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Biology 3C by Mind Map: Biology 3C

1. Cell biology

1.1. transport

1.1.1. diffusion/concentration gradient simple diffusion high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient until equilibrium facilitated diffusion select molecules cross the membrane using carrier protein (high to low concentration gradient)

1.1.2. osmosis solvent solute isotonic hypotonic hypertonic

1.1.3. active transport ATP (Energy) low to high concentration gradient

1.1.4. passive transport high to low concentration gradient (no energy required)

1.1.5. bulk transport exocytosis transports materials out of the cell endocytosis transports materials into the cell phagocytosis pinocytosis

1.2. macromolecules

1.2.1. carbohydrates monosaccharide glucose disaccharide glucose + glucose = glucose + fructose = polysaccharide starch glycogen cellulose chitin

1.2.2. proteins structure amino acid polypeptide/protein importance of structure function enzymes transport

1.2.3. nucleic acids function DNA RNA cytosine & guanine adenine & thymine structure nucleic acid nucleotide

1.2.4. lipids types fat/triglyceride phospholipid steroid structure glycerol fatty acid

1.3. cell structures

1.3.1. animal cell mitochondria power house of the cell ribosomes Synthesizes proteins cell membrane controls movement of materials in/out of cell nucleolous Make ribosomes Golgi body storing, packaging of cellular products small vacuole store food, water, waste (plants need to store large amounts of food) smooth and rough ER makes products like hormones and lipids rough ER has ribosomes on it lysosome breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules digests old cell parts cytoplasm supports /protects cell organelles

1.3.2. plant cell cell wall supports (grow tall) protection large vacuole store food, water, waste (plants need to store large amounts of food) chloroplast uses energy from sun to make food for the plant (photosynthesis) plastids breaks down larger food molecules into smaller molecules digests old cell parts

2. Micro biology

2.1. protist

2.1.1. disease malaria treatment antibiotic

2.1.2. types plant like autotroph animal like amoeba fungi like slimemolds

2.1.3. chrecteristics cilia flagella unicellular eukaryote

2.2. fungi

2.2.1. prevention fungicide

2.2.2. reprduction asexual fragmentation sexual spores

2.2.3. disease mycosic ringworm athletes foot

2.2.4. types chitin crustation shells yeast unicellular molds hyphae industry mycellium mushrooms recyclers decomposers

2.2.5. structure cell wall eukariote heterotroph

2.3. virus

2.3.1. disease treatment vaccine no vaccine prevention good hygiena

2.3.2. structure DNA or RNA capcid tail fibers nucleic acid collar

2.3.3. reproduction bacterophage lytic cycle virus replication

2.4. bacteria

2.4.1. disease treatment antibiotic probiotic E. coli diarrhea salmonella

2.4.2. characteistics unicellular cilia prokayote capsule flagella

2.4.3. reproduction asexual binary fission mitosis

2.4.4. industry recylers saprophytes pollution control bio remediation aobiotics yogurt

2.4.5. shapes coccus bacillus spinillum

2.4.6. eubacteria paramecium halophiles diarrhea strepthroat

2.4.7. archaebacteria thermophiles methanogens

3. nucleus

3.1. controls cell activities

4. Genetics

4.1. DNA

4.1.1. genes Punnett Square tool to help predict offspring genotype phenotype alleles recessive dominant heterozygous homozygous mutations harmless abnormal

4.1.2. chromosomes somatic cell not a sex cell 46 chromosomes

4.1.3. structure double helix nucleotide complimentary base pairs

4.1.4. cell division mitosis Stages somatic cell's meiosis gamete replication of sex chromosomes stages

4.2. genetic engineering

4.2.1. cloning sheep #1 female somatic cell sheep #2 female egg cell

4.2.2. GMO's Genetically Modified Organism's industry genetic material has been altered

5. internal systems

5.1. circulatory system

5.1.1. function transport nutrients oxygen collects waste substanced carbon dioxide

5.1.2. structure superior and inferior vena cava right atrium

5.1.3. disease stroke Cardiomyopathy hypertension prevention/treatment keep blood pressure low eat healthy exercise frequent check-ups

5.2. digestive system

5.2.1. structure mouth/teeth salivary glands physically breaks food down

5.2.2. disease acid reflux stomach ulcer celiac disease treatments eat healthy eat smaller portions aspirin and ibuprofen gluten-free diet

5.3. respiratory system

5.3.1. structure nose/mouth epiglotis

5.3.2. disease bronchitis lung cancer Cystic Fibrosis treatment inhaler chemotherapy pancreatic enzyme supplements physiotherapy