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ASTRONOMY by Mind Map: ASTRONOMY

1. UNIVERSE

1.1. Solar System

1.1.1. The Sun together with all the planets and other celestial objects that are held by the Sun's gravitational pull/attraction and orbit around it

1.2. Star

1.2.1. Hot ball of plasma

1.2.2. An electrically charged gas, that shines because nuclear fusion is taking place at its core

1.2.2.1. Nuclear Fusion

1.2.2.1.1. Process in which the nuclei of atoms fuse together and form larger atoms

1.2.2.1.2. During this process, an enormous amount of energy released

1.3. MEASUREMENT

1.3.1. Astronomical Unit (AU)

1.3.1.1. Distance measure

1.3.1.2. 1 AU equals the average distance between the Sun and Earth, about 150 million km

1.3.2. Light Year

1.3.2.1. Distance Measure

1.3.2.2. 1 LY equals the distance that a beam of light can travel to space in 1 year

1.3.2.3. It is equivalent 63000 AU or 9000 billion km

1.4. Astroid Belt

1.4.1. Region of rocky debris that forms a ring all the way around the Sun at a distance of about 3 AU

1.5. Super Nova

1.5.1. Star explosion

1.5.1.1. caused by the gradual build-up of heavy elements in the star's centre, resulting in the core's collapse

1.6. Nebula

1.6.1. Large clouds of dust and gas

2. Stars

2.1. Protostar

2.1.1. A star in its first stage of formation

2.1.2. Extremely high pressures build up inside the ball , which in turn causes the tightly packed atoms to heat up

2.1.3. As the temperature climbs, the core begins to glow

2.2. General Mass Categories of Stars

2.2.1. Low Mass Stars

2.2.1.1. Most stars in the universe

2.2.2. Medium Mass Stars

2.2.2.1. Sun

2.2.3. High Mass Stars

3. Hertzsprung - Russell diagram

3.1. They did this to find whether any patterns might occur or emerge that would tell us more about the nature of stars

3.1.1. 3 CHARACTERS ARE STARS ARRANGED BY

3.1.1.1. Colour

3.1.1.1.1. Blue stars are plotted on the left

3.1.1.1.2. Other stars, such as yellow SUN, are plotted in the middle

3.1.1.1.3. Red Stars are plotted on the right

3.1.1.2. Luminosity

3.1.1.2.1. The brightest stars are plotted at the top

3.1.1.2.2. Dimmest stars are plotted at the bottom

3.1.1.2.3. A star with the luminosity of 100 is 100 times brighter than the Sun

3.1.1.3. Surface Temperature

3.1.1.3.1. The hottest stars are plotted on the left

3.1.1.3.2. Coolest stars are plotted on the right

3.1.2. MAIN SEQUENCE

3.1.2.1. Groups of stars that do not appear along the main sequence are often near the end of their lives

3.1.2.1.1. WHITE DWARFS

3.1.2.1.2. RED GIANTS

3.2. Made by Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Norris Russell

4. The Big Bang Theory

4.1. All galaxies contain

4.1.1. Stars

4.1.2. Planets

4.1.3. Dust

4.2. Black hole

4.2.1. A region of space where gravity is so strong that nothing can escape it, not even light

4.2.2. The gravity is so strong that it can pull a star into it which will completely destroy it

4.2.3. Supermassive black holes

4.2.3.1. Formed when a black hole at the centre of each one gradually moves toward the other

4.2.3.2. After a hundred million years, they will merge, with their masses combining into a single supermassive black hole

4.3. Dark matter

4.3.1. Refers to the matter in the universe that is invincible due to it does not interacting with light or any kind of radiation

4.3.2. It is invisible to direct observation by telescopes

4.3.3. About 25% of the universe may be filled with dark matter

4.4. Shapes of galaxies

4.4.1. Spiral and Barred Spiral

4.4.1.1. Circular shape

4.4.2. Elliptical

4.4.2.1. Ellipsoidal shape and a smooth, nearly featureless brightness profile

4.4.3. Irregular

4.4.3.1. Does not have a distinct shape or feature

5. Sun

5.1. Centre of the our Solar System

5.2. Composed of mainly HYDROGEN (73% by mass) and HELIUM (25% by mass)

5.3. Existed for 5 billion years, is expected to shine for 5 more

5.4. LAYERS OF THE SUN

5.4.1. Corona

5.4.1.1. Clearly visible during a solar eclipse

5.4.2. Chromosphere

5.4.2.1. Layer we can see during a solar eclipse

5.4.3. Photosphere

5.4.3.1. Considered to be the boundary of the Sun

5.4.3.2. Which we can see from Earth

5.4.3.3. Lowest Temperature = 5500 C

5.4.4. Convective Zone

5.4.5. Radioactive Zone

5.4.6. Core

5.5. Solar Flare

5.5.1. A massive explosion at the surface of the Sun

5.6. Coronal Mass Ejection

5.6.1. An extremely powerful kind of flare

5.7. Aurora Borealis and Aurora Australis

5.7.1. Solar wind is responsible for creating the displays of green, yellow and red light in the skies

5.7.2. Borealis

5.7.2.1. Is produced when the charged particles of a solar wind collide with the atoms and molecules in the Earth's atmosphere

5.7.2.2. Form as particles are trapped by the Earth's magnetic field

6. The Earth's magnetic field protects Earth by diverting much of the plasma away from the planet's surface

7. Planets

7.1. Four Inner Planets

7.1.1. Mercury

7.1.2. Venus

7.1.3. Earth

7.1.4. Mars

7.1.5. As spinning particles of dust and gas slammed into each other during the early stages of the solar system's formation

7.1.5.1. Some particles began to stick together

7.1.5.2. As objects grew bigger in mass, gravity caused them to contract and bind together even more strongly

7.2. Astroid Belt

7.2.1. Past Mars, lies a huge band of rocks that is spread out through a vast ring circling the Sun

7.2.2. Some rocks as large as 1000 km across

7.2.3. Some rocks are small

7.3. Four Outer Planets

7.3.1. Jupiter

7.3.2. Saturn

7.3.3. Uranus

7.3.4. Neptune

7.3.5. Solar wind blows gases away from the Sun, but this does not mean that all the gases escape the solar system completely

7.3.5.1. Beyond the astroid belt is the "snow line", water can cool to form droplets and then freeze

7.3.5.2. Astronomers believe that the 4 largest planets have grown as they did due to the ice acting as a glue causing the dust and gas particles to stick together

7.4. 2 Minor/Dwarfs Planets

7.4.1. Pluto

7.4.1.1. A very popular planet

7.4.2. Charon

7.4.2.1. About half the size of Pluto

8. SPACE EXPLORATION

8.1. SPACECRAFT

8.1.1. Rockets

8.1.1.1. Lifts small capsules containing crew, equipment, or satellites into orbit and beyond.

8.1.1.2. The new generation of human space flight spacecraft is the Orion crew explorarion vehicle

8.1.2. Space Shuttles

8.1.2.1. Transport personnel and equipment to orbiting spacecraft

8.1.3. Space Stations

8.1.3.1. Orbiting spacecraft that have living quarters, work areas, and all the support systems needed to allow people to live and work in space for extended periods.

8.1.4. Space Probes

8.1.4.1. Contain instrumentation for carrying out robotic exploration of space

8.2. SPINOFF

8.2.1. Secondary beneficial effect or product of a thing or an activity

8.2.1.1. Ionization smoke detector

8.2.1.1.1. In space it's used to detect possible fire outbreaks on board a spacecraft

8.3. ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE

8.3.1. A device placed in orbit around Earth or another celestial object

8.3.2. First satellite- launched in 1957 by the former Soviet Union

8.4. GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT

8.4.1. When a satellite orbits the Earth at the same rate at the Earth rotates

8.4.2. Makes the satellite appear stationary (staying still) when viewed from the ground, and enables the receiving antennas to be permanently pointed to one spot in the sky

8.5. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

8.5.1. Group of satellites that transmit low energy microwave signals

8.5.2. These signals are picked up by small receivers that people on Earth can easily carry by hand

9. CHALLENGES OF SPACE EXPLORATION

9.1. No Atmosphere - the temperatures range from unimaginably cold or extremely hot in the full Sun

9.2. Gases that keep us alive on Earth does not exist in Space

9.3. There are also many hazards for the spacecraft and its occupants

9.4. Damaging effects of cosmic rays

9.5. Solar Radiation

9.6. The Risk of being hit by a space debris

9.7. CONFINED LIVING

9.7.1. Long trips may lead to psychological problems

10. MICROGRAVITY

10.1. Microgravity is the condition in which the gravitational forces that act on a mass are greatly reduced

10.1.1. Heart does not have to pump as hard as it normally does to circulate blond which causes the heart to weaken

10.1.2. Muscles we use for walking and lifting are not put into action as much which causes their muscles to weaken

10.1.3. Bones in microgravity have less pressure on the than normal. This caused them to lose minerals, which in turn leads to the bones weakening

10.1.4. Red blood cells production in the body declines and the body's immune system weakens which increases a person's risk on becoming infected and decreased his or her ability to fight infection

10.2. Astronauts prevent these health risks by spending at least an hour of cardiovascular training as well as an hour of resistance training to reduce the effects of microgravity

10.2.1. Weightlifting