Laughter Out of Place

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Laughter Out of Place by Mind Map: Laughter Out of Place

1. Chapter 1: Laughter out of Place

1.1. First Arrival

1.1.1. arrives for New Years to begin dissertation research

1.1.2. becomes familiar with the rich traditions of Brazil

1.1.3. Rio is one of the world's most unequal cities -- it remains quintessentially Brazil

1.2. Scholar in Training

1.2.1. During undergraduate years, became active in US and Latin-America relations As a graduate student, began studying anthropology in Rio (AIDS and women)

1.2.2. was inspired to believe that fieldwork among the very poorest women was a worthy project

1.3. Carnival

1.3.1. Anthropologists believe it's central to Brazilian consciousness                                                                                                          men have a wider freedom than women do the everyday experiences in the shantytowns represents life, not the Carniva

1.3.2. *the ephemerality of laughter and forgetting*

1.3.3. anyone who attempts to be "wholly negative" about Carnival risks the accusation that he or she does not understand Brazil

1.3.4. a conservative ritual that reinforces class positions an gender and sexual hierarchies

1.4. Habits of Class and Domination

1.4.1. The poor used laughter to oppose their oppression

1.4.2. Where hegemony is realized, coercion is unnecessary

1.4.3. Power is the real agenda

1.4.4. Black humor as an emotional aesthetic emerges out of difficult circumstances of everyday life

2. Chapter 2: The Aesthetics of Domination

2.1. The struggle to earn a living wage

2.1.1. empregada= domestic worker

2.1.2. most domestic workers earned only one minimum salary

2.1.3. Gloria earned about 6 dollars per day and worked about 14 hours

2.1.4. the minimum salary designation is not really a living wage; it is a subsistence wage

2.1.5. middle class wages vary greatly

2.1.6. employing a domestic worker is not only perceived as a necessity; it is also a class marker

2.1.7. everyone in the middle class is expected to afford a person to cook and clean for them

2.2. The Euphemization of Power Relations

2.2.1. the protection of class privilege is highly visible in everyday interactions

2.2.2. elites claim that poorly paid service work is the outcome of the country's third world status

2.3. The Laughter of a Community

2.3.1. laughter out of place does not go unnoticed by the middle and upper class

2.3.2. solidifies economic conditions into more enduring class and cultural distinctions

3. Chapter 3: Color-Blind Erotic Democracies, Black Consciousness Politics, and the black Cinderellas of Felicidade Eterna

3.1. Race and Class in Brazil and the United States

3.1.1. In Brazil, it is race and racism that people are generally uncomfortable speaking about

3.1.2. Brazil never had an all-out civil rights movement where a black power or black pride movement captured the public imagination

3.1.3. Brazil did not develop a structure of legal supports to racism

3.1.4. structures of racism are present in everyday experiences

3.2. Hierarchies of Beauty and Social Mobility

3.2.1. being a mixed-race or Black female is not sufficient for being considered a hot, sexual mulata

3.2.2. a woman could overcome her negatively valued dark skin by becoming a seductress

3.2.3. Black or African characteristics are considered ugly

3.2.3.1. kinky hair and flat noses

4. Chapter 4: No Time for Childhood

4.1. Pedro

4.1.1. Glorias son

4.1.2. died in a shootout in Rocinha

4.1.3. incarcerated in Illha grande Prison

4.1.4. served aa 15 year sentence (armed robbery)

4.1.5. fan of reggae music

4.1.6. against abortion

4.1.7. believed you can have as many women as you wanted as long as you put food on the table

4.1.8. spent his childhood in correctional facilities

4.1.9. felt he was cheated out of a future (143)

4.1.10. example of male oppositional culture

4.2. Home Children, Street Children, and Institutionalized Children

4.2.1. children are recruited to do the dirty work

4.2.2. used for illicit activities (drug dealing) pg 148

4.3. FUNABEM

4.3.1. houses homeless children

4.3.2. resembles a prison

4.3.3. children can get in touch with gangs here

5. Chapter 5: State Terror, Gangs, and Everyday Violence in Rio de Janeiro

5.1. Crime and Violence

5.1.1. most unequal city in the world

5.1.2. level of violence differs (race, class, gender, location) Pg 177

5.1.2.1. Dilmar

5.1.2.1.1. gang in Felicidade

5.1.2.1.2. gang leader

5.1.2.1.3. turma = group

5.2. Gangs

5.2.1. mentido = involved

5.2.2. place of belonging

5.2.3. creates identity

5.2.4. pays better than non-gang jobs

5.2.5. drug chiefs are local

5.2.5.1. provides housing and cash

5.2.6. power struggles

5.3. Criminalization of the Poor

5.3.1. law belongs to the elite

5.3.2. naturally seen as criminals

5.3.3. black men are thought to steal

6. Chapter 6: Partial Truths, or the Carnivalization of  Desire

6.1. Sexuality

6.1.1. masculinist vision of desire and transgression

6.1.1.1. counterdiscourses are difficult to develop

6.1.2. sexuality is central

6.1.3. key metaphor used in Cariocas language

6.1.3.1. sexual joking and teasing is considered friendly

6.1.4. Cariocas possess a "sex-positive" attitude

6.2. The Carnivalization of Desire

6.2.1. Brazil is a "tropical paradise"

6.2.1.1. Body liberation

6.2.2. Public Flirtation

6.2.2.1. doesn't scrutinize women's bodies

6.2.2.1.1. appreciates women's bodies

6.2.3. male homosexuality

6.2.3.1. upper-class model

6.2.3.2. lower-class model

6.2.3.3. feminism

6.2.3.3.1. cited less often

6.2.3.3.2. viewed as too essentialist

6.2.3.3.3. perceived to be too sex-negative

6.3. Local sexual culture

6.3.1. uses metaphors to describe sexuality

6.3.1.1. uses food or eating

6.3.1.2. comer (to eat) : actively consume another person sexually

6.3.1.2.1. connected to male sexuality

6.3.1.3. dar (to give): sexually passive/recievers

6.3.1.3.1. connected to women

6.4. From Boys to Men

6.4.1. class-specific regimes of sexuality

6.4.2. one abundant good: sex

6.4.3. unhealthy for men to go too long without sex

6.4.3.1. provokes insanity

6.4.4. boys are encouraged to be active seducers

6.5. Sacanagem

6.5.1. important organizing concept

6.5.2. can be good or bad

6.5.3. can describe an act that gives pleasure but also hurts

6.5.4. linking "notions of aggression and hostility, play and amusement, sexual excitement, and erotic practice in a single symbolic complex"

7. Chapter 7: What's So Funny About Rape?

7.1. An evening of terror

7.1.1. covers up trauma with humor and jokes

7.1.2. a rape of a child is cause for murder

7.1.3. Gloria and her family were assaulted in their home

7.2. Mothers and Daughters

7.2.1. daughters leave their home when they lose their virginities

7.2.2. Anita got pregnant after she was raped

7.3. Legal Universe and Rape

7.3.1. there was a fear against the police force

7.3.2. most rapes aren't reported

7.4. Black Humor as the Only Response

7.4.1. "taste" isn't a neutral concept

7.4.2. humor can only be understood in its place

7.4.2.1. circumscribed by class, gender, race, sexuality

7.5. Conclusions

7.5.1. humor provides a window into how poor women experience their life

7.5.2. middle & upper class need to work in favor of human rights

7.5.3. crime is rampant

7.5.3.1. rarely punishes