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1. Ecosystem


1.1.1. A way of acting that involves taking personal responsibility for the management and care of something

1.1.2. Planetary Stewardship Working and taking care of the whole world

1.2. SUSTAINABILITY  (in an environment)

1.2.1. Populations of plants, animal and any other living organisms can continue to interact and reproduce indefinitely

1.2.2. Biodiversity is preserved


1.3.1. The number of different types of organisms in an area


1.4.1. Study of how organisms interact with each other as well as with their environment


1.5.1. Living, biotic factors are organisms Animals Plants Bacteria Algae Mushrooms


1.6.1. Non-living, physical things Rocks Air Water

1.6.2. Things that are measured Air Temperature


1.7.1. A group of organisms in an ecosystem


1.8.1. A group of members of the same species that live in the same area


1.9.1. Physical environment of an organism where they live


1.10.1. Made up of populations of different species that live and interact in an area

1.11. NICHE

1.11.1. All the interactions of a given species with its ecosystem

2. Biomes and Biosphere

2.1. BIOME

2.1.1. A large geographic region that contains similar ecosystems Aquatic biomes are not determined by their latitude but by... Water Temperature Depth Sunlight Marine or Freshwater Other Factors


2.2.1. The part of the planet where life exists Water Land Air

2.2.2. All biomes in the world make up the biosphere

2.2.3. 3 main components Atmosphere Layer of gases that surrounds Earth Lithosphere Earth's solid, outer layer Hydrosphere All the water on Earth

3. Nutrient Cycles


3.1.1. All living things need nutrients to survive

3.1.2. Nutrients are substances that an organism uses to build and repair the cells of its body

3.1.3. Provides energy, which all organisms need to grow and maintain their bodies to reproduce

3.1.4. Plants get nutrients from soil and air


3.2.1. Water Cycle

3.2.2. Carbon Cycle

3.2.3. Nitrogen Cycle 3 types of important bacterias Nitrogen Fixation Nitrifying Bacteria Denitrifying Bactria Animals can get nitrogen by eating plants or animals When digesting proteins, a by-product is ammonia which is toxic to animals

4. Energy Flow

4.1. Photosynthesis

4.1.1. WORD EQUATION Carbon dioxide gas + Water + Sunlight   -->   Glucose + Oxygen gas

4.1.2. Produces the majority of the atmosphere's oxygen

4.2. Cellular Respiration

4.2.1. WORD  EQUATION Glucose + Oxygen gas  --> Carbon Dioxide gas + water + energy

4.2.2. Animals carry this out and breathing supplies oxygen needed for cellular respiration

4.2.3. Animals need oxygen to survive

4.2.4. Plants need a continuous supply of energy for functions such as... Growth Repair of tissues Reproduction

5. Food Chain / Food Webs

5.1. Food Chain

5.1.1. A way of showing feeding relationships among organism

5.1.2. Chains start with Producer Producer - Primary Consumer - Secondary Consumer - Tertiary Consumer

5.1.3. Consumers Need to eat other organisms to obtain energy since they cannot make their own food Herbivores Carnivores Scarvengers Omnivores Detritivores Decomposer

5.1.4. Producers Carry out photosynthesis and can produce their own chemical energy from the sun Algae Plants

5.2. Food Web

5.2.1. Many food chains put together

6. Energy Pyramids

6.1. Amounts of energy available for the next animal decreases as you go up the pyramid

6.2. Each step in the food chain some energy is used or lost

6.3. More levels = less energy for the top-consumer

6.4. 10% of the energy is passed on to the next animal that eats it

6.5. 90% is used or lost

6.5.1. 60% = passed out in its wastes

6.5.2. 30% = used in body processes

7. Interactions in Ecosystems

7.1. Biotic Interactions

7.1.1. How components interact with each other in many ways Competition The interaction between two or more organisms competing for the same resource in a given habitat. For similar species to coexist in an area, they must have slightly different niches to avoid competition Predation Occurs when one organism eats another organism to obtain food. Prey animals are well adapted to avoid being eaten Symbiosis A close interaction between two different species in which members of one species live in, on , or near members of another species

7.1.2. Sometimes dependent on each other

8. Carrying Capacity and Limiting Factors

8.1. Population Growth

8.1.1. Depending on what resources are available to organisms

8.1.2. Populations can experience different types of growth Exponential Growth (J-Curve) Under ideal conditions - few or no limiting factors - a population starts off slow then continues to increase very rapidly Boom And Bust Curve Some populations go through periods where their numbers suddenly increase dramatically for a few generations then go back to normal Described as Boom (sudden increase) and bust (sudden decrease) curve S- Curve Populations are introduced into a new ecosystem, they will start off as a J-Curve but after a while population numbers slowly plateau due to limiting factors When this occurs, it is said that it has reached the CARRYING CAPACITY of its environment

8.1.3. Carrying Capacity The maximum number of individuals the ecosystem can support without reducing the ability to support future generations of the same species

8.2. Limiting Factors

8.2.1. Ecosystems have a carrying capacity when certain factors limit the growth of populations Availability of food Water Space

8.2.2. Limiting factors can be biotic and abiotic

8.2.3. Preventing a further increase in the number of organisms

9. Human Impacts On Ecosystems

9.1. Impacts on Biodiversity

9.1.1. The health of an ecosystem depends highly on biodiversity Biodiversity refers to different species found in an ecosystem Also refers to genetic biodiversity within a species Humans are the same species but are all different. Lack of genetic diversity in a population can be a real threat to its survival and can even lead to extinction Sufficient genetic diversity to be able to adapt to changing circumstances and evolve over time

9.1.2. If there is a decrease in biodiversity, it would endanger the functioning of our ecosystems and the survival of organisms

9.1.3. Humans have greatly changed and impacted biodiversity with many of our actions Human activity has caused all levels of biodiversity to decrease at a new rate Habitat change Overeploitation Pollution Invasive Species Climate Change

9.2. Impacts on Ontario Ecosystems

9.2.1. Urban Sprawl Unplanned, disorganized growth of urban and suburban development into the surrounding countryside Smaller, fragmented habitats lead to a loss of biodiversity

9.2.2. Clearcutting Removes all the trees in an area, regardless of size Breaks large ares of forest into smaller fragments which can threaten local biodiversity Some species require large areas of forest to hunt Habitat Fragmentation makes it difficult for them to find food

9.3. Bioaccumulation / Biomagnification

9.3.1. Bioaccumulation The gradual build up of a substance in an organism's body

9.3.2. Biomagnefitication As toxic substances bioaccumulate in organisms, this can also be assed on to animals higher in the food chain

9.3.3. When it rains, the DDT that is sprayed on crops comes with the water in the run offs that lead to bigger bodies of water

10. Organizations For Sustainability

10.1. Convection on Biological Diversity

10.1.1. Risk Levels for Species Extirpated A species that no longer exists in Ontario but still occurs elsewhere Endangered A species that faces extinction or extirpation Threatened A species that is at risk of becoming endangered if limiting factors are not reversed Special Concern A species with characteristics that make it sensitive to human activities or natural events

10.1.2. Ex-situ / In-situ Conservation Ex-situ Conserves species by removing them from their natural habitats Considered to be the last resort In-situ Focuses on conserving species in their natural surroundings

10.2. Environmental Farm Plan (EFP)

10.2.1. A tool that farmers can use to identify environmental problems on their farms and develop action plans to address these problems

10.3. Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)

10.3.1. Standards for any forestry practice to be certified Waterways and wildlife habitat have to be protected Parts of the forest have to be preserved The cut areas have to be replanted The cut areas cannot be replanted with just a single species Forest must be able to achieve a wild state

10.3.2. Provides a way to tell consumers whether the wood or wood product(s) they are planning to buy has been made without damaging an ecosystem

10.4. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)

10.4.1. Rating System scores on how efficiently people... Reduce Water Consumption Reduce Energy Consumption Use Renewable Energy Sources Restore Existing Buildings Incorporate Daylight Other Factors

10.5. Bullfrog Power

10.5.1. Sells environmentally friendly electricity produced form renewable sources like wind turbines

10.5.2. Beneficial to the environment Sources does not produce any emissions Does not contribute to climate change or acid rain

10.5.3. However, this product costs slightly more than conventionally produced electricity