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Anti-Bullying by Mind Map: Anti-Bullying

1. What is Bullying & Principles of Prevention?

2. Frequency of Bullying

2.1. Laws against bullying

2.1.1. While no federal statutes exist regarding bullying, if a federally funded university does not respond to harassment of students, civil rights laws are being violated. Some of the civil rights laws that could be violated in extreme cases of cyberbullying include: Title IV and Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

2.2. How many states have laws against bullying?

2.2.1. Forty-nine states in the United States have passed school anti-bullying legislation, the first being Georgia in 1999. The one state without anti-bullying legislation is Montana. A watchdog organization called Bully Police USA advocates for and reports on anti-bullying legislation.

2.3. What is the definition of cyberbullying?

2.3.1. "Cyberbullying" is when a child, preteen or teen is tormented, threatened, harassed, humiliated, embarrassed or otherwise targeted by another child, preteen or teen using the Internet, interactive and digital technologies or mobile phones.

2.4. Is it against the law in AZ to harass through emails?

2.4.1. Harassment charges can range from misdemeanor to high level felony charges. In many states, people charged with harassment will receive a higher level charge if they have previously been convicted of harassment, of communicating a threat, or of a domestic violence offense.

2.5. Sources

3. Prevent Bullying

3.1. How to talk about it

3.1.1. Help kids understand bullying. Talk about what bullying is and how to stand up to it safely. Tell kids bullying is unacceptable. Make sure kids know how to get help.

3.1.2. Keep the lines of communication open. Check in with kids often. Listen to them. Know their friends, ask about school, and understand their concerns.

3.1.3. Encourage kids to do what they love. Special activities, interests, and hobbies can boost confidence, help kids make friends, and protect them from bullying behavior.

3.1.4. Model how to treat others with kindness and respect.

3.2. Prevention at School

3.2.1. Assess Bullying

3.2.2. Develop and Implement an Assessment

3.2.3. Engage Parents & Youth

3.2.4. Benefits of Parent and Youth Engagement

3.2.5. How Parents and Youth Can Contribute

3.2.6. School Safety Committees

3.2.7. Set Policies & Rules Types of Rules and Policies Integrating Rules and Policies into a School’s Culture Establish a Reporting System

3.2.8. Build a Safe Environment Create a Safe and Supportive Environment Manage Classrooms to Prevent Bullying Classroom Meetings

3.2.9. Educate About Bullying Activities to Teach Students About Bullying Evidence-Based Programs and Curricula Staff Training on Bullying Prevention

3.3. Training Center

3.3.1. Take a Course Bullying Prevention Continuing Education Course

3.3.2. Organize a Community Event Toolkit

3.3.3. Working with Stakeholders

3.3.4. Working in the Community The Benefits of Working Together Potential Partners Community Strategies Additional Resources

3.3.5. Trainings for Educators and School Bus Drivers

3.4. District Examples

3.4.1. Anoka Hennepin School District: Minnesota Core Values Respect Responsibility Appreciation of diversity Integrity Compassion Implementing Lead Engage Assess & Act Data Drive Continuous Improvement Safe & Inclusive Schools

4. Types of Bullying

4.1. CyberBullying

4.1.1. Cyberbullying is bullying that takes place using electronic technology. Electronic technology includes devices and equipment such as cell phones, computers, and tablets as well as communication tools including social media sites, text messages, chat, and websites.

4.1.2. Why Cyberbullying is Different

4.1.3. Effects of Cyberbullying

4.1.4. Frequency of Cyberbullying

4.2. Verbal Bullyng

4.2.1. Teasing

4.2.2. Name-calling

4.2.3. Inappropriate sexual comments

4.2.4. Taunting

4.2.5. Threatening to cause harm

4.3. Social Bullying

4.3.1. Leaving someone out on purpose

4.3.2. Telling other children not to be friends with someone

4.3.3. Spreading rumors about someone

4.3.4. Embarrassing someone in public

4.4. Physical Bullying

4.4.1. Hitting/kicking/pinching

4.4.2. Spitting Tripping/pushing

4.4.3. Taking or breaking someone’s things

4.4.4. Making mean or rude hand gestures

4.5. Bullying Examples

4.5.1. Bullying Examples

4.5.2. In drawings

5. The Roles that Kids Play

5.1. Importance of Not Labeling Kids

5.1.1. When referring to a bullying situation, it is easy to call the kids who bully others "bullies" and those who are targeted "victims," but this may have unintended consequences. When children are labeled as "bullies" or "victims" it may:

5.1.2. Instead of labeling the children involved, focus on the behavior. For instance: Instead of calling a child a "bully," refer to them as "the child who bullied" Instead of calling a child a "victim," refer to them as "the child who was bullied" Instead of calling a child a "bully/victim," refer to them as "the child who was both bullied and bullied others."

5.2. Kids Involved in Bullying

5.2.1. The roles kids play in bullying are not limited to those who bully others and those who are bullied. Some researchers talk about the "circle of bullying" to define both those directly involved in bullying and those who actively or passively assist the behavior or defend against it. Direct roles include:

5.2.2. Kids who Bully These children engage in bullying behavior towards their peers. There are many risk factors that may contribute to the child's involvement in the behavior. Often, these students require support to change their behavior and address any other challenges that may be influencing their behavior.

5.2.3. Kids who are Bullied These children are the targets of bullying behavior. Some factors put children at more risk of being bullied, but not all children with these characteristics will be bullied. Sometimes, these children may need helplearning how to respond to bullying.

5.3. Kids Who Assist

5.3.1. These children may not start the bullying or lead in the bullying behavior, but serve as an "assistant" to children who are bullying. These children may encourage the bullying behavior and occasionally join in.

5.4. Kids Who Reinforce

5.4.1. These children are not directly involved in the bullying behavior but they give the bullying an audience. They will often laugh or provide support for the children who are engaging in bullying. This may encourage the bullying to continue.

5.5. Outsiders

5.5.1. These children remain separate from the bullying situation. They neither reinforce the bullying behavior nor defend the child being bullied. Some may watch what is going on but do not provide feedback about the situation to show they are on anyone’s side. Even so, providing an audience may encourage the bullying behavior.

5.6. Kids Who Defend

5.6.1. These children actively comfort the child being bullied and may come to the child's defense when bullying occurs.

5.7. Be More Than a Bystander

6. Defined

6.1. Bullying is unwanted, aggressive behavior among school aged children that involves a real or perceived power imbalance.

6.2. The behavior is repeated, or has the potential to be repeated, over time. Both kids who are bullied and who bully others may have serious, lasting problems.

7. Who is at Risk?

7.1. Risk Factors

7.1.1. Generally, children who are bullied have one or more of the following risk factors: Are perceived as different from their peers, such as being overweight or underweight, wearing glasses or different clothing, being new to a school, or being unable to afford what kids consider “cool” Are perceived as weak or unable to defend themselves Are depressed, anxious, or have low self esteem Are less popular than others and have few friends Do not get along well with others, seen as annoying or provoking, or antagonize others for attention

7.1.2. Children More Likely to Bully Others Some are well-connected to their peers, have social power, are overly concerned about their popularity, and like to dominate or be in charge of others. Others are more isolated from their peers and may be depressed or anxious, have low self esteem, be less involved in school, be easily pressured by peers, or not identify with the emotions or feelings of others.

7.2. Warning Signs

7.2.1. Signs a Child is Being Bullied Unexplainable injuries Lost or destroyed clothing, books, electronics, or jewelry Frequent headaches or stomach aches, feeling sick or faking illness Changes in eating habits, like suddenly skipping meals or binge eating. Kids may come home from school hungry because they did not eat lunch. Difficulty sleeping or frequent nightmares Declining grades, loss of interest in schoolwork, or not wanting to go to school Sudden loss of friends or avoidance of social situations Feelings of helplessness or decreased self esteem Self-destructive behaviors such as running away from home, harming themselves, or talking about suicide

7.2.2. Signs a Child is Bullying Others Get into physical or verbal fights Have friends who bully others Are increasingly aggressive Get sent to the principal’s office or to detention frequently Have unexplained extra money or new belongings Blame others for their problems Don’t accept responsibility for their actions Are competitive and worry about their reputation or popularity

7.2.3. Why don't kids ask for help? Bullying can make a child feel helpless. Kids may want to handle it on their own to feel in control again. They may fear being seen as weak or a tattletale. Kids may fear backlash from the kid who bullied them. Bullying can be a humiliating experience. Kids may not want adults to know what is being said about them, whether true or false. They may also fear that adults will judge them or punish them for being weak. Kids who are bullied may already feel socially isolated. They may feel like no one cares or could understand. Kids may fear being rejected by their peers. Friends can help protect kids from bullying, and kids can fear losing this support.

7.3. Effects

7.3.1. Kids Who are Bullied Depression and anxiety, increased feelings of sadness and loneliness, changes in sleep and eating patterns, and loss of interest in activities they used to enjoy. These issues may persist into adulthood. Health complaints Decreased academic achievement—GPA and standardized test scores—and school participation. They are more likely to miss, skip, or drop out of school.

7.3.2. Kids Who Bully Others Abuse alcohol and other drugs in adolescence and as adults Get into fights, vandalize property, and drop out of school Engage in early sexual activity Have criminal convictions and traffic citations as adults Be abusive toward their romantic partners, spouses, or children as adults

7.3.3. Kids Who Witness Bullying Have increased use of tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs Have increased mental health problems, including depression and anxiety Miss or skip school

7.4. Considerations for Special Groups

7.4.1. LGBT Youth Lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) youth and those perceived as LGBT are at an increased risk of being bullied. Families of and people who work with LGBT youth have important and unique considerations for strategies to prevent and intervene in bullying.

7.4.2. Youth with Disabilities or Other Special Health Needs Children with disabilities or other special health needs may be at higher risk of being bullied. There are specific ways you can support these groups.

7.4.3. Race, Ethnicity, and National Origin It is not clear how often kids get bullied because of their race, ethnicity, or national origin. It is also unclear how often kids of the same group bully each other. Research is still growing. We do know, however, that Black and Hispanic youth who are bullied are more likely to suffer academically than their white peers.

7.4.4. Religion and Faith Very little research has explored bullying based on religious differences. Bullying in these situations may have less to do with a person’s beliefs and more to do with misinformation or negative perceptions about how someone expresses that belief. For example, Muslim girls who wear hijabs (head scarves), Sikh boys who wear patka or dastaar (turbans), and Jewish boys who wear yarmulkes report being targeted because of these visible symbols of their religions. These items are sometimes used as tools to bully Muslim, Sikh, and Jewish youth when they are forcefully removed by others. Several reports also indicate a rise in anti-Muslim and anti-Sikh bullying over the past decade that may have roots in a perceived association of their religious heritage and terrorism.