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1. usually have chlorophyll

2. Most primitive

3. Acellular forms

4. Protoplasmic grade of organisation

5. Cosmopolitan- found everywhere

5.1. free living

5.2. parasitic

5.3. fresh water

5.4. Marine

6. solitary or colonial

7. uninucleate

8. plasmalemma/ plasma membrane

9. some have pellicle or shell

10. nutrition

10.1. Holozoic

10.1.1. ingesting food like amoeba bacteria algae other protozoans

10.1.2. Also called Phagotropy Phagocytosis cell eating Pinocytsis cell drinking

10.1.3. Paranema feeds on protozoans and other bacteria Rods protrude to capture prey and push it into the cytostome. Prey is swiftly swallowed as a whole. Sometimes prey is pierced and the cell content is sucked in.

10.2. aborbs the fluid

10.3. Saprozoic

10.3.1. decaying dead matter no feeding apparatus osmotrophy absorb amino acids and carbohydrates osmosis

10.3.2. example chilomonas mastigamoeba

10.4. Holophytic

10.4.1. autotrophic paramylum bodies stored starch reserve food material

10.4.2. example euglena volvox

10.5. Parasitic

10.5.1. example In humans Trypanosoma plasmodium In earthworm monocystis

10.6. Mixotropic

10.6.1. many forms of nutrition

10.6.2. Example euglena becomes saprozoic in absence of light

10.6.3. Move from autotrophic to holozoic when vitamins required vit B12

10.6.4. Commensalism algae and paramecium Zoochlorellae + P.bursaria algae get CO and water paramecium gets nourishment

11. Digestion

11.1. intracellular

12. respiration

12.1. diffusion

13. Contractile vacuoles

13.1. in fresh water forms only

13.2. help in osmoregulation

13.3. absent in marine forms and parasites- why ?

14. Locomotion

14.1. cilia

14.2. flagella

14.3. pseudopodia

15. Reproduction

15.1. asexual

15.1.1. binary fission

15.1.2. multiple fission

15.1.3. budding

15.2. sexual

15.2.1. conjugation

15.2.2. syngamy

15.2.3. cyst formation parasitic freshwater

16. New Topic

17. Classes

17.1. Mastigophora or flagellata

17.1.1. definite shape

17.1.2. bound by pellicle

17.1.3. Example euglena noctiluca trypanosoma

17.1.4. holophytic, parasitic or holozoic tentacle or flagella is adhesive

17.2. Ciliata

17.2.1. Holozoic Cilia help in directing food into cytostome undulating membrane fusion of longitudinal rows

17.2.2. example vorticella paramecium doesnt feed while moving balantidum

17.3. Sporozoa

17.3.1. EXCEPTION parasitic forms no locomotary organs asexual multiple fission spore formation sexual syngamy example monocystis plasmodium

17.4. Rhizopoda or Sacordina

17.4.1. no definite shape

17.4.2. some have a shell

17.4.3. holozoic or parasitic

17.4.4. Example amoeba entamoeba elphidium