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Photography by Mind Map: Photography

1. History

1.1. early history

1.1.1. photography seen as a mechanical art due to its technology dependence.

1.1.2. was not until early 19th century that photography came into being

1.1.3. often compared unfavourably because painting and drawing exsisted

1.1.4. left many dissapointed with the inability to record colors and moving objects were blurry

1.1.5. seen as a short cut to art

1.1.6. "from today, painting is dead" Paul Delaroche

1.2. Antecedents

1.2.1. Camera Obscura dark room with a hole in the wall where a image is projected through the hole to the opposite side of the wall dated back to the chinese and ancient greeks like aristotle

1.3. Early Experiments

1.3.1. Heliography 1826 Nicephore Niepce used a camera obscura and a pewter place to produce the first successful photo the view of his courtyard took about 8 hrs

1.3.2. Daguerreotype tracing image projected by the camera obscura and the camera lucida between 1822 and 1839 louis-jacques-mande daguerra and chales-marie bouton used the idea of heliography but reduced the work time from 8 hrs to 30 minutes Claudet responsible for many improvements in photography late 1840s every city in the US had a "daguerrean artist"

1.3.3. photogenic drawing traced all the way back to 1802 josiah wedgwood recorded images on paper sensitized with silver nitrate

1.3.4. Calotype Talbot used gallic acid which increased sensitivity to develop a latent image revolutionized photography on paper september 1840 instead of needed a one hour exposure one minute was enough greek meaning of "beautiful picture" david octavius hill and robert adamson used in 1850s to create images of artisitic monuments

1.3.5. stereoscopic photography popular in the us and europe from mid 1850s to early 20th century making two imaged of the same subject with a camera that had to lenses placed 2.5 inches apart would view the two images side by side through a a stereograph to view images landscapes, monuments, humorous and slightly suggestive scenes

1.3.6. collodion process revolutionized in 1851 invented english sculptor frederick scott archer 20X faster than previous methods made glass negatives that could easily make paper prints rendered detail with great precision

1.4. photography of movement

1.4.1. Eadweard Muybridge used series of 12=24 cameras to take photos of a horse running demonstrated positions of the animals legs that were different than hand drawn representations projected them on a screen to prove accuracy built a projectors that resulted in the worlds first motion-picture presentation san francisco art associatoin in 1990

1.5. early attempts at color

1.5.1. artists paint over pictures with oils

1.5.2. hand tinted

1.5.3. 1880s, photochromes remained popular until replaced by autochrome plates

2. Camera Basics

2.1. tripod= a stand used to keep your camera steady

2.2. viewfinder= what you look through when taking a picture

2.3. Pixels= picture element

2.3.1. pictures are made of small squares of pixels that make it look smooth and continuous

2.4. the Exposure Triangle

2.4.1. ISO in film how sensitive a film was to light lower the number lower sensitivity of the film and finer the grain in digital sensitivity of image sensor higher ISO used in darkerer situations for faster shutter speeds higher the ISO noisier the image Qs to ask when choosing ISO light- subject well lit grain - do i want grainy or no noise tripod- should i use one moving- is subject moving or still

2.4.2. aperture opening in the lens when you hit shutter a hole opens that allows the image sensor to look at the scene aperture set impacts size of hole bigger hole more light, smaller hole less light measured in 'f-stops' large apertures smaller f-stop numbers, small apertures larger f-stop numbers

2.4.3. shutter speed amount of time the shutter is open measured in seconds infilm it was the length of time film was exposed to the scene that was being photographed digitally its the length of time the image sensor sees the scene its capturing

2.5. Depth of field (DOF)

2.5.1. amount of shot that will be in focus

2.5.2. large DOF means most of image will be focused

2.5.3. small DOF means only part of image will be focused the rest is fuzzy

3. Basics

3.1. Photography: a way to make a picture using a camera

3.2. one who takes pictures is a photographer

3.3. a picture from a camera is a photo

4. Genres

4.1. portraiture

4.1.1. most popular genre

4.1.2. southworth and hawes, hill and adamson,  etienne carjat, julia margaret cameron

4.1.3. Julia Margaret Cameron used wet-plate process took portraits of charlies darwin, george frederick watts, thomas carlyle, sir john f.w. herschel and more

4.1.4. carjat depicted prominent parisian artists, actors, writers, musicians and politicians

4.1.5. Nadar 1853 used photography to study features of prominent frenchmen posed them agains plain background and bathed them with diffused daylight

4.2. Photojournalism

4.2.1. photography serves the press

4.2.2. Roger fenton sent to photography war between england russia and turkey in 1855 provided visual evidence for written reports produced 260 photographs

4.2.3. regular use of pictures in magazines began with the invention of the halftone process allowed camera image to be printed at the same time as the writing and reduced cost of reproduction first newspaper halfton in US 188

4.2.4. newspapers turn to photography for reporting topical events,,

4.2.5. subjects and style of early journalistic photography was unimaginative and dull

4.2.6. enlarged demand for photographic illustration led to increase in images of war prominence of pic. mags from 1920s-50s ensured continuance of war reportage

4.3. documentary photography

4.3.1. landscape and architectural appealing subjects for photographers samuel borne- photographed india john thomson- recorded life and landscape in china macime du camp and gustave flaubert went to egypt and recorded landscapes and monuments important british photographers roger fenton- england and wales charles clifford- spain robert macpherson- rome george washington wilson - scotland historical buildings were made to satisfy antiquarian curiosity provide information for restoration supple artists with material on what to base painting effect preservation efforts Philp henry delamotte documented progress of contruction of the crystal palace in london US exploration of land beyond the great plains led to a lot of landscape photography civil war few images were made postwar era railroad companies and government commissions sent teams to determine mineral deposits william henry jackson and carleton watkins

4.3.2. social documentation recognition of the power of photography to persuade and inform people origins can be traced to sociological study by henry mayhew in 1851 street life in london (1877) adolphe smith and john thomson produced persuassive picture of life among working class images were reproduced by woodburytype John barnardo 1870s photographed homless children in london purpose: record keeping and fund-raising fulfilled objectives of social documentation Thomas Ann 1877 edinburch recorded need for new housing for thw working poor concentrated on derelict buildings and sewerage systems instead of the people images were used for artistic merit instead of social use Jacob a Riis police reporter, nyx, 1880s spent 4 years depicting slum live portrayed living and working conditions of immigrants whose social circumstances led to crim How the other half lives (1890) turned into slides for lectures aimed at middle class audiences his work effected slum-clearance projects in new york

4.3.3. experienced resurgence in US during great depressions when fed. government took a major documentary project produced by the FSA

5. Photography as art

5.1. early developments

5.1.1. photographic societies professionals and amatuard formed in mid 19th century enticed by collodion process gave rise to the consideration of photography as aesthetic medium

5.1.2. 1853 photographic society (parent of royal photographic society) first meeting formed in london

5.1.3. end of 19th century societies appeared in german speaking countries, eastern reurope and india designed to promote photography some emphasized only artistic expression journals began to promote photography as art

5.1.4. Henry Peach Robinson fading away 1858 articulate member of photographic society teaching was more influential than photography 1869 book pictorial effect in photographywas published stressed importance of balance opposition of light against dark argued that the assumption of rules set up for one art form can be applied to another

5.1.5. art critics as long as photographers maintained photography as art was the emulation of painting were reluctant to admit the new medium to an independent aesthetic position

5.1.6. portraits won praise

5.1.7. sentimental genre scenes that were posed and arranged for the camera lacked the truthfulness thought to be characteristic of photography considerable controversy debate reaches a crescendo at end of the century

5.2. naturalistic photography

5.2.1. Peter Henry emerson proposed photographs should reflect nature, offer "illusion of truth" and be produced without using any retouching believed unique qualities of tone texture and life inherent in photographhy made it a unique art form and any embeliishments were unnecessary

5.3. Pictorialism and the Linked RIng

5.3.1. ideas of newton, rejlander, robinson and emerson pursued the same goal to gain acceptance for photography as a legitamate art form

5.3.2. pictorialism movement crystallized in 1890s and early 1900s promoted through series of international exhibiting groups

5.3.3. brotherhood of the linked ring 1892 founded by robinson and george davison held annual exhibitions called salons work varied from naturalism to staged scenes and manipulated prins united belief that through the salons the linked ring has clearly demonstrated that " pictorial photography is able to stand alone adn that it has a future entirely apart from that which is purely mechanical"

6. perfecting the medium

6.1. photo-secession

6.1.1. pictorialist group

6.1.2. founded in NYC, 1902 by Alfred stieglits

6.1.3. sought to differentiate themselves from what they considered outmoded ways of working and thinking about the arts

6.1.4. opened little galleries of the photo-secession or "291" works of modernist painters, sculptors, and photographers that used a variety of prining processes

6.1.5. turn of 20th century photographers wanted their work to look like photos not paintins

6.2. new objectivity

6.2.1. following WW1, photography characterized by sharply defined imagery

6.2.2. constructivism proposed that photographs could be a means to present the commonplace from fresh vantage points and thereby reawaken interes in routine objects and processes originated in soviet union and spread to germany and central european countries in late 1920s and early 1930s

6.3. experimental approaches

6.3.1. 1916, abstract ideas appealing to photographers

6.3.2. manipulated images and experimented with processes, used multiple images or exposures

6.3.3. experimented with light and sensitized paper

6.3.4. dada artist Man ray "rayographs" series of swirling abstract shapes created w/o a camera by exposing object placed on sensitized paper to light cameraless photography

6.3.5. photo collage and montage had appeal during interwar period because thorugh appropriating "content' from other sources it dealt with complex political or psychological feelings and ideas

6.4. color photography

6.4.1. autochrome process france 1907 auguste and louis lumiere first practical color photography process color screen coated with film of panchromatic (sensitive to all colors) emulsion resulted in a positive l=color transparency could only be reviewed by reflected light, researchers continued to look for improvements

6.4.2. kodak research laboratories 1935, leopold godowsky jt and leopold mannes, american musicians initiated modern era of color photography with kodachrome film reversal slide fim that allowed color transparencies to be projected and reproduced 1942 kodak introduced kodacolor negative positive film had improvements in quality and speed and reduction in price became the most popular film used for amateur photography

7. Contemporary Photography (1945-Present)

7.1. postwar developments

7.1.1. 1940s Eliot porter produced studies of birds and nature which color allowed him to render an unparalleled level of nuance appreciated for scientific and aesthetic value embodied potential of color

7.1.2. ernst haas used color in photo essay new york for life magazin e(1953) challenged standard of using only balck and white in photojournalism use of color added vibrancy to images

7.1.3. wasnt until later in the century color dominated photographic output

7.1.4. post WW11 photographers moved away from documentary and focused on intrinsic qualities of photography paralleled ascendancy of abstract expressionist movement minor white

7.1.5. 1960s similar styles and ideas in photography spread to asia shomei tomatsu - streets of tokyo eiko hosoe - imagery invoking human sensuality hirosi sugimoto- entranced by images converying stillness and emptiness chinese government exerted control over photographic imagery, by late 20th century photographers found some freeoms

7.1.6. street photography special aspect of documentation the photographer is intrigued by the serindipitous nature of street activity unlike social documentarian street photographer may not have a social purpose in mind helen levitt documentend underprivileged children and young african americans infused with compelling sense of immeidacy

7.1.7. contemporary society from a distance robert frank, "social landscape" bruce davidson, leed friedlander, and william klein 35 mm cameras caught everyday moments that resembled snapshots

7.2. developments from 1970s to the present

7.2.1. 1970s and 80s larry clark and nan goldin documented alternative lifestyles usually in color, added harsh sense of reality in work william egglesten pushed artistic boundaries of color explored banality of small town existenve television news started to affect popularity of picture magazines photojournalists took advantage of interest in photographic picture books the balled of sexual dependency - Nan

7.2.2. documentation of artifacts 19th century to late 20th century concentrated on architecture and the built environment bernd and hilla becher german duo extensive portrayal of industrial buildings; mine tipples, facoties displayed in planned arrangements of multiple prints combined trad. documentary conventions with postmodern concepts about typologies

7.2.3. fashion photographers role redefined at end of the centry david lachapelle, annie leibovits, helmut newton, mario testino, bruce weber exhibited in gallery and museum shows published in popular monographs

7.2.4. 20th century photography dominated by painting and sculpture a separate but not necessarily equal art form 80s and 90s new media like video, performance and installation blurred definitions of art photography became one of the art worlds most prominent media prominent photographers helped break the barriers between photography and art

7.3. Into the 21st century: the Digital age

7.3.1. transformation from analog medium relying on chemically developed light sensitive emulsions to one using digital technologies for image capture and storage began in late 19802

7.3.2. digital cameras late 1980s, introduction of first consumer digital camera

7.3.3. adobe photoshop 1st version 1990 program for adjusting and manipulating digital image files extension of the conventional darkroom adopted many tools of traditional black and white film photography but let photographers go even further change structure of image and its contents

7.3.4. digital photography full impact not felt til first decade of new century 9/11 photographed primarily with film cameras digital images could be transmitted and edited quicker digital altercations altercation of egyptian pyramids on national geographic cover caused uproar led to establishment of journalistic codes of ethics inteded to regulate altercation of digital images photojournalists lost their jobs after published pictures were found to be digital doctored influenced spheres of fashion and celebrity photojournalists and documentarians reacted with caution to digital imaging artists using photography developed creative approaches that took davantage of the mutability of digitally altered images proliferation of picture taking and sharing Apple and Iphones picture sharing applications: facebooks, twitter, instagram commercial, govermental and military use