Student Assessments

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Student Assessments by Mind Map: Student Assessments

1. Diagnostic

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. Diagnostic assessments are initial evaluations of students' knowledge and skills before instruction takes place.

1.2. Purpose

1.2.1. 1. Helps teachers to check students' prior knowledge and meet their needs accordingly. 2. Provides specific criteria for differentiated instructions

1.3. Advantage

1.3.1. 1. Teachers can easily identify students' readiness before starting a new lesson.           2. Gives useful information to easily prepare differentiated instructions.                               3. Gives a good starting point or directions of where and how to start instruction, and set realistic goals. ("Diagnostic, Formative, Summative").

1.4. Disadvantages

1.4.1. 1. It can be hard for teachers to determine the cause of students' weaknesses (ex. misconceptions) and provide appropriate feedback.                                                              2. Requires extra preparation

1.5. Assessment FOR learning

1.5.1. It is used before the actual learning process and sometimes teaching process as it is usually given at the beginning of lessons. It also provides information to teachers to adjust their lesson planning and instruction accordingly.

1.6. Examples

1.6.1. KWL chart

1.6.2. Pre-test on multiplication before starting with their unit on multiplication real-world problems

1.6.3. Students show different ways of solving one multiplication problem to see how many different strategies they are able to use.

2. Formative

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. Used to monitor students' understanding during the teaching and learning cycle, and clarify any misconceptions.

2.2. Purpose

2.2.1. 1. Teachers can make adjustments to instruction as students are learning.    2. Teachers can constantly check if the learning objectives are being met and specific skills and concepts are being correctly used.                                      3. Through this evaluation, it allows teachers to see who are following along and who needs extra help.

2.3. Advantages

2.3.1. 1. Give enough students and teachers enough time and opportunities to check learned concepts and understanding before final tests.                               2. Both students and teachers can get immediate feedback.                                                                    3. Teachers can address issues early on to clarify any misconceptions before moving on to next unit. 4. Students can work without anxiety as they are not graded. ("Benefits of Formative Assessment in the Classroom").

2.4. Disadvantages

2.4.1. 1. Might take extra time to assess and not have enough time to finish the lesson.                       2. Students may not try and show  their best as they are usually not graded.

2.5. Assessment FOR learning

2.5.1. They are given several times throughout the learning and teaching process. Formative assessments help both the teacher and students and results are used to adjust lessons accordingly.

2.6. Examples

2.6.1. Thumbs up/down

2.6.2. Clicker (five choices)

2.6.3. Warm up

2.6.4. Exit ticket

2.6.5. T-Chart

2.6.6. Venn diagram

2.6.7. Short quizzes

3. Summative

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. typically occur at the end of teaching and learning cycles. They are used to gauge what students have learned from a unit over the course of a semester or during the school year.

3.2. Purpose

3.2.1. used to determine students' level of understanding based on their learning objectives and expectations at the conclusion of a unit/chapter

3.3. Advantages

3.3.1. 1. Help teachers to get insight on their teaching practices/strategies.                                             2.  Students are motivated to study and pay attention in class to do well on these summative assessments.

3.4. Disadvantages

3.4.1. 1. Students may feel nervous under pressure. 2. Not always most accurate reflection of learning (Spira) .

3.5. Assessment OF learning

3.5.1. Summative assessments are given at the end of a unit/chapter to evaluate if students have successfully met the learning objectives. They don't determine teacher's instruction.

3.6. Examples

3.6.1. Chapter Test on Multiplication - 25 questions

3.6.2. Final Project

3.6.3. Final Paper

4. Performance-Based

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. Performance-based assessments allows students to engage in application of learned concepts, knowledge, and skills to perform a task.

4.2. Purpose

4.2.1. Measure students' ability to apply learned  concepts and skills to perform a task that requires high level and critical thinking

4.3. Advantages

4.3.1. 1. Allow students to explore their interests and abilities in a constructive and academic way 2. Engage students use and represent multiple intelligences   3. Can serve as both formative and summative assessments, allowing teachers to see what content or skills a student hasn't mastered yet ("Teacher's Guide to Performance-Based Learning and Assessment").

4.4. Disadvantages

4.4.1. 1.questionable validity and reliability    2. subjective grading

4.5. Assessment OF learning

4.5.1. Usually used at the end of a unit to evaluate students' learned concepts, skills, knowledge and their application

4.6. Examples

4.6.1. skits

4.6.2. experiment

4.6.3. individual/group project

4.6.4. essay

4.6.5. journal

5. High-Stakes

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. standardized tests that include a detailed and specific rubric for grading

5.2. Purpose

5.2.1. involve measuring the performance of a student, educator, school, district, and etc to make important decisions ("Appropriate Use of High-Stakes Testing in Our Nation's Schools")

5.3. Advantage

5.3.1. objective

5.3.2. usually used over time, no need to make major change

5.3.3. can track progress from year to year

5.4. Disadvantage

5.4.1. high stakes assessments don't represent multiple intelligences and perspectives

5.4.2. students, parents, and teachers can find them stressful

5.4.3. limit creativity

5.5. Assessments OF learning

5.5.1. usually taken at the end of a school year to evaluate students' learned knowledge, concepts, and skills

5.6. Examples

5.6.1. SAT

5.6.2. ACT

5.6.3. College entrance exams in some countries

6. Portfolio

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. used to document student's learning product over time

6.2. Purpose

6.2.1. help to keep track of student's work and check his/her progress whether is meeting standards and requirements. They also give students opportunities to reflect on their progress. ("Portfolio Assessment Guide").

6.3. Advantage

6.3.1. great self-reflection opportunity

6.3.2. minimize test anxiety

6.3.3. provide different ways to assess students' work and their work can represent multiple components/intelligences

6.4. Disadvantage

6.4.1. grading can be subjective

6.4.2. difficult to measure students' weaknesses

6.4.3. time consuming

6.5. Assessment FOR learning

6.5.1. I think a portfolio would be an assessment for learning because it's collected throughout a year or years, which can be helpful and useful for future lessons and references.

6.6. Examples

6.6.1. Journal

6.6.2. Research project/collection of work

7. Authentic

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. Require students to perform real-world tasks that demonstrate meaningful application of learned essential knowledge and skills. Instead of responding to multiple choice answers, students can construct their own responses.

7.2. Purpose

7.2.1. emphasize on the understanding and application of knowledge, instead of just memorization

7.3. Advantages

7.3.1. require high and critical thinking as active participants

7.3.2. allow students to work in a series of steps that require idea development, analysis, application, evaluation, self-reflection, and  feedback.

7.4. Disadvantages

7.4.1. scoring might be subjective

7.4.2. hard to develop

7.4.3. time consuming

7.5. Assessments OF learning

7.5.1. Although authentic assessments can be used for future learning and reference, I think they are OF learning as they require students to apply learned knowledge and concepts to real-world problems.

7.6. Examples

7.6.1. open response questions

7.6.2. individual/group projects

7.6.3. essay questions

7.6.4. interviews

8. Self-Assessment

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. students monitor and assess their own work and contribution using an established set of criteria.

8.2. Purpose

8.2.1. help students to regulate their learning and improve their performance. They also help teachers to understand how students feel about their work.

8.3. Advantages

8.3.1. 1. help students to build their own judgement skills                                                                 2. encourage students' involvement and responsibility                                                     3. help students to reflect on their own work and contribution

8.4. Disadvantages

8.4.1. grades can be unreliable and subjective

8.4.2. time consuming for teachers to create rubric and teach students how to self-reflect

8.5. Assessment OF learning

8.5.1. Self-assessments can be given throughout the learning and teaching experience helping both teacher and students to actively involve in the given assignment

8.6. Examples

8.6.1. self-reflection

8.6.2. complete self-grading rubric

9. Peer Assessment

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Students individually assess each other's work and contribution using a set of criteria.

9.2. Purpose

9.2.1. Peer assessments lead students to learn to evaluate their own and peer's work, and understand material. ("Student Peer Assessment")

9.3. Advantages

9.3.1. motivate students to actively get involved in the process and take ownership

9.3.2. students can learn how to use the scoring rubric and better understand the content

9.4. Disadvantages

9.4.1. appropriate and safe learning environment should be created

9.4.2. teachers need to assure clear understanding of scoring rubric

9.4.3. grading may be subjective

9.5. Assessment OF learning

9.5.1. I think peer assessment is an assessment of learning because it is used at the end of a unit to evaluate each other's work and contribution after a clear understanding of a set of criteria and scoring rubric.

9.6. Examples

9.6.1. peer edition - essays

9.6.2. group work reflection

10. References

10.1. Appropriate Use of High-Stakes Testing in Our Nation's Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2016, from

10.2. Benefits of Formative Assessment in the Classroom. (2011). Retrieved June 3, 2016, from

10.3. Diagnostic, Formative & Summative Assessments – What’s the difference?. (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2016, from

10.4. Portfolio Assessment Guide. (n.d.) Retrieved June 3, 2016, from

10.5. Spira, M. (n.d.). Disadvantages of Summative Assessments. Retrieved June 3, 2016,  from

10.6. Teacher's Guide to Performance-Based Learning and Assessment (n.d.). Retrieved June 3, 2016, from,_and_Why_is_it_Important%C2%A2.aspx

10.7. Student Peer Assessment. (n.d.) Retrieved June 3, 2016, from