Miriam Biro 'Individual Development'

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Miriam Biro 'Individual Development' by Mind Map: Miriam Biro 'Individual Development'

1. Social Science Theoretical Approaches

1.1. Social science theoretical approaches are the different theories which make assumptions regarding society. The theoretical approaches also focuses on different areas and aspects of society and how they could create various outcomes. Also, the different theories defines a particular point of view and poses a set of questions about their area of interest and major leading factors.

1.1.1. Structural Functionalism

1.1.1.1. Maintenance of a society.

1.1.1.2. Society will create institutions to take over any function needed to maintain balance/homeostasis.

1.1.1.3. Shared attitudes/values/norms/beliefs for society to function properly.

1.1.1.4. institutions work collectively to perform necessary functions.

1.1.2. Symbolic Interactionalism

1.1.2.1. Society constantly changing as a result of communicating/negotiating.

1.1.2.2. Sense of self comes from interactions with other people - socialization - and how others perceive us.

1.1.2.3. Shared symbols/gestures/nonverbal comm. is the base of interactions.

1.1.2.4. Society is a production of everyday interactions.

1.1.3. Conflict Theory

1.1.3.1. Struggle/conflict leads to change (possibly violent).

1.1.3.2. Inequalities often focal point.

1.1.3.3. Not always considered bad. Could unite to make a more directed change.

1.1.3.4. Major institutions often benefit those in power, prosper at expense of others.

1.1.3.5. Individuals maximize benefits, struggling for resources and power.

1.1.4. Social Exchange Theory

1.1.4.1. Costs/benefits of relationship are equal, relationship considered to be equitable.

1.1.4.2. Social behaviour is an exchange process.

1.1.4.3. Purpose of exchange is to max. the benefits, min. the cost.

1.1.4.4. Risk of relationship outweighs the rewards, people terminate relationship.

1.1.5. Role Theory

1.1.5.1. Takes place when individuals are unsure of which expectations they should proceed with in social situations.

1.1.5.2. Result of trying to fulfill two demanding roles.

1.1.6. Feminist Theories

1.1.6.1. Issues from the viewpoint of women.

1.1.6.2. Examines gender bias situations/conflicts.

1.1.6.3. Concerned that change is required to ensure needs of all people are being met.

2. Developmental Theories

2.1. The developmental theories are theories that determine a negative or positive potential an individual may develop in their life. The theorists are categorized in columns such as: psychodynamic, cognitive, humanist, symbolic interactionist, sociocultural, and evolutionary. The theorists are separately branched off because each theorist has their own development theory/opinion on how an individual expresses themselves and how factors can manipulate the development. Psychodynamic is the theory of development focusing on the unconscious and conscious factors. Cognitive is the individuals behaviour depending on their thought process. Humanist reflect on an individuals actions and emotional process. Symbolic interaction is when an individual reacts to situation based on social interaction. Sociocultural theory is also heavily based on social interaction with others and environment. Finally, evolutionary theory is formed by inheritance.

2.1.1. Psychodynamic

2.1.1.1. Freud

2.1.1.1.1. Psychosexual Development

2.1.1.1.2. Creation of psychoanalysis

2.1.1.1.3. Human behaviour is driven by desires and suppression of the same desires.

2.1.1.1.4. Pleasure/Desire.

2.1.1.1.5. Only way to access true emotions, was to access unconscious mind, is through hypnosis.

2.1.1.1.6. Mind having three areas: conscious/pre-conscious/unconscious.

2.1.1.1.7. Personality motivated by drives (id).

2.1.1.1.8. Id part of unconscious mind and seeks pleasure without considering consequences.

2.1.1.1.9. Superego - desire to be socially conscious of all decisions/actions.

2.1.1.1.10. Ego is the mediator between the id and superego. If id is too strong, individual will not worry about social responsibilities. If superego is too strong, personality becomes uptight and worried about following social expectations.

2.1.1.1.11. Views human development as progressing through stages pf development where the main conflict deals with an erogenous zone of the body.

2.1.1.2. Erikson

2.1.1.2.1. Psychosocial Stages

2.1.1.2.2. Regards the structure of the personality.

2.1.1.2.3. Focused on the role of culture/society that conflicts that can take place within the ego.

2.1.1.2.4. Ego develops as it successfully undergo social situations in nature.

2.1.1.2.5. Sense of trust/sense of identity in society/next generation's future.

2.1.1.2.6. Children socializing and how this affects their outcome of sense of self.

2.1.1.2.7. Trust vs. Mistrust

2.1.1.2.8. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

2.1.1.2.9. Initiative vs. Guilt

2.1.1.2.10. Industry (competence) vs. Inferiority

2.1.1.2.11. Identity vs. Role Confusion

2.1.1.2.12. Intimacy vs. Isolation

2.1.1.2.13. Generativity vs. Stagnation

2.1.1.2.14. Ego Integrity vs. Despair

2.1.2. Cognitive

2.1.2.1. Vygotsky

2.1.2.1.1. Social Development Theory

2.1.2.1.2. Fundamental role of social interaction of an individual.

2.1.2.1.3. Community has a valuable role.

2.1.2.1.4. Culture impacts the cognitive development.

2.1.2.1.5. Adults are a major source of cognitive development because adults pass on cultural knowledge that children learn.

2.1.2.1.6. Attention/sensation/perception/mercy.

2.1.2.1.7. Zone of Proximal Development - relates to how a child develops independently versus what they gain with skilled guidance.

2.1.2.2. Piaget

2.1.2.2.1. Different thinking between adults/children.

2.1.2.2.2. Individuals are born with basic mental structure.

2.1.2.2.3. Genetically inherited.

2.1.2.2.4. Mental process as a result of biological maturation/environmental factors.

2.1.2.2.5. Sensorimotor Stage (Birth - 2 years) - Knowledge of objects that exists and mental representation.

2.1.2.2.6. Preoperational Stage (2 - 7 years) - Symbolically thinking (egocentric) and difficulty of viewpoint of others.

2.1.2.2.7. Concrete Operational Stage (7 - 11 years) - Major turning point in cognitive development and operational thought. Individuals can also work out situations by thinking internally.

2.1.2.2.8. Formal Operation Stage (11 - Adulthood years) - Ability to observe abstract concepts.

2.1.3. Humanist

2.1.3.1. Maslow

2.1.3.1.1. Motivations

2.1.3.1.2. Achieve certain needs/goals.

2.1.3.1.3. Hierarchy needs.

2.1.3.1.4. The thought to accomplish needs progress faster when the individual is longer without.

2.1.3.1.5. Individual must satisfy lower need levels before they can achieve higher levels. - The level order: Psysiological needs, safety needs, belongings and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization.

2.1.3.2. Rogers

2.1.3.2.1. Influenced by Maslow

2.1.3.2.2. Added to Maslow's theory with the addition of environmental factors that lead to an individuals developmental growth.

2.1.3.2.3. Genuiness/acceptance/empathy.

2.1.3.2.4. One basic motive - Self-actualization.

2.1.3.2.5. Self-concept

2.1.3.2.6. Childhood experiences/evaluations by others are the two major factors that impact an individuals development.

2.1.4. Symbolic Interactionist

2.1.4.1. Cooley

2.1.4.1.1. Groups/social behaviour

2.1.4.1.2. Social interactions

2.1.4.1.3. Once a society has been more industrialized, the individuals become more independent.

2.1.4.1.4. "Primary Groups" - Expressive and close groups.

2.1.4.1.5. Small and intimate groups have a higher chance of influencing the individuals in the group.

2.1.4.1.6. The "Looking Glass Self" theory has self-image relating to self-reflection and judgements of others. It also consists of: How individuals present themselves, how they imagine themselves, and how they feel about themselves.

2.1.4.2. Mead

2.1.4.2.1. Social Self Theory

2.1.4.2.2. Studied reasons on how the self is developed.

2.1.4.2.3. 'Self', 'Me', and 'I'

2.1.4.2.4. Social interactions.

2.1.4.2.5. Self is not presented in an infant/birth and is instead developed over time during major experiences/factors.

2.1.4.2.6. Language - Individuals are allowed to communicate through various exchanges.

2.1.4.2.7. Play - Different roles/expectations are realized and lead to self-consciousness and seeing different perspectives.

2.1.4.2.8. Games - An individual can develop by understanding rules to situations.

2.1.5. Sociocultural

2.1.5.1. Bronfenbrenner

2.1.5.1.1. Microsystem - Family/friends/school - Direct contact with the individual - Primary source of impacting the development of the child.

2.1.5.1.2. Socialization

2.1.5.1.3. Mesosystem - Relations between Microsystem factors.

2.1.5.1.4. Family experience may impact individuals school experience.

2.1.5.1.5. Exosystem - How the individual behaves/responds to change.

2.1.5.1.6. No active role.

2.1.5.1.7. Macrosystem - Culture of the individual, such as: culture/ethnicity/race/etc.

2.1.5.1.8. Chronosystem - How the individual deals with situations surrounding them and possibly develop a similar outcome in future experiences.

2.1.6. Evolutionary

2.1.6.1. Bowlby

2.1.6.1.1. Attachment Theory

2.1.6.1.2. Deep emotional bond that one individual feels with another individual and impact their development.

2.1.6.1.3. Attachments do not have to be reciprocal and can be one-sided.

2.1.6.1.4. Children want to be in close proximity to adults.

2.1.6.1.5. Adults display a more sensitive attachment to children and are often more gentle in exchanges.

2.1.6.1.6. Children have intense feelings of anxiety when separated from mothers and have development outcomes.

3. Factors and Influences on Decisions/Outcomes

3.1. Factors and influences on decisions/outcomes contribute to the role and individual "plays". Factors may include biological and environmental factors. The factors and influences of an individual ranges on different sources and have varying amounts of how much it will impact the individuals development. Some of the listed factors and influences may have a long-term or short-term outcome on the individuals decisions and could also be negative or positive.

3.1.1. Socialization

3.1.1.1. Process of an individual developing a self identity while learning to function and acquire skills in a society.

3.1.1.2. Learned by interacting with other people.

3.1.1.3. Begins at a young age and continues throughout life.

3.1.1.4. Strongly influences the kind of person you become (nurture).

3.1.2. Agents of Socialization

3.1.2.1. Gender Roles

3.1.2.1.1. Part of role expectations based on gender-stereotypes.

3.1.2.1.2. Gender roles are important because one of the first/most influential aspect is self-identity/personality.

3.1.2.1.3. First begin to acquire gender roles based on social interactions as soon as gender is known.

3.1.2.1.4. Newborns given gender-specific items.

3.1.2.2. Family

3.1.2.2.1. Primary agent of socialization.

3.1.2.2.2. Model gender roles to children consciously and subconsciously.

3.1.2.2.3. Given "gender-specific" chores.

3.1.2.3. Peers

3.1.2.3.1. Most important agent of socialization during an individuals adolescence.

3.1.2.3.2. North America, children separate into gender-specific groups.

3.1.2.3.3. Boy groups tend to be more physical/competitve.

3.1.2.3.4. Girl groups tend to be more verbal/cooperative/emotional.

3.1.2.4. School/Educational Institutions

3.1.2.4.1. Children enter education systems, encounter school-related sources of role expectations.

3.1.2.4.2. Course selections, later occupations, influenced by gender role expectations and lifetime factor.

3.1.2.5. Media

3.1.2.5.1. For social learning, media is a powerful teaching tool.

3.1.2.6. Biology

3.1.2.6.1. Individual's sex is determined by biological factors, such as genes/physical presence of reproductive organs/genitalia/brain chemistry.

3.1.2.6.2. Biological theorists believe that individuals are born with gender-oriented identities that are suited to social roles of that gender.

3.1.2.7. Society/Culture

3.1.2.7.1. Newborns begin to acquire roles and expectations of the time and culture.

3.1.2.8. Conflict Between Individuals and Social Roles

3.1.2.8.1. Gender role stereotyping is a major conflict that has many negative consequences.

3.1.2.8.2. Individuals of both sexes can be victim to sexism.

3.1.2.8.3. Role conflict can occur when the expectations of an individual in his/her primary group interfere with those of his/her secondary groups.

4. Individual Role Expectations and Conflicts

4.1. The individual role expectations and conflicts happen once a newborn is brought into the world. individuals are met with expectations everyday in their lives and are encouraged to accomplish them - whether the outcome be negative or positive.

4.1.1. Nurture

4.1.1.1. Environmental factors.

4.1.1.2. Society/culture.

4.1.2. Nature

4.1.2.1. Biological factors.

4.1.2.2. Genetics.

4.1.3. Social Institution Roles

4.1.3.1. People must conform in order for any social institution to function properly.

4.1.4. Social Norms

4.1.4.1. Social expectations that guide an individuals behaviour.

4.1.5. Values

4.1.5.1. Standards of what is considered right and morally acceptable.

5. Education/Occupation/Lifestyle Choices

5.1. The individuals education/occupation/lifestyle choices relate to how the individual is brought up throughout their lifetime. The individual could have a very demanding family life and the individuals choices may not even be their own. Education/occupation/lifestyle choices also highly depend on the emotional and physical stability the individual has developed. If the individual does not have the required factors for education/occupation/lifestyle it could have a major influence on other factors in that person's life.

5.1.1. Family

5.1.1.1. individual may feel pressured to meet expectations made my family members.

5.1.1.2. Family directs individual in a certain lifestyle path and determine choices for them instead.

5.1.1.3. Forced or Unknowingly.

5.1.2. Peer

5.1.2.1. Friends of individual could affect an individuals choice because wanting to fit in with the group.

5.1.2.2. Stay connected with the group and make the same choices as them.

5.1.3. Physical

5.1.3.1. Genetics

5.1.3.2. Developed properly/Have proper requirement for certain situations.

5.1.4. Emotional

5.1.4.1. Genetics

5.1.4.2. Developed over time by many sources around the world.

6. Social Science Perspectives

6.1. Social science perspectives are influenced by frame of reference used to interpret information. The social science perspectives also notices the human behaviour as it occurs in society, qualitative and quantitative methods collect different types of data. The social science perspectives explain the individuals development in the three categories: sociology, psychology, and anthropology and each category has a different purpose for an individuals development.

6.1.1. Sociology

6.1.1.1. Ways that an individual interacts in a group of people.

6.1.1.2. How groups of people with common characteristics function.

6.1.1.3. Studies evolution/structure/functioning of human society.

6.1.2. Psychology

6.1.2.1. Ways that an individual expresses thoughts/feelings/actions.

6.1.2.2. These factors are highly believed to make up an individuals personality.

6.1.3. Anthropology

6.1.3.1. Ways that an individual expresses the customs/cultures of human beings.

6.1.3.2. Studies the social values/beliefs/customs of specific cultures.