Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 4 Purposes of Education: 1.) The INTELLECTUAL PURPOSES of schooling are to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to transmit specific knowledge (e.g., in literature, history, and the sciences, etc.); and to help students acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.  2.) The POLITICAL PURPOSES of schooling are to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order (patriotism); to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order (e.g., in political democracies); to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order;and to teach children the basic laws of society.  3.) The SOCIAL PURPOSES of schooling are to help solve social problems; to work as one of many institutions, such as the family and church (or synagogue) to ensure social cohesion; and to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of the society.  This process, referred to by sociologists as socialization, is a key ingredient to the stability of any society.  4.) The ECONOMIC PURPOSES of schooling are to prepare students for the their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor. The degree in which schools directly prepare students for work varies from society to society, but most schools have at least an indirect role in this process.

1.2. 1.) The role of the school...    2.) Explanations of unequal performance.....      3.) Definition of educational problems.....

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. FUNCTIONAL THEORIES:  Functional sociologists begin with a picture of society that stresses the interdependence of the social system; these researchers often examine how well the parts are integrated with each other.  Functionalists view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work.                           CONFLICT THEORIES:  Not all sociologists of education believe that society is help together by shared values alone.  Some argue that the social order is not based on some collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force and manipulation.  In this view, the glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power.             INTERACTIONAL THEORIES: Interactional theories about the relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives.  The critique arises from the observation that functional and conflict theories are very abstract, and emphasize structure and process at a very general (macrosociological) level of analysis.  Although this level of analysis helps in understanding education in the "big picture," macrosociological theories hardly provide an interpretable snapshot of what schools are like on an everyday level.

2.2. STUDENT PEER GROUPS AND ALIENATION: Student cultures play an important role in shaping students' educational experiences.  Schools are far more than mere collections of individuals; they develop cultures, traditions, and restraints that profoundly influence those who work and study within them.  They socialize and sort and select students and, in doing so, reproduce society.                               GENDER: Another way that schools reproduce inequalities is through gender discrimination.  Men and women do no share equally in U.S. society.  This form of social stratification is rooted in the values and organization of society; schools in some ways only reflect the societal problems.                                               TEACHER BEHAVIOR:  Teachers have a huge impact on student learning and behavior.  They wear many hats such as instructor, disciplinarian, bureaucrat, employer, friend, confidant, educator, and so on.  This can lead to role strain, where such conflicting demands are placed on teachers that they cannot feel totally comfortable in any role.                           EDUCATION AND MOBILITY:  The belief that occupational and social mobility begin at the schoolhouse door is a critical component of the American ethos.  As part of what might be termed 'civil religion', there is an abiding faith among most Americans that education is the great equalizer in the "great status race."           KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES:  There are sharp divisions among researchers about how significant schools effects are, when taking into account students' social class backgrounds.

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. PRAGMATISM:  Pragmatism is a philosophy that encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their desired ends.  Although pragmatists do study the past, they generally are more interested in contemporary issues and in discovering solutions to problems in present-day terms.  They are action oriented, experientially grounded, and will generally pose questions such as "What will work to achieve my desired end?"  GENERIC NOTATIONS:  Dewey's form of pragmatism was founded on the new psychology, behaviorism and the philosophy of pragmatism.  Dewey's ideas about education, often referred to as progressive, proposed that educators start with the needs and interests of the child in the classroom, allow the child to participate  in planning his or her course of study, employ project method or group learning, and depend heavily on experiential learning.  KEY RESEARCHERS:  George Sanders Peirce, William James, and John Dewey.  GOAL OF EDUCATION: For Dewey the primary role of education was growth.  His view was that the role of the school was to integrate children into not just any type of society, but a democratic one.  ROLE OF TEACHER: In a progressive setting, the teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows; rather, the teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator.  The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study.  METHOD OF INSTRUCTION: Children should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know and they should work individually as well as in groups.  CURRICULUM:  Progressive schools generally follow the notion of a core curriculum, or an integrated curriculum where all the academic and vocational disciplines in an integrated, interconnected way.

3.2. Task #3

4. History of U.S. Education

4.1. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School had the most influence on education because it was the original idea of free, public education for all, not just the rich.  Many reformers believed that the road to secular paradise was through education.  The struggle was lead by a Massachusetts man by the name of Horace Mann.  His argument for the establishment for the common school, or free publicly funded elementary schools, reflects both the concern for stability and order and the concern for social mobility.  Many historians view Mann as one of America's greatest educational reformers. Mann's belief that schools can change the social order and that education can foster social mobility are beliefs responsible for the faith and support many people give to U.S. public schools.

4.2. The Democratic-liberals believe that the history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution, albeit flawed, of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all.  Democratic-liberal historians suggest that each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and to reject the conservative view of schools as elite institutions for the privileged.  Historians, such as Cubberly and Curti have portrayed the Common School Era as a victory for democratic movements and the first step in opening U.S. education to all.  Although democratic-liberals tend to interpret U.S. educational history optimistically, the evolution of the nation's schools has been a flawed, often conflictual march towards increased opportunities.  Thus, historians such as Cremin do not see equity and excellence as inevitably irreconcilable, but rather as the tensions between the two, resulting in necessary compromises.  The ideals of equality and excellence are just that: ideals.  Democratic-liberals believe that the U.S. educational system must continue to move closer to each, without sacrificing one or the other too dramatically.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. 1.)State Senators: Aurthor Orr; House of Representatives: Micky Hammon, Ken Johnson, Terri Collins, Ed Henry, Randall Shedd; State Superintendent: Michael Sentance; Superintendant: Dr. Dan Brigman; Local school board: Dr. Karen Duke,Donnie Lane, Peggy Baggett, Dwight Jett, Jr., Michael Gray King, Dr. Dan Brigman, Melanie Maples 2.) If you as a parent, student or citizen is wanting a change within your school district the first thing you would need to do is to call the school board and ask them to come to a meeting to voice your opinion. You can meet with someone in particular or get on the agenda for the next board meeting. From there you tell them whats on your mind and more than likely they would have to vote on it as a board, depending on what you're wanting.

6. Curriculum of Pedagogy

6.1. 1.)The humanist curriculum reflects the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educational citizenry and that the purpose of education is to present to students the best of what has been thought and written. 2.) DOMINANT TEACHING PERSPECTIVE:dominant impression is one of traditional teaching techniques with traditional textbooks and TRADITIONAL EDUCATION is also known as back-to-basics, conventional education or customary education, refers to long-established customs that society traditionally used in schools.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. 1.)Class, race and gender all impact a students educational outcome. Class and race for example can affect where you go to school which in turn affects the type of education you get and gender can have discrimination affects as well. Many times students are treated differently for these things and it affects the type of schooling they get but also affects what they may think they deserve as a minority or a girl. 2.)The Coleman report findings that unequal minority student educational achievement was caused more by family background than differences in the quality of schools attended, federally funded programs, such as head start, were aimed at providing early preschool educational opportunities for the disadvantaged.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. 1.) Cultural deprivation theory suggests that working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage. Cultural deprivation theorists assert that the poor have a deprived culture-one that lacks the value system of middle class culture. According to this perspective, middle class culture values hard work and initiative, the delay of immediate gratification for future reward, and the importance of schooling as a means to future success. 2.) 4 school-centered explanations for educational inequality: School financing: there is a vast difference between funding of affluent and poor districts; Effective school research: if student difference are more important that school differences then teachers cannot be blamed for the lower academic performance and on the other hand, if schools effects are not significant, then schools and teachers can do little to make positive changes; Curriculum and pedagogic practices: research points to how differences in what is often termed school climates affect academic performance; Curriculum and ability group: the fact that different groups of students in the same schools perform very differently suggests that there may be school characteristics affecting these outcomes.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. 1.) School-business partnerships: restructure and implement a site-based management plan, partnerships include scholarships for poor students to attend college and programs where businesses "adopt" a school. Privatization: For profit companies took over the management of failing schools and districts, they have contracts to supplement tutoring with private businesses, the success of these types of reforms has been mixed. 2.) Full service and community schools: This allows for education of the child and the whole community. Full service schools focus on meeting students' and their families educational, physical, psychological and social needs in a coordinated and collaborative fashion between school and community services. Harlem Children's Zone: wants to leave children where they are, simultaneously changing them and their neighborhood, instead of removing them from the neighborhood.