Student Assessments

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Student Assessments by Mind Map: Student Assessments

1. Performance-Based

1.1. Description

1.1.1. evaluate the extent to which students can apply the knowledge they've learned in class to real-world situations (Edutopia 2015).

1.2. Purpose

1.2.1. To allow students to demonstrate their knowledge of content based off of set of standards.

1.3. +/-

1.3.1. Advantages: engaging, motivating, gives students a deeper understanding of content. Disadvantages: can be time-consuming and if a teacher has a strict curriculum they might not be able to incorporate this type of test.

1.4. "of" learning or "for" learning

1.4.1. FOR learning: These assessment occur throughout the learning process. Although they result in a final product, they are time-consuming projects and can incorporate peer editing/teacher feedback/collaboration/etc.

1.5. Example

1.5.1. PBL Projects: In a particular project that incorporates elements of ELA and history, I would have my students interview a family member about their experience growing up in a different era. The students will research the history related to this particular setting and time period and come up with a narrative accompanied by primary sources and media.

2. High-Stakes

2.1. Description

2.1.1. A very important test that has significant consequences to the test-taker. These types of tests tend to allow people out of programs or into programs.

2.2. Purpose

2.2.1. The purpose is to hold teachers accountable to student learning.

2.3. +/-

2.3.1. Advantages: the main advantage is that these tests can be employed statewide or nationwide, thus giving a lot of comparative data. Disadvantages: teachers or school systems under pressure may, and often do, result to teaching to the test.

2.4. "of" learning or "for" learning

2.4.1. OF learning; This assessment evaluates the student's knowledge of a topic and occurs after the learning process. Student's achievement and scores are ranked and compared to certain standards.

2.5. Example

2.5.1. Korean students in my school system take placement tests at the end of their school year to see what level they will be in for junior high. There is also a big SAT-like test at the end of high school for Koreans, and if they fail they cannot go to college unless they pass the test the next year.

3. Portfolio

3.1. Description

3.1.1. A portfolio assessment is a way of assessing students through a final product created from several student-made artifacts (Fernsten 2009).

3.2. Purpose

3.2.1. Individualizes the learning process and encourages students to take several projects and organize them into a final body of work.

3.3. +/-

3.3.1. Advantages: allows for an individualized and differentiated learning experience. It also teaches time management and organizational skills. Disadvantages: it's very time consuming and the proper resources must be available at the school and within the curriculum.

3.4. "of" learning or "for" learning

3.4.1. FOR learning: This is an assessment that is done over a period of time, thus allowing for several opportunities to learn and grow. Rather than a final assessment of learning, the assessment occurs throughout the learning process.

3.5. Example

3.5.1. A daily writing journal can be given to students to complete when they first enter a classroom. At the end of the semester, so journal can be graded to show improvement.

4. Authentic

4.1. Description

4.1.1. Applied, performance-based assessments where students show their knowledge on the spot.

4.2. Purpose

4.2.1. To assess student's understanding on concepts in real world situations.

4.3. +/-

4.3.1. Advantages: encourages students to be active and gives them the feeling that they know something in practice and theory. Disadvantages: these tests are time consuming and difficult to work into a lot of curricula.

4.4. "of" learning or "for" learning

4.4.1. FOR learning: These assessments occur throughout the learning process.

4.5. Example

4.5.1. Writing a persuasive essay or answering live questions in an English speaking test.

5. Self-Assessment

5.1. Description

5.1.1. Self assessments are tests run by students to help them improve their work.

5.2. Purpose

5.2.1. These are done so that students can recognize their own strengths and weaknesses to track their progress and become independent learners.

5.3. +/-

5.3.1. Advantages: gives students the opportunity to reflect on their own progress and recognize their learning style. Helps them set and meet goals. Disadvantages: some students may feel the need to copy answers if given an answer key, also if they don't compare their scores with their peers they may not be able to know how well they are doing.

5.4. "of" learning or "for" learning

5.4.1. FOR learning: In this assessment, students are in the process of learning as they are reviewing their own work and reflecting on their own progress.

5.5. Example

5.5.1. I have taught writing classes where students wrote essay rough drafts and graded themselves based on a rubric that they learned previously.

6. Citations

6.1. Desautel, L. (2014) Self-Assessment Inspires Learning. Retrieved from: Fernsten, L. (2009). Portfolio Assessments. Retrieved from: Edutopia (2015) Performance-Based Assessment: Engaging Students in Chemistry. Retrieved from: Ehringhaus, M., Garrison C. (2010) Formative and Summative Assessments in the Classroom. Retrieved from: Sasser, N. (2015) What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Formative Assessment? Retrieved from: Supovitz, K. (2015). Is High-Stakes Testing Working? Retrieved from: Wees, D. (2012). 56 Examples of Formative Assessments. Retrieved from:

7. Diagnostic

7.1. Description

7.1.1. A diagnostic assessments, or "pre-assessments," are given to students as they enter new classrooms or begin learning a new concepts. It tests their knowledge coming into the new class.

7.2. Purpose

7.2.1. To convey a student's readiness and act as a baseline to assess future progress.

7.3. +/-

7.3.1. Advantages: Reveals strengths and weaknesses, which help the teacher understand how to effectively scaffold lessons. Also allows the teacher to use this information to measure student's progress by the end of the unit. Disadvantages: Students could feel overwhelmed if they lack previous knowledge. This sort of test could induce anxiety and create an affective filter early on during the student's experience.

7.4. "Of" learning or "for" learning

7.4.1. "OF" learning because this type of assessment evaluates what students have learned prior to the beginning of the current unit/school year.

7.5. Example: In my ESL classes we have chapter reviews and chapter tests that cover listening, reading, writing and speaking skills in order to scaffold for the upcoming chapter.

8. Formative

8.1. Description

8.1.1. Assessments that allow the teacher to check the students' understanding of content during learning. This can be practiced via pair work, brainstorming activities, individual meetings with the students and a variety of other ways.

8.2. Purpose

8.2.1. To support learning while the student is going through the learning process,  to provide feedback, and to check students' understanding of content. Often not graded.

8.3. +/-

8.3.1. Advantages: allows teacher to informally give feedback (which is great for students with test anxiety), allows teachers to give feedback on the spot and also change lessons on the spot when they notice patterns. Disadvantages: cannot be employed in classes where there is a set curriculum that must be followed on a time schedule, can be difficult to do in large classes, teachers may forget feedback if it is not logged and may lose track of student's progress.

8.4. "of" learning or "for" learning

8.4.1. FOR Learning: Formative assessments are assessments for learning as they happen throughout the learning process. Student's are not tested on formative assessments, the purpose of the assessments it to learn.

8.5. Example

8.5.1. In my 3rd-6th grade ESL classes I do a lot of formative evaluations in the form of educational games like slap board or blazing pens. I also walk around a lot during projects in order to ask students questions for understanding one on one.

9. Summative

9.1. Description

9.1.1. A final assessment employed post learning to gauge a student's understanding.

9.2. Purpose

9.2.1. To give a final summation on the limits of the student's knowledge or the teacher's methods.

9.3. +/-

9.3.1. Advantages: Measures learning to standards, increases accountability, helps evaluate program effectiveness. Disadvantages: some students are bright but get a lot of anxiety during tests and don't do well. Students with ADHD may have a hard time paying attention.

9.4. "of" learning or "for" learning

9.4.1. OF learning: this assessment tests students and scores their work after the learning process has been completed.

9.5. Example

9.5.1. End of unit, or year, test of all content from the year. This can be done with multiple choice tests, essays or final projects.

10. Peer Assessment

10.1. Description

10.1.1. Assessments  and feedback sessions that are given to students by students based on standards set by the teacher.

10.2. Purpose

10.2.1. When students give feedback to their peers they can better understand their own work.

10.3. +/-

10.3.1. Advantages: gives students more learning power and allows them to share ideas thoughtfully with peers. Disadvantages: some students may be too timid to grade a peer's work too harshly, so they may give them higher marks than they deserve. Some students might also grade too harshly without regret.

10.4. "of" learning or "for" learning

10.4.1. FOR learning: After students peer review, they go back to their work and make improvements. Therefore, it is not a "final" product at the end of learning, but rather an assessment that occurs during the learning process.

10.5. Example

10.5.1. After informal quizzes, I typically have students give peer review feedback and grades (answers are discussed in class) so that students can get their quiz feedback immediately after their quiz.