Foundations of Education

Mind mapping ED302

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Traditional

1.1.1. hard work

1.1.2. family unity

1.1.3. schools should pass on the best

1.1.4. individual initiative

1.1.5. schools are necessary to the US values

1.2. Conservative

1.2.1. developed by William Graham

1.2.2. compete to survive

1.2.3. most economic system

1.2.4. most respectful system

1.2.5. individuals have their rights to earn a place in the market

1.2.6. orgins in the 19th century

2. History of US Education

2.1. Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

2.1.1. period from 1820 to 1860

2.1.2. free public education led by Horace Mann

2.1.3. first state in normal school, established in 1839 in lexington, Massachusettes

2.1.4. opposition to public education

2.1.5. education for women and african Americans on the rise

2.1.6. 1821, Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Seminary in Troy, New York

2.2. The Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1. providing equality and opportunity for all

2.2.2. progressive evolution

2.2.3. Albeit flawed

2.2.4. goals of education became more diverse

2.2.5. students from diverse backgrounds went to school for longer periods of time

2.2.6. social goals more important than intellectual goals

3. Sociological Prespectives

3.1. Theoretical Prespectives

3.1.1. functional Theories

3.1.2. interdependence of the social system

3.1.3. conflict theories

3.1.4. dominating groups based on manipulation

3.1.5. interactional theories

3.1.6. based on critique an extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. knowledge and attitudes

3.2.2. more schooling leads to more knowledge

3.2.3. employment

3.2.4. graduation from a college will lead to greater opportunities

3.2.5. gender

3.2.6. men are paid more than women

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism and Phenomenology

4.1.1. Modern Philosophy

4.1.2. Lives of Individuals people must create themselves and make their own meaning

4.1.3. They should focus on their needs and goals individually

4.1.4. Teachers must take risk; expose themselves to resistant students and work to help other students to be "wide awake"

4.1.5. Personal method of instruction, they believe every child has a different learning style

4.1.6. Curriculum is biased on humanities, "Wide awakeness" it also focuses on art, drama, and music its for the personal interaction

5. Schools as organizations

5.1. Major stakeholders in marshall county district by name

5.1.1. Alabama State Senator- Lieutenant Kay Ivey President and Presiding Officer, Del Marsh President Pro-Tempore, D. PAtrick Harris Secretary of State

5.1.2. House of Rep.: Mike Hubbard -Speaker of the House, Victor Gaston Pro Tempore Speaker of the House, Jeffery Woodward Clerk of the House

5.1.3. State of Alabama Superintendent- Tommy Bice

5.1.4. Representatives on State School Board: Robert Bentley, President of SChool Board. Jeff Newman, Vice President. Dr. Yvette Richardson, President of Pro Tem

5.1.5. Local Supertinendent- Dr, Cindy Wigley

5.1.6. Local School Board: Bill Aaron President, Dr. Vince Edmonds Vice President, Mr. Terry Kennamer Board Member, Mark Rains, Board Member, Tony Simmons, Board Member

5.2. Comparison of another countries Education System in Japan

5.2.1. Few School Systems are as complex as the U.S.

5.2.2. Most other countries education systems are not as inclusive

5.2.3. Highly competitive educational system

5.2.4. Japanese parents have high standards for the educational system

5.2.5. Not only do students attend traditional schools they also attend a secondary school which is more like a tutoring service

5.2.6. Japanese have always place high value on moral education

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Developmental Curriculum

6.1.1. Needs and Interests of Students rather than the needs of society

6.1.2. The curriculum came from Dewey's writing and also from Piaget.

6.1.3. Student centered and met the needs of each student through each developmental stage

6.1.4. The curriculum was flexible for each child

6.1.5. Mostly prominent in private schools

6.1.6. The romantic Progressivism based most of its education on this form of curriculum

6.2. Social Meliorist Curriculum

6.2.1. Known as the philosophically social reconstructionist, it was developed in 1930

6.2.2. George Counts and Harold Rugg were two of the most influential men to this curriculum.

6.2.3. They thought that this curriculum would solve the societys problems, and change the society itself.

6.2.4. It is the preccurser for the Contemporary Critical Curriculum

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Students with Special Needs

7.1.1. 1975, Education of all Handicapped Children Law was passed (EHA)

7.1.2. 1996 the law was reauthorized as the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA)

7.1.3. The EHA provided significant increases in the quality of services for children with disabilities.

7.1.4. In the late 1980s, critics of Special Ed. pushed the regular education initiative (REI) which meant mainstreaming students with disabilities into regular classes

7.1.5. The increasing disability students are due to over labeling per the disability studies

7.2. Coleman Study 1966 Round One

7.2.1. Despite  the nations best intentions, difference among schools are not powerful predictors of differences in student outcomes.

7.2.2. Where an individual goes to school has little effect on his or her cognitive growth or educational mobility

7.2.3. The road to equality of opportunity does not go through the schoolhouse door.

7.2.4. According to the book, if the student body had such a major effect on the student learning, then the policy implications are clear that poor students should go to school with middle class students in order to equalize their educational opportunities

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Students- Centered Explanations

8.1.1. biological explanations oh human behavior are limited

8.1.2. 1960 and 1970s conventional liberal wisdom was far too simple and solutions were far too complex

8.1.3. Cultural differences say that there are different differences between various different cultures

8.2. Explanations of Unequal Educational Achievements

8.2.1. They believe that the role of schools is to provide a fair and selection process for sorting out the best and brightest individuals, regardless of family background

8.2.2. They believe that school processing will produce unequal rights, but these rights should be on individual differences, not groups

8.2.3. They also believe that individual talent and hard work based on universal principles are more important than particulist methods of evaluation

8.2.4. They believe that understanding educational inequality is a difficult task

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Community

9.1.1. Do not just educate the schild, educate the community

9.1.2. the 3 different models of community based reforms are: Dryfoo's, Canada's Harlem Children's Zone, and Newark's Broader Bolder Approach

9.1.3. In the Dryfoo's Model schools serve as a community center as open for extended hours to do an adult education, health clinics, rec facilities, after school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs.

9.1.4. These type of community reforms are to target and improve at-risk neighborhoods

9.1.5. There is no known evidence that full service schools effect student achievement

9.1.6. The Harlem Childrens Zone is a "no excuses" school zone which raises the bar for high expectations on the students achievements

9.2. Charter Schools

9.2.1. The 1st charter school was spawned off of a charter law in Minnesota in 1991 which now in 41 states, as well as The District of Columbia and Puerto Rico

9.2.2. The charter movement has produced nearly 3,700 charter schools and serve 1,076,964 kids nationwide

9.2.3. Charter schools are public school that are free from many of the regulations that are applied to many traditional schools

9.2.4. Charter Schools are paid for through tax dollars and must be open to all students in the districts

9.2.5. If a Charter school fails to meet the provisions of its charter, it can lose its funding and be forced to shut down.