealist teachers take an active part in their students learning students are encouraged to discuss analyze, synthesize. students was encouraged to work in groups.

1.5. 5.Curriculum ;The Great Books curriculum at Saint John's University in Annapolis Maryland. Adler emphasized both content and process through the actual reading and that children read great literature .

2. Schools as Organizations

2.1. 1.  Great Britain- all school were private for poor children was no schooling . They was state -run school and controlled by local education authorities 1944 education act was designed to democratize Great Britain's school system on the whole the system re-created the class system by channeling students into different kinds of schools . However despite a decrease in the school leaving rate to under 30 percent (from over 60 percent) (Brint 2006) an increase in university attendance to approximately 30 percent from under 10 percent the educational system remains class stratified.

2.2. 2.Soviet Union- educational system that was established after Bolshevik Revolution of 1917 was highly centralized stratified and deeply ideological. The purpose of the educational system was to create the new soviet man and woman . To become the leaders of the proletarian revolution that would transform the Soviet Union into a socialist paradise soviet system was quite stratified that is the children of high party members attended school that taught foreign language and prepared their students for university entrance. In 1980 the Soviet education system was failing to educate soviet students in the new skills.

2.3. 3. Japan educational system seemed to produce skilled workers and highly competent mangers. The first national system was established in 1980 under the central authority of the ministry of education science, and culture The Japanese system education is highly competitive.

2.3.1. 4. Germany - German system is almost the opposite of the U.S. system primary school in the U.S. are relatively understand . Secondary school although tracked, provide a relatively high degree of access to higher education. High education is open to large numbers of students but also highly unequal and stratified with technical and vocational programs and liberal arts and sciences in 2 years community colleges and a system and elite four-year public and private college and universities. 5.Finland- achieved such dramatic results during the past 40 years finland  has untaken a major overhaul of its education system by focusing on equal access to curriculum the provision of wrap-around services for students and teacher education. finland eliminated all forms of tracking and instead turned it focus to ensuring that all students attain a high level of academic success. 6.France -control the educational system right down to the classroom level. They are also centralized , George Male (1992) the French educational system is excessively verbal French believe by and large that this system of examinations is meritocratic. The French education system is frankly competitive French system continues to be centralized , competitive and stratified.

3. Curriculum and Pedagogy

3.1. Historical Curriculum - helps explain how school looks today. Kliebard (1986) in his book the struggle for the American Curriculum 1893-1958 outlines four different types of curriculum in the twentieth century humanist , social efficiency developmentalist and social meliorist.

3.1.1. Sociological curriculum began to challenge the traditional theories of curriculum rather than views curriculum as an objective body of knowledge they suggested that the curriculum is an organized body knowledge that represents political social ideological interest. 1.The humanist curriculum reflects the idealist philosophy that knowledge of traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educated citizenry and that the purpose of education is to present to students the best of what has been thought and written. 2.Social efficiency curriculum was philosophically pragmatist approach develop in the early twentieth century as a put actively democrate response to the deveiopment of mass public secondary education.

4. Equality of Opportunity

4.1. The National Center for education statistics publishes yearly statistical reports, includes the condition of education which provides important statistical date on a variety of educational issues the achievement gap.

4.1.1. Attainment - African American graduated from high school and 19.9 percent received a bachelor degree Hispanic - American graduated from high school and 13.9 percent received a bachelor degree. Special Needs- In 1975 congress paased the education of all handicapped children law (EHA) (PL 94-142) The purpose or this law was to guarantee that children with special needs were properly identified and placed in appropriate classes. Coleman-  Equality of Educational Opportunity based on both cross- sectional and longitudinal studies which unequivocally indicates that overall between school differences in any measurable attribute of institutions are only modestly related to a variety of outcome variables.

5. Educational Inequality

5.1. Sociological-educational outcomes attempts to separate the independent effects of these variables although their relationship is often difficult to distinguish. On one hand given powerful relationship between social class and educational attainment and achievement that focused on class issues.

5.2. School-Centered explantation- significant differnces in academic performance among students in the same than among students in different schools. (as opposed to between-school differences) does not rule out the possibility that school affect educational inequality as it is possible that differences in the school such as ability grouping and curriculum tracking may explain these differences.

5.2.1. 1.Interactionism- suggests that one must understand how people within institutions such as families and schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success and failure.

5.2.2. 2.Although some researches (oakes 1985,2005) argue that race and social class- based composition of  tracks is evidence of discrimination Persell (1977) in her review of the teacher expectations literature argued that teacher perceptions of students and their abilities have impact on what is taught how it is taught ultimately student performance.

5.2.3. 3. Feminist movement in the United States was the second wave of feminism began in the 1960 Influenced by the French feminist Simone de Beauvior  (1952) unequal treatment of women in all aspect of society and worked actively to change both attiudes and laws that limited the life chances of women. 4.Social Stratification is hierarchical confiquration  of families ( and an industrial societies in recent decades unrelated individuals). who have differential access to whatever is of value in the society at a given point. 5. Albert Shanker  (1991) stated that education in the United States assumes that students in the lower tracks are not capable of doing academic work and thus schools do not offer them an academically challenging curriculum.

6. Educational Reform

6.1. Public Schools are operated independently of the public school bureaucracy were they are happier and healthier and more academically productive than zone school where students were required to attend based on their residence. Although public education is dominated by a public bureaucracy dominated

6.2. Economic- theories principles and models that deals with how the market process work. It wealth that is created in communities and how people allocate resources. that deals with matters how people deals with humans wants and their satisfaction.

6.2.1. Integrative Realm school do need to improve their effectiveness in teaching basic skills and knowledge. conservative claims that the decline in the educational standard in the economic. 2.Developmental Relam- that school need to become more humane institutions where students develop as complete human beings the conservative emphasis on academic standards and the life of the mind is too shortsighted. 3.In 2008 the U.S. Department of Education reported that 70 percent of white students attend schools that are at least 75 percent white while other research show that industrial states over half of all black children attend school that are over 90percent minority.

7. Politics of Education

7.1. Liberal - Although accepting the conservatives belief in a market capitalist economy, believe that the free market is left unregulated and is prone to the significient abuses particularly to those groups who are disadvantaged economically and politically is also a primary with the balance of economy productively of capitalism with social economic needs the majority of the people in the United States.

7.2. Traditional - Tends to view schools as necessary to the transmission of traditional values of the U.S. society such as hard work, family unity individuals initatives.

7.3. 1. Intelluctual - schooling are teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing and mathematics to transmit specific knowledge and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analyze, evaluation and synthesis.

7.4. 2. Debates - about educational issues often focus on different views concerning the goals of schools and their place within society. Yet there are many views are complex it is helpful to simplify them through the use of the political typology.

7.5. 3. Political perspective - on education have rarely been consistent. One problem is using labels or typologies is that there are often little agreements about what constitutes the basic principles of particular perspective.

7.6. 4. Economic - analyze of these contradictions is complex and unnecessary to the level of understanding required here it is important to note that the central contradiction pointed out by radical is between accumulation laws of capitalism.

7.7. 5. Radical - believes that schools should reduce inadequate of educational results and provide upward social mobility but that historically that the schools have been ineffective in obtaining these noble goals.

7.8. 6. Social - purposes of schooling is to help solve social problems to work as many institutions such as the family, church to ensure social cohesion and to socialize children into the various roles, behavior and values of the society.

8. History of the US Education

8.1. Women's rights - The reform effort evolved during the 19th century initially emphasizing a broad spectrum of goals before focusing solely on securing the franchise for women. The women of the suffrage leaders moreover often disagreed about the tactics or the emphasis of their reform efforts. This saying came about that all men and women are created equal.

8.2. Interpretations- as to why education was so important to the early settlers and why it continues to be an important issue in contemporary society.

8.3. 1. Civil War- education for African-American was severly limited After Nat Turners Revolt in 1831

8.4. 2.The Old Deluder Law was not very popular throughout New England. Often, towns simply neglected to provide the education for their youth as dictated by law. However, it remain a landmark in the history of U.S. education.

8.5. 3. By 1828, when Andrew Jackson was elected president all men (except slaves and emotionally disturbed persons) has obtained the right to vote. Thus the founding fathers' visions of a political democracy were increasingly becoming a reality.

8.5.1. 4.

8.6. 4.Psychologists as well as philosophers become actively involved in educational reform

8.6.1. 5

8.7. 5.Dewey believed that the result of education was growth, which was firmly posted within a democratic society.

8.8. 6.Utilitarian components of the curriculum would be practical aspects of mathematics such as accounting and natural history.

9. Sociological Perceptives

9.1. Theoretical perspective- of society are created by human beings and interpreted by them which integration of known principles laws and information pertaining to a specific area of study

9.1.1. Sociologists of education often ask big question about the relation between school and society because they believe that educators cannot really understand how schools operate and why they operate as they do.

9.2. 1. Weber-also recognized that political and military power could be exercised by the state without direct reference to the wishes of the dominant classes.

9.3. 2. Interactional Theories -about relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives.

9.4. 3. Persell  (1977) found that when teachers demands more from their students and praised them more students learned more and felt better about themselves. Teachers should not be scapegoated for society problems

9.5. 4.Stinchcomble (1964) founded for instance that students in vocational programs and headed towards low- status jobs were the students most likely to join a rebellious subculture

9.6. 5.Functional sociologists begin with picture of society that stresses the interdependence of social systems these researchers often examine how well the parts are integrated with each other.

9.6.1. 6.Conflicts -sociologists do not see the relation between school and society as unproblematic or straightforward. Whereas functionalists emphasize cohesion in explaining social order,.conflict sociologists emphasize sruggle.