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Semantics by Mind Map: Semantics

1. Meaning

1.1. Associative Meaning

1.1.1. The type of meaning that people might connect with the use of words

1.1.2. E.g. Bird = the power, free

1.2. Conceptual Meaning

1.2.1. The basic components of meaning conveyed by the literal use of words

1.2.2. E.g. Bird = has wings, can fly, has feathers

2. Features

2.1. Basic elements that used in an analysis of the components of word meaning.

2.2. E.g.

3. Roles

3.1. Agent

3.1.1. The semantic role of the noun phrase identifying the one who performs the action of the verb in an event.

3.1.2. E.g. The boy kicked the ball. (The boy is the agent of the sentence).

3.2. Theme

3.2.1. The semantic role of the noun phrase used to identify the entity involved in or affected by the action of the verb in an event.

3.2.2. E.g. The boy kicked the ball)

4. Lexical Relations

4.1. The relationships of meaning between words.

4.1.1. Synonymy

4.1.1.1. E.g. “Conceal” is a synonym of “hide”

4.1.2. Antonymy

4.1.2.1. The lexical relation in which two or more words have very closely related meanings.

4.1.2.2. The lexical relation in which words have opposite meanings.

4.1.2.3. E.g. “Shallow” is an antonym of “deep”

4.1.3. Hyponymy

4.1.3.1. The lexical relation in which the meaning of one word is included in the meaning of another.

4.1.3.2. e.g. “Daffodil” is a hyponymy of “flower”

4.1.4. Prototypes

4.1.4.1. The most characteristic instance of a category.

4.1.4.2. E.g. “Robin” is the prototype of “bird”

4.1.5. Polysemy

4.1.5.1. A word having two or more related meanings.

4.1.5.2. E.g. foot, of person, of bed, of mountain

4.1.6. Metonymy

4.1.6.1. A word used in place of another with which it is closely connected in everyday experience.

4.1.6.2. E.g. He drank the whole bottle (= the liquid)

5. Semantics Change

5.1. The evolution of word usage.

5.2. WHY IT CHANGED?

5.2.1. Words are constantly used and what is intended by speakers is not exactly the same each time.

5.3. HOW IT CHANGED?

5.3.1. When new technology changes the way we conduct our daily life the words which refer to it change also Consider daily life, the words which refer to it change also.

5.3.2. E.g. Doctor meant TEACHER; it survives as an occasional title for professors. NOW, high education characteristic of physicians of MEDICAL.