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Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution: PBS Independent Lense by Mind Map: Black Panthers: Vanguard of the
Revolution: PBS Independent Lense
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Black Panthers: Vanguard of the Revolution: PBS Independent Lense

The Art of the Panthers

Emory Douglas

Emory Douglas Emory Douglas worked as the Minister of Culture for the Black Panther Party from 1967 until the Party disbanded in the 1980s. His graphic art was featured in most issues of the newspaper The Black Panther.

What was the Goal of the Black Panthers?

Ten Point Plan

"Decent Education"

Housing for all

Overall Freedom

Diversity in Legislature

End police brutality

Men & Women are Equal

Equal Respresentation

Black Panther Breakfast Program

Public School System

Students are not being fed at home

Overthrowing the Government of the United States

Are there any parallels to the Black Lives Matter?

Mission:  Intention to build connections between Black people and our allies to fight anti-Black racism, to spark dialogue among Black people, and to facilitate the types of connections necessary to encourage social action and engagement.

Black Lives Matter is an ideological and political intervention in a world where Black lives are systematically and intentionally targeted for demise. It is an affirmation of Black folks’ contributions to this society, our humanity, and our resilience in the face of deadly oppression.

Will it end?


Several Panthers brought loaded guns into the state legislature

Sacramento, CA

"New York 21"

21 People arrested in NYC for plotting bombings, Getting funding to support legal defense fund

Los Angeles, CA

4 days after Fred Hampton

4 am - Huge Raid by LAPD

Panthers forgot about the concept of Non-Violence

Oakland, CA

August 5, 1971

Free Huey: Huey Newton trial

Split of the Party

Newton vs. Cleaver, Sense of distrust, Lack of cohesiveness, Cleaver denounces the Party as being weak

Bobby Seale, Mayor of Oakland, California, Register voters, Inspired by Malcolm X, Lost his bid for Mayor, No Plan B after loss

After the election the Panthers lost their national presence.

Legal Fees for NYC 21

Current Events

Albert Woodfox

Main Figures

Original Six Members

Original six members of the Black Panther Party (1966) Top left to right: Elbert "Big Man" Howard, Huey P. Newton (Defense Minister), Sherwin Forte, Bobby Seale (Chairman) Bottom: Reggie Forte and Little Bobby Hutton (Treasurer).

Original Six Members

Huey Newton

Huey Percy Newton was an African-American political activist and revolutionary who, along with Bobby Seale, co-founded the Black Panther Party in 1966. Newton had a long series of confrontations with law enforcement, including several convictions, while he participated in political activism. He continued to pursue an education, eventually earning a Ph.D. in social philosphy. Newton spent time in prison for manslaughter due to his alleged involvement in a shooting that killed a police officer, but was later acquitted. In 1989 he was shot and killed in Oakland, California,

Became erratic after Bobby Seale's loss for Mayor

Became abusive to the people around him.

Huey Newton

The Cleavers

Eldridge Cleaver

Kathleen Cleaver

Bobby Hutton

First killed with hands up

First recruit to join the party

Bobby Hutton

Bobby Hutton

David Hilliard

David Hilliard was a member of the Black Panther Party. He was Chief of Staff in the party. He is currently a visiting instructor at the University of New Mexico. Hilliard was convicted on two counts of assault with a deadly weapon for his part in a 1968 ambush of the Oakland Police in retribution for the assassination of Martin Luther King. The April 6, 1968 ambush resulted in the death of Panther Bobby Hutton and the capture of Panther Eldridge Cleaver, who masterminded the botched operation. In July 1971, Hilliard was sentenced to one to ten years and incarcerated at Vacaville Prison. In January 1973 while serving a sentence of six months to 10 years, he was denied parole. In his autobiography Revolutionary Suicide, Huey P. Newton claimed the district attorney of Alameda County was attempting to send Hilliard to prison on "trumped up charges". With Fredrika Newton, Hilliard later formed the Dr. Huey P. Newton Foundation.

Acting head while Eldridge Cleaver was in Algeria

David Hilliard Black Panthers

Bobby Seale

Robert George "Bobby" Seale is an American political activist. With Huey Newton he co-founded the Black Panther Party.

Bobby Seale

Co-Founder of the Black Panther Party

Bobby Seale

Fred Hampton

Fred Hampton was an African-American activist, chairman of the Illinois chapter of the Black Panther Party, and deputy chairman of the national BPP. He was murdered while sleeping at his apartment during a raid by a tactical unit of the Cook County, Illinois State's Attorney's Office, in conjunction with the Chicago Police Department and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. Hampton's murder was chronicled in the documentary film The Murder of Fred Hampton as well as an episode of the critically acclaimed documentary series Eyes on the Prize.

Fred Hampton

FBI plant was his personal bodyguard

Died December 3, 1969

Funeral: 5,000 people

William O'Neill - FBI Informant

Fred Hampton

Family received $1,850,000, In today's dollars, $12,000,000

Recruitment or Volunteer

Many arrived with no background check or realizing who they were.

The Law & The Black Panthers


Federal Bureau of Investigations

J. Edgar Hoover

Neutralize the activities of Black Nationalists

Prevent the rise of a black messiah, Fred Hampton

Isolate Groups

Lose respectability

Why did the party fail?

Cleaver & Newton, Infighting, Misinformation

Image & Persona

A persona, in the word's everyday usage, is a social role or a character played by an actor. The word is derived from Latin, where it originally referred to a theatrical mask. The Latin word probably derived from the Etruscan word "phersu", with the same meaning, and that from the Greek πρόσωπον. Its meaning in the latter Roman period changed to indicate a "character" of a theatrical performance or court of law, when it became apparent that different individuals could assume the same role, and legal attributes such as rights, powers, and duties followed the role. The same individuals as actors could play different roles, each with its own legal attributes, sometimes even in the same court appearance. According to other sources, which also admit that the origin of the term is not completely clear, persona could possible be related to the latin verb per-sonare, literally: sounding through, with an obvious link to the above-mentioned theatrical mask.

Male Chauvinistic Tone


Black leather


"A Gang" or "A Terrorist Organization"


Discussion Guide

Lesson Plan & Other material

San Francisco Film Classroom Guide*


National Standards for History

10.1.10 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Compare political revolutionary movements of the past three centuries in terms of ideologies, organization, and successes or failures.

10.1.6 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze how ideals and institutions of freedom, equality, justice, and citizenship have changed over time and from one society to another.

10.2E.5 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Examine the emergence of the Gay Liberation Movement and evaluate the invocation of democratic ideals concerning the civil rights of gay Americans. [Consider multiple perspectives]

10.2E.6 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Evaluate the continuing struggle for e pluribus unum amid debates over national vs. group identity, group rights vs. individual rights, multiculturalism, and bilingual education. [Consider multiple perspectives]

2.2A.4 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze how gender, property ownership, religion, and legal status affected political rights. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

3.2A.3 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Describe the changing political institutions of Athens in the 6th and 5th centuries BCE and analyze the influence of political thought on public life. [Reconstruct patterns of historical succession and duration]

3.3B.2 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze the significance of the Bill of Rights and its specific guarantees. [Examine the influence of ideas]

3.A ( Historical Thinking for Grades 5-12 ): Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas, values, personalities, behaviors, and institutions by identifying likenesses and differences.

4.2C.3 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Explain how immigration intensified ethnic and cultural conflict and complicated the forging of a national identity. [Interrogate historical data]

4.2D.6 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Evaluate how enslaved African Americans used religion and family to create a viable culture and ameliorate the effects of slavery. [Obtain historical data]

4.3A.5 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Evaluate the importance of state and local issues, the rise of interest-group politics, and the style of campaigning in increasing voter participation. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]

4.4A.3 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Compare the positions of African American and white abolitionists on the issue of the African American's place in society. [Compare and contrast differing sets of ideas]

4.4B.4 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Examine how literary and artistic movements fostered a distinct American identity among different groups and in different regions. [Draw upon literary and artistic sources]

4.4C.2 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze the activities of women of different racial and social groups in the reform movements for education, abolition, temperance, and women's suffrage. [Examine the importance of the individual]

5.A ( Historical Thinking for Grades 5-12 ): Identify issues and problems in the past and analyze the interests, values, perspectives, and points of view of those involved in the situation.

6.2B.4 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze the arguments and methods by which various minority groups sought to acquire equal rights and opportunities guaranteed in the nation's charter documents. [Identify issues and problems in the past]

6.4A.3 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Explain the provisions of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 and evaluate its effects on tribal identity, land ownership, and assimilation. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

7.6A.5 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Assess the importance of ideas associated with nationalism, republicanism, liberalism, and constitutionalism on 19th-century political life in such states as Great Britain, France, the United States, Germany, Russia, Mexico, Argentina, the Ottoman Empire, China, and Japan. [Identify issues and problems in the past]

8.3B.6 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Describe military experiences and explain how they fostered American identity and interactions among people of diverse backgrounds. [Utilize literary sources including oral testimony]

8.3C.2 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Explore how the war fostered cultural exchange and interaction while promoting nationalism and American identity. [Analyze cause-and-effect relationships]

9.2C.1 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Assess the progress of human and civil rights around the world since the 1948 U.N. Declaration of Human Rights. [Formulate a position or course of action on an issue]

9.2C.2 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Analyze how feminist movements and social conditions have affected the lives of women in different parts of the world and compare women’s progress toward social equality, economic opportunity, and political rights in various countries. [Draw comparisons across regions]

9.2C.5 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Assess the strengths of democratic institutions and civic culture in countries such as Britain, France, Germany, Canada, the United States, Japan, India, and Mexico and analyze potential challenges to civil society in democratic states. [Interrogate historical data]

9.3A.5 ( World History Grades 5-12 ): Assess the degree to which both human rights and democratic ideals and practices have been advanced in the world during the 20th century. [Formulate historical questions]

9.4A.1 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Explain the origins of the postwar civil rights movement and the role of the NAACP in the legal assault on segregation. [Analyze multiple causation]

9.4A.3 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Explain the resistance to civil rights in the South between 1954 and 1965. [Identify issues and problems in the past]

9.4A.5 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Assess the role of the legislative and executive branches in advancing the civil rights movement and the effect of shifting the focus from de jure to de facto segregation. [Evaluate the implementation of a decision]

9.4A.6 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Evaluate the agendas, strategies, and effectiveness of various African Americans, Asian Americans, Latino Americans, and Native Americans, as well as the disabled, in the quest for civil rights and equal opportunities. [Explain historical continuity and change]

9.4A.7 ( U.S. History Grades 5-12 ): Assess the reasons for and effectiveness of the escalation from civil disobedience to more radical protest in the civil rights movement. [Marshal evidence of antecedent circumstances]

What are the Limitations of Free Speech?

Skokie & More

We can only so far - If there is a potential for a protest, then free speech is cut off.

Key Concepts

Activism African-American History Civil Rights


Government Surveillance Media

Oakland, CA

Organized Resistance Policing


US History