"City Upon a Hill"

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"City Upon a Hill" by Mind Map: "City Upon a Hill"

1. Metaphor

1.1. Definition:

1.1.1. A figure of speech that connects two concepts abstractly without using "like" or "as"

1.1.2. Literary device used to convey a concept by imaginatively using a word or idea to represent a larger (typically unrelated) concept

1.2. Examples

1.2.1. "Love is a battlefield."

1.2.2. "Beating a dead horse."

1.2.3. "Baby, you're a firework!"

1.3. Anne Bradstreet

1.3.1. Noted American poet

1.3.2. Traveled to America on the Arbella

1.3.3. Use of metaphor in "To My Dear and Loving Husband"

1.3.3.1. "I prize thy love more than whole Mines of gold, Or all the riches that the East doth hold. My love is such that Rivers cannot quench, Nor ought but love from thee, give recompense."

2. Historical Context

2.1. Great Migration

2.1.1. King Charles I takes English throne 1625

2.1.2. Mounting religious oppression causes Puritans to flee to New World for fresh start

2.1.3. approx. 20,000 colonists immigrate to New England

2.2. "A Model of Christian Charity"

2.2.1. Sermon given by Gov. Winthrop aboard flagship Arbella in 1630

2.2.1.1. Arbella lead ship of 11 in Winthrop Fleet

2.2.1.2. 700 settlers in Winthrop Fleet

2.2.2. Pep-talk before pilgrims landed in Massachusetts Bay Colony (present day Boston/Salem region)

2.2.3. Speech preserved by word-of-mouth and journals, published 1830

3. "...we shall be made a story and a byword through the world..."

3.1. What does this mean?

3.1.1. American Puritanism as an example for the world.

3.1.2. American colonization as an experiment

3.2. Metaphor?

3.2.1. Literal meaning: We shall become legends.

3.2.2. Governor Winthrop's settlers as famous fable, icons of morality, examples of good living.

3.2.3. "City" as an example of civilized peace and prosperity

4. American Exceptionalism

4.1. Redeemer Nation

4.1.1. Sense of responsibility to right wrongs

4.1.2. Self-determined government

4.1.3. Redemptive mission to be new nation with forward-thinking principles based on morality

4.1.4. American mission to change the world

4.2. America as model community for the rest of the world.

4.2.1. Commitment to uphold values

4.2.1.1. "brotherly affection"

4.2.1.2. "meekness"

4.2.1.3. "gentleness"

4.2.1.4. "patience and liberality"

4.3. Unity

4.3.1. "we must delight in each other"

4.3.1.1. "unity of the spirit in the bond of peace"

4.3.2. "make others conditions our own"

4.3.2.1. "rejoice together"

4.3.2.2. "mourn together"

4.3.2.3. "labor and suffer together"

4.4. Term actually coined by Alexis de Tocqueville in 1831 (We will study this work) but foundation laid by first settlers.

5. "...the eyes of all people are upon us..."

5.1. Literal Meaning: The world is watching us.

5.2. Metaphor?

5.2.1. How could we say this another way using figurative language? Discuss with your partner.

5.2.2. How loose of a definition is Winthrop's concept of "all people"? Who do you think this includes? Which groups of people are excluded or left out?

5.2.2.1. How would Anne Bradstreet feel about this? Check out two poems "In Honour of that High and Mighty Princess Queen Elizabeth of Happy Memory" and "The Prologue."

5.2.2.1.1. "Now say, have women worth? or have they none? Or had they some, but with our queen is't gone? Nay Masculines, you have thus taxt us long, But she, though dead, will vindicate our wrong, Let such as say our Sex is void of Reason, Know tis a Slander now, but once was Treason."

5.2.2.1.2. "I am obnoxious to each carping tongue Who says my hand a needle better fits, A poet's pen all scorn I should thus wrong. For such despite they cast on female wits: If what I do prove well, it won't advance, They'll say it's stol'n, or else it was by chance."

5.2.2.2. Did Puritans own slaves?Did other Great Migration settlers in the Massachusetts Bay Colony or the West Indies own slaves?

5.2.2.2.1. Research this and consider the implications. How do Puritan ideals and cultural standards form the foundation of American politics?

5.2.2.2.2. In what ways are the "eyes of all people [still] upon us"?

6. Biblical origins of term

6.1. Matthew 5:14 "The Sermon on the Mount"

6.1.1. Main idea: be good and perfect like God as an example for your fellow man.

6.1.2. "Ye are the light of the world. A city    that is set on an hill cannot be hid."