"Leveraging Jesus" (Aug 14) Mark 15:1-15

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"Leveraging Jesus" (Aug 14) Mark 15:1-15 by Mind Map: "Leveraging Jesus" (Aug 14) Mark 15:1-15

1. A Plan to hand over Jesus to Pilate (1)

1.1. Mark 15:1 (ESV) — 1 And as soon as it was morning, the chief priests held a consultation with the elders and scribes and the whole council. And they bound Jesus and led him away and delivered him over to Pilate.

1.2. "as it was morning"

1.2.1. Roman proceedings began at daybreak

1.2.2. by mid-morning Roman patricians and noblemen embarked on pursuits of leisure. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8088-8089). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

1.2.3. Final day of jesus and mark breaks it out for us

1.2.3.1. Mark 15:25 (ESV) — 25 And it was the third hour when they crucified him.

1.2.3.2. Mark 15:33 (ESV) — 33 And when the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.

1.2.3.3. Mark 15:34 (ESV) — 34 And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”

1.2.3.4. Mark 15:42 (ESV) — 42 And when evening had come, since it was the day of Preparation, that is, the day before the Sabbath,

1.3. "handed over"

1.3.1. is again significant, as it was in chap. 14 (vv. 10, 11, 18, 21, 41, 42, and 44). Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Location 8099). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

1.3.2. The word combines two important meanings appropriate to the verse: it portrays Jesus as the victim (betrayed by human wickedness) and as the means of redemption (delivered up according to God's purpose). Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8099-8101). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

1.4. Pilate

1.4.1. Who is this Pilate?

1.4.1.1. Governor over Samaria and Judea for 11 years (26-36AD)

1.4.2. NOT LIKED BY THE JEWS

1.4.2.1. Pilates problems

1.4.2.1.1. Emperiors bust on military standards

1.4.2.1.2. spent temple money

1.4.2.1.3. slain galileans

1.4.2.1.4. Samaritan uprising

1.4.2.2. Historical

1.4.2.2.1. philo calls him "naturally inflexible, a blend of self-will and relentless"

1.4.2.2.2. Josephus and Philo register bitter complaints against Pilate for his arbitrary actions and cruelty. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 577). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

1.4.3. he had power

1.4.3.1. The Roman prefect (called a procurator only after A.D. 44) had the power of life and death over all the inhabitants of his province who were not Roman citizens. No criminal code existed for a malefactor who was a non-Roman citizen tried in the provinces. The governor was free in such cases to make his own rules and judgments as he saw fit, to accept or reject charges, and to fashion, within reason, whatever penalties he chose. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (pp. 576-577). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

1.4.3.2. abused

1.4.3.2.1. Tacitus and Pliny record almost forty trials of malfeasance on the part of provincial governors from the time of Augustus to Trajan, 3 suggesting that many governors took unfair advantage of their discretionary powers. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 577). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

1.4.3.3. John 18:31–32 (ESV) — 31 Pilate said to them, “Take him yourselves and judge him by your own law.” The Jews said to him, “It is not lawful for us to put anyone to death.” 32 This was to fulfill the word that Jesus had spoken to show by what kind of death he was going to die.

1.4.4. misc

1.4.4.1. Looked on well in early Christian tradition

1.4.4.1.1. FROM EARLY ON, Pilate has come off well in Christian tradition as a sympathetic figure. In the apocryphal Gospel of Peter, Pilate does not pronounce the death sentence; Herod does; and Pilate later begs for Jesus’ body from Herod. Tertullian speaks of a full report of the trial that Pilate sent to the emperor and hints that he was a Christian at heart (1 Apol. 21.24). In the apocryphal Acts of Pilate, Pilate puts up a more forceful defense on behalf of Jesus, and his eventual conversion is recorded. A letter claiming to be from Pontius Pilate maintains that he sent two thousand troops to try to stop the crucifixion. In the Ethiopic and Coptic churches Pilate has been canonized. Many today consider Pilate to have been an innocent, bewildered bystander, caught in an impossible situation. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 581). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

1.4.4.2. Jews calculated a no-lose scenario here by using Pilate and the romans

1.4.4.2.1. They could not kill Jesus

1.4.4.2.2. They wanted Jesus thoroughly discredited, and thus his movement ended

1.4.4.2.3. They wanted to protect themselves against the outcry of the people that might believe in Jesus.

1.4.4.2.4. They could let the people push back against Pilate, which would make them happy

2. Pilate Questions Jesus (2-5)

2.1. Mark 15:2 (ESV) — 2 And Pilate asked him, “Are you the King of the Jews?” And he answered him, “You have said so.”

2.1.1. Pilate will as a question

2.1.1.1. "are you the king of the jews"

2.1.1.1.1. Similiar to 14:61 and the questin of the chief priests

2.1.1.2. 1. This is not a theological question, as he does not care about that

2.1.1.2.1. A Roman governor would not have put a native Jew on trial for his life simply because he had violated Jewish religious regulations. That is, a religious charge of blasphemy (i.e., Jesus’ declaring himself to be the Messiah) would not suffice for Pilate to take action (Acts 18: 14– 17), although the Romans would not have been indifferent to threats against temples. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 577). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

2.1.1.3. 2. This is an inquiry to potential political problem

2.1.1.3.1. You’ll see that there Pilate says, “Are you the king of the Jews?” We must keep in mind that he is not asking Jesus a theological question at all. He is not saying, “Oh, are you the prophesied Messiah from the Hebrew scriptures?” Pilate doesn’t care about that! He doesn’t care about theological truth versus heresy. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

2.1.1.3.2. The accusation here is not theological, but political, one that Pilate must be weary of.

2.1.1.3.3. That is, “Are you in any way, shape, or form a political leader? Will your movement have any political implications? Will you, as a leader, have any impact on the patterns of political power?” That’s all he cares about. “Do you have any political impact? Are you a political leader? Is this a political movement in any way?” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

2.1.2. Herod will ask

2.1.2.1. Where is the king of he jews o be born

2.1.3. Jesus will give an ambiguis answer

2.1.3.1. he says "you have said so"

2.1.3.1.1. Other translations

2.1.3.1.2. Literally - "YOU SAY"

2.1.3.1.3. Yes, but .....

2.1.3.2. The answer is ambigious - neither denying nor affirming

2.1.3.2.1. Jesus Christ Superstar? The place where Pilate talks to Jesus the first time is actually spot-on. Pilate says: We all know that you are news But are you king? King of the Jews? Jesus says: That’s what you say. Pilate says: What do you mean by that? That is not an answer. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

2.1.3.2.2. If you say to Buddha, “Are you a political leader?” the answer is clear, “No.” If you say to Mohammed, “Are you a political leader?” the answer is clear, “Yes.” If you say to Jesus, “Are you a political leader?” the answer is clear, “Yes and No.” If you don’t see the difference, you don’t understand Christianity. Let’s go into this a little bit. Jesus is deliberate Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

2.1.3.2.3. Other place Jesus is ambigious about politics

2.1.3.3. Point is not that he 's afraid, but that he was not coming to do what Pilate might have thought he was comign to do

2.2. Mark 15:3 (ESV) — 3 And the chief priests accused him of many things.

2.2.1. Chief priests accused him of many things

2.3. Mark 15:4 (ESV) — 4 And Pilate again asked him, “Have you no answer to make? See how many charges they bring against you.”

2.3.1. Have you no answer?

2.3.1.1. It is not a silence of defeat, but a silence of surrender to God's sovereignty in the passion

2.3.1.2. Who was leading jesus? The Father!! Hence he was silent. Notice the connection

2.3.1.2.1. Isaiah 53:7 (ESV) — 7 He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and like a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he opened not his mouth.

2.3.1.3. Why silent?

2.3.1.3.1. Vanstone hits upon an interesting feature of Jesus’ Passion— his passivity. It is a dramatic turnabout from his ministry: As He moves about He leaves behind him a trail of transformed scenes and changed situations— fishermen no longer at their nets, sick people restored to health, critics confounded, a storm stilled, hunger assuaged, a dead girl raised to life. Jesus’ presence is an active and instantly transforming presence: He is never the mere observer of the scene or the one who waits upon events but always the transformer of the scene and the initiator of events. 16 All this changes in Mark’s Passion narrative. Jesus is no longer the one who initiates the action; he is the subject of others’ actions (the subject of nine verbs, and the object of fifty-six). 17 He is silent, answering nothing, taking nothing— except the lashes from their scourges. We can learn of him how to endure suffering with peace and grace, trusting in God to deliver us. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 584). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

2.4. Mark 15:5 (ESV) — 5 But Jesus made no further answer, so that Pilate was amazed.

2.4.1. Jesus made no further answer

2.4.2. Pilate was amazed

2.4.2.1. Luke 23:4–5 (ESV) — 4 Then Pilate said to the chief priests and the crowds, “I find no guilt in this man.” 5 But they were urgent, saying, “He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, from Galilee even to this place.”

2.4.2.1.1. perhaps unlike any insurrectionist

2.4.2.2. meanign of word AMAZED

2.4.2.2.1. that the word amazed is a positive word. Pilate was not just saying, “You idiot.” He wasn’t amazed like that. The word has a connotation of wonder and marvel.

2.4.2.2.2. Pilate saw something Jesus was doing that amazed him. I believe he saw the contrast between Jesus and his enemies. On the one hand, his enemies were frantic. They were afraid he was going to get off, and Jesus is so calm. On the other hand, his enemies are using power to harm him, but Jesus is actually laying down his power to forgive his enemies. This is pretty astounding, because every revolution that has ever happened in the past happens by taking power and excluding or destroying your enemies. Jesus Christ is about to start a revolution through loving his enemies and forgiving his enemies. Now the two things you see in Jesus Christ, this new personal peace and this new pattern for using your power, came out into his followers, and all I can do is speak for the first couple of centuries. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

2.4.2.2.3. Most kings demand the blood of their subjects to expand their empire but this king creates his empire by spilling his own blood. - Michael Horton

2.4.2.3. Twice Pilate is amazed, once here and once at the death of Jesus

2.4.2.3.1. Mark 15:44 (ESV) — 44 Pilate was surprised to hear that he should have already died. And summoning the centurion, he asked him whether he was already dead.

2.4.2.4. Mark often notes the amazement and astonishment, particularly of the crowds, at Jesus' words and deeds. Amazement is not the same thing as faith, although it may become the first step to faith. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8130-8131). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

2.4.2.5. In this instance, Pilate's amazement may signal a change of mind to seek Jesus' release from the crowd, for Josephus records the same reaction (Gk. thaumazein) of Pilate when the crowds protested so valiantly in Caesarea, after which he removed the offending images from Jerusalem (Ant. 18.59). Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8131-8133). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

3. Pilate giving Jews an option: Jesus or Barabas (6-15)

3.1. Pilates practice of releasing a prisoner at the feast

3.1.1. Mark 15:6 (ESV) — 6 Now at the feast he used to release for them one prisoner for whom they asked.

3.1.2. Matt mentions this, Mark does, John does, Luke implies it. But no mention of this AMNESTY outseid teh gospels

3.1.3. Thought an annual thing in Jerusalmen has not be shown outside of te gospels historically, easy to understand that it exists

3.1.3.1. Attested to in other areas of Rome

3.1.3.2. Prefect, governors had that right over no Roman people

3.1.4. ILL: Gladiators would ask if the beaten hsould live or die ....

3.2. Who is barabbas

3.2.1. Mark 15:7 (ESV) — 7 And among the rebels in prison, who had committed murder in the insurrection, there was a man called Barabbas.

3.2.2. Barabbas = Son of the Father

3.2.2.1. In the end, the actually son of the father will be condemned while one called "son of the father" will be let go

3.2.2.2. Murderer

3.2.2.3. Robber

3.2.2.3.1. John 18:40 (ESV) — 40 They cried out again, “Not this man, but Barabbas!” Now Barabbas was a robber.

3.2.2.3.2. Roober = term Josephus used to describe insurrectionists

3.2.3. His name according to Matthew is Jesus Barabbas

3.2.3.1. Like Simon Bar Jonah, bar son- of -jonah

3.2.3.2. Barabbas means - Son of abba, son of father

3.2.3.3. Jesus, son of father

3.2.3.3.1. CRAZY!!!

3.2.4. A murderer

3.2.4.1. Acts 3:14–15 (ESV) — 14 But you denied the Holy and Righteous One, and asked for a murderer to be granted to you, 15 and you killed the Author of life, whom God raised from the dead. To this we are witnesses.

3.2.4.2. Spoken by Peter, so this is not some martyr, this is peter convincing Jews that Barabbas is a "murderer."

3.2.4.3. Barabbas may have been a right-wing extremist fighting to deliver Israel from the pollution of Roman rule, or he may have simply been a bandit. Social banditry plagued many parts of the empire. In Palestine, some of the peasants forced off their land when they were caught in the maelstrom of debt chose the path of outlawry rather than meek submission as tenant farmers or day laborers. Their victims were usually the rich landlords and their retainers. The bandits operated in the countryside and retreated to their strongholds in the hills. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 579). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

3.2.4.4. Josephus, who wrote from the biased perspective of the urban elite, reports that Galilee was a haven for bandits, who were guilty of “habitual malpractices, theft, robbery, and rapine.” 8 He also reports that many were caught and duly crucified. The rich man’s terrorist, however, Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 579). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

3.2.4.4.1. The impoverished common people, from whose ranks the bandits came, looked to them as heroic figures who justly exacted vengeance against their oppressors. They openly sympathized with them and frequently offered them protection at great cost to themselves when the Romans punished them severely for complicity. Barabbas may have been a hero in the eyes of the crowd, which explains their choice. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 579). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

3.2.5. In the insurrection

3.2.5.1. Though we know nothign about this, mark seems to assume his readers did.

3.2.5.2. The main piont is that BARRABAS IS what Jesus is accused of - INSURRECTION, danger to Rome, enemy of Pilate and ROME

3.3. The crowds request

3.3.1. Mark 15:8 (ESV) — 8 And the crowd came up and began to ask Pilate to do as he usually did for them.

3.3.2. came up

3.3.3. Unlikley this is the crowd that said hosanna

3.3.3.1. Would have been afraid, fleed like disciples did

3.3.3.2. Came to ask a favor of Pilate - unliley those tha twere looking for messiah

3.4. Jostling between Pilate and the Jewish leaders

3.4.1. Pilates move

3.4.1.1. Mark 15:9–10 (ESV) — 9 And he answered them, saying, “Do you want me to release for you the King of the Jews?” 10 For he perceived that it was out of envy that the chief priests had delivered him up.

3.4.1.2. envy

3.4.1.2.1. Only time used (besides parallel in Matt 27:18)

3.4.1.2.2. Envy is grief or anger caused by another's success. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Location 8163). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

3.4.2. Jewish leaders move

3.4.2.1. Mark 15:11 (ESV) — 11 But the chief priests stirred up the crowd to have him release for them Barabbas instead.

3.4.2.2. Chief priests stirred up

3.4.2.2.1. According to Mark, opposition to Jesus in Galilee came largely from the scribes and Pharisees; and once in Jerusalem, from the Sanhedrin. The actual arrest and trial of Jesus, however, as vv. 10-11 clarify, were the peculiar responsibility of the high priest. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8166-8168). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

3.4.2.2.2. The irony in all of this is that the chief priest was teh ultiamte representative of God, but here stirring up for the death of Jesus

3.4.3. The people's desire

3.4.3.1. Mark 15:12–14 (ESV) — 12 And Pilate again said to them, “Then what shall I do with the man you call the King of the Jews?” 13 And they cried out again, “Crucify him.” 14 And Pilate said to them, “Why, what evil has he done?” But they shouted all the more, “Crucify him.”

3.4.3.2. Pilate lobbies 3 tiems for Jesus

3.4.3.2.1. Mark 15:9 (ESV) — 9 And he answered them, saying, “Do you want me to release for you the King of the Jews?”

3.4.3.2.2. Mark 15:12 (ESV) — 12 And Pilate again said to them, “Then what shall I do with the man you call the King of the Jews?”

3.4.3.2.3. Mark 15:14 (ESV) — 14 And Pilate said to them, “Why, what evil has he done?” But they shouted all the more, “Crucify him.”

3.4.3.2.4. Mark is not trying to get Pilate off and condemn jews, he is however being careful to not make the life of those under nero harder!

3.4.3.2.5. Pilate is perplexed, however, that the crowd cries for the release of the murderous Barabbas instead of the harmless Jesus. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 578). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

3.4.3.2.6. 3 is a pattern

3.4.3.3. Jews say

3.4.3.3.1. Crucify him.

3.4.3.3.2. His blood be upon us and our children!

3.4.3.3.3. Jesus dies for them!

3.4.3.4. The subject govern the govenor!

3.4.3.5. They want ...

3.4.3.5.1. Barrabbas freed

3.4.3.5.2. Jesus crucified

3.4.4. Pilate's cowardiceness

3.4.4.1. Mark 15:15 (ESV) — 15 So Pilate, wishing to satisfy the crowd, released for them Barabbas, and having scourged Jesus, he delivered him to be crucified.

3.4.4.2. Here Pilate uses Jesus for his Political gain!

3.4.4.3. SO Pilot that looks for amnesty for Jesus finds it for himself

3.4.4.4. crowd

3.4.4.4.1. Unlike Jesus who serves the crowd but is not determined by it, Pilate in the end succumbs to the crowd. "Wanting to satisfy the crowd, Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8189-8190). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

3.4.4.5. wanted to satisfy the crowd

3.4.4.5.1. What he does

3.4.4.5.2. Jesus satisfies his father

3.4.4.5.3. Such a trap, such a place of compromise.

3.4.4.6. This is all we hear of pilate in Mark

3.4.4.6.1. What does this tell us?

3.4.4.6.2. What hapened to him?

3.5. Substitution / NOTE THIS IS THE PASSOVER

3.5.1. There is, however, no explicit evidence outside the Gospels for a Passover amnesty as described here, although there is a fair amount of evidence that rulers did release prisoners from time to time (often for the duration of a festival) in both Jewish and pagan societies. 14 Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8140-8142). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

3.5.2. Note that This man's life will be spared, passed over, cause jesus will die.

3.5.3. Two Jesus

3.5.3.1. One that takes life and one that lays down his life

3.5.3.2. One that's a criminal, one that is the eternal judge

3.5.3.3. One that deserves to die, on that volutneers to die

3.5.4. Substitution. How much more clear could Mark be, the gospel writer, to say this is what Jesus’ death was all about? He was taking our place. He was taking our guilt upon himself. He was taking our sins upon himself. He was taking our evil upon himself and being treated the way we should be treated. He died that we might live. He was bound that we might go free. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

4. REVOLUTION

4.1. Substitution leads to revolution

4.2. Tom Skinner essentially puts down here: “Pilate had two Jesuses on his hands, so it wasn’t a question of whether or not there was going to be a revolution. The question was which revolution? Pilate went on, ‘Over here I have Barabbas. He has been burning the system down, killing people. Do you want him? And over here I have Jesus, who claims to be the Son of God. I have interrogated him, and all I can tell is that because of him, some dead people are alive, some blind people are seeing, some deaf people can hear, and he fed a few thousand people. Which one should I release? Jesus or Barabbas?’ And with one voice they cried, ‘Give us Barabbas!’ ” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

4.2.1. Tom Skinner asks the question: “Why did they want Barabbas? Barabbas is the guy burning the system down. He’s killing people. Why didn’t the leaders incite the crowd to get rid of him? Very simple. If you let Barabbas go, you can always stop him. You can always stop Barabbas’ kind of revolution. The most Barabbas will do is go out, round up another guerrillas, and start another riot. You can always stop him by rolling your tanks into his neighborhood, bringing out the National Guard, putting down his riot, finding out where he’s keeping his ammunition, raiding his apartments without a search warrant, and shooting him while he’s asleep.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

4.2.2. He says, “Then they buried him, rolled a stone over the grave, wiped their hands, and said, ‘There is one social radical that will never disturb us again.’ Three days later Jesus Christ pulled off what might be called the greatest political coup of all time. He got up out of the grave! When he rose from the dead the Bible now calls him the Second Man, the New Man, the Leader of a New Creation, a Christ who has overthrown the existing order and established a new order that will not be built on man.” Skinner looked down at the crowd and said, “Keep in mind, my friends, with all your militancy and radicalism, that all the systems of men are doomed to destruction. All the systems of men will crumble, and finally only God’s kingdom and his righteousness will prevail. You will never be truly radical until you become part of that new order.” He says, “Then you can go out into a world that is enslaved, a world that is filled with hunger and poverty and racism and all those things that are the work of the devil, and you can proclaim real liberation to the captives! You can preach sight to the blind. You can set at liberty they that are bruised. You can go into the world and tell all that are bound mentally, spiritually and physically, your liberator has come!” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

4.2.3. Every other revolution put new people in power, and Jesus says, “ ‘I’m going to put a new attitude toward power in power.” Every other revolution destroyed their enemies. This revolution comes into position through the forgiveness of enemies. Therefore, Jesus’ revolution can’t be stopped by killing him; all that they did was further it. Is Jesus Christ a political leader? He is the most political leader, and he is the least political leader. The answer is yes and no. Do you see the revolutionary ambiguity of Jesus and politics? Let us pray. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

4.3. Who has a king like this?

4.3.1. Budha, mohammed, Moses!

4.4. Changing teh world

4.4.1. If you want to read a good book on it, you can look at Rodney Stark’s book The Rise of Christianity. It’s a paperback, it’s inexpensive, and it’s been out for 12 years. He’s a sociologist historian (yeah, there are such things), and he was asking how it was that Christianity was so effective in changing the ancient Greco-Roman pagan society. Huge changes happened. For example, in most of the cities the ratio of males to females was 140 males to every 100 females. Do you know why? Female infanticide. When baby girls were born they were just thrown out. The husbands did it. They just said, “Oh, look. Girls. You have to feed them growing up, and ultimately they’re not really all that worth it.” They threw them out. Killed them. It was legal. Christians wouldn’t have any of that. Do you know that women in pagan society … When you were married, women could not have any other lovers. You had to be sexually pure. You had to be sexually faithful, but your husband could have mistresses if he wanted. There was a double standard. Christianity said, “None of that anymore.” When they got rid of infanticide, and when they got rid of the double standard … In the early churches, for example, the pagans said if you’re a woman and your husband dies and you’re a young widow, you have to be married within two years, because there is absolutely no particular reason for a woman to live unless she is married to a man. It was required that you remarry, whether you wanted to or not. You had to be married within two years, Caesar said. Yet the Christian communities supported widows so they didn’t have to get married unless they wanted to. Women flocked to Christianity. They flocked. It’s very, very clear. They saw a dignity they had. They saw a humanity in the new Christianity. It utterly began to change the social order. Let me give you another example. Christians loved the poor. Loved the poor. So for example, we have a letter from Julian, who was one of the early Roman emperors who really didn’t like Christianity. He was very upset with how successful it was. It was growing and growing and growing, and he couldn’t stop it. In one of his letters he writes to a friend and basically says: “Our religion is not prospering. The Christian religion is growing and growing. Why don’t we realize how much Christianity’s success is due to their radical care for the poor? Christians do not just take care of their own poor. They take care of our pagan poor as well, whereas it is obvious for everyone that our poor lack aid even from us.” What Julian was saying (and he was very upset, by the way) … He goes on in the letter saying essentially, “Why can’t we pagans take care of the poor the way the Christians can? They don’t just take care of their own poor. They take care of our poor! They’re promiscuous in their social conscience! “The Jews take care of the Jewish poor, and the Greeks take care of the Greek poor, and the Romans take care of the Roman poor, and the Africans take care of the African poor, but these Christians, they take care of everybody’s. Then they bring them into the community, and you’ve mixed the races, because they have this idea that everybody is a sinner, and therefore, we’re all equal before God.” Lastly, Rodney Stark says, not only was there this radical concern for the poor … By the way, is this conservative or liberal, class? You see, some of that stuff about infanticide … Christians were against abortion, Christians were against infanticide, Christians were against the double standard sexually for men. That sounds conservative, doesn’t it? But what about all the stuff about the poor? What about all the stuff about mixing the races, and mixing the classes? That sounds kind of liberal, doesn’t it? Is Christianity political? Yes and no. Is Christianity conservative? Yes and no. Is Christianity liberal? Yes and no. Do you see the revolutionary ambiguity of this? Let me give you one more. Rodney Stark talks about the fact that in the early two centuries after Christ there were tremendous public health problems inside the cities. Before the advent of modern medicine in many ways, when plagues would happen in these crowded cities, disease sometimes spread and there were enormous plagues. There was an enormous plague in AD 165; there were several of them. In some cases, a quarter to a third of the population in the urban places died. People understood contagion, and when the plagues got started people just headed for the hills. They left people literally in the streets. But the Christians were different, and the Christians became the first, you might say, public health movement. What we’re told (and this is definitely historical) … Rodney Stark in his book points out that when everybody else was heading out, Christians decided they were going to stay in the cities, and they were going to deal with the public health problem of their cities. They were going to take care of the sick even though it was so dangerous. I’m paraphrasing, but Rodney Stark says (and this is by the way an eyewitness account), “Christians in the plague showed unbounded love and loyalty, never sparing themselves and thinking only of their neighbor. Heedless of danger, they took charge of the sick, attending to their every need and ministering to them in Christ, and many died, for they were infected by their neighbors, but when they departed life they did so serenely and cheerfully, accepting their pains.” Why? Don’t you see? First of all, Jesus gave them that personal peace … so much personal peace and contentment that their neighbors didn’t have that they could handle the loss of their comfort. They could handle the loss of their safety. They could handle the loss of their money. They could even handle the loss of their lives if it meant pouring themselves out for the needs of their neighbors. They looked at the social needs. They looked at the sick. They looked at the poor. They looked at the needs of the people around them in their city, and they poured themselves out. One of the reasons was because of that new personal peace that Jesus showed before Pilate but also because of that new attitude toward personal power. They did not idolize power. They looked at the sick. They looked at the women. They looked at the children. They looked at the slaves. They looked at the poor. They loved them, and they drew them in, and that changed society. That changed it radically. You have to remember, only one percent of one percent get really involved in politics. What about the other 99.9 percent of the Christians? They were all doing political change because they were changing social arrangements! They were changing the way power operated in the Roman Empire. Are you a political leader? Yes … and no. So there was the ambiguity answer, and there was the revolutionary answer. There was the ambiguous answer, and yet, there’s the reason why Christians were having such an impact on society. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

4.4.2. IN THE YEAR 165, during the reign of Marcus Aurelius, a devastating epidemic swept through the Roman Empire. Some medical historians suspect this was the first appearance of smallpox in the West. 46 Whatever the actual disease, it was lethal— as many contagious diseases are when they strike a previously unexposed population. Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 114). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

4.4.2.1. At the height of the epidemic, mortality was so great in many cities that the emperor Marcus Aurelius (who subsequently died of the disease) wrote of caravans of carts and wagons hauling out the dead. Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 114). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

4.4.2.2. At the height of the epidemic, mortality was so great in many cities that the emperor Marcus Aurelius (who subsequently died of the disease) wrote of caravans of carts and wagons hauling out the dead. Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 114). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

4.4.2.3. streets, where the dead and dying lay in piles. In a pastoral letter written during the second epidemic (ca. 251), Bishop Dionysius described events in Alexandria: “At the first onset of the disease, they [pagans] pushed the sufferers away and fled from their dearest, throwing them into the roads before they were dead and treated unburied corpses as dirt, hoping thereby to avert the spread and contagion of the fatal disease; but do what they might, they found it difficult to escape.” Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 115). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

4.4.2.4. But what else could they do?

4.4.2.4.1. Pagan Temples

4.4.2.4.2. Philosphers

4.4.2.4.3. CHristians

4.5. Pagans

4.5.1. When the 2nd plague hit Europe in 251 AD, everyone fled the cities. Streets were piled with bodies, some dead, some alive. Temples were empty because no one believed gods utlimately cared about the plight of humans. Philosophers had nothing useful to say except to blame it on fate. Christians however stayed, cared, nursed the sick, the broken. They comforted the dying. And in the process many themselves caught the plagued and died. Towards the end of the epidemic, one church leader wrote this: "Heedless of danger, they took charge of the sick, attending to their every need and ministering to them in Christ, and with them departed this life serenely happy; for they were infected by others with the disease, drawing on themselves the sickness of their neighbors and cheerfully accepting their pains. Many, in nursing and curing others, transferred their death to themselves and died in their stead...." (Rodney Stark in The Triumph of Christianity) There is something, is there not, that changes our outlook on our own lives when we consider that Jesus has died for us. There's a freedom to care extravagantly, to risk almost foolishly, to give exhaustingly. There is a freedom to do this when our soul is settled on the fact that we are fully loved, fully accepted, fully awaited for because of what Jesus has done for us. There's no striving left. There's no pretense left. There's no straining for riches or power or recognition. None of that has any place in the embrace of being the beloved of God and because of that, oh the empowerment there is to care for others. To live such a radical humanity that ... what does it do? ... it magnifies this Jesus that empowers this type of living. It catches attention. It makes people notice. Do you see? the more we understand the cross, the more we are empowered to live as if it is truly true!

4.5.1.1. epidemic (ca. 251), Bishop Dionysius described events in Alexandria: “At the first onset of the disease, they [pagans] pushed the sufferers away and fled from their dearest, throwing them into the roads before they were dead and treated unburied corpses as dirt, hoping thereby to avert the spread and contagion of the fatal disease; but do what they might, they found it difficult to escape.” Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 115). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

4.5.1.2. Heedless of danger, they took charge of the sick, attending to their every need and ministering to them in Christ, and with them departed this life serenely happy; for they were infected by others with the disease, drawing on themselves the sickness of their neighbors and cheerfully accepting their pains. Many, in nursing and curing others, transferred their death to themselves and died in their stead.... Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 117). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

4.6. This is the way of our world. Taking and using others for personal gain. But this is not the way of the cross, not the way of the savior!

4.6.1. Marriage - what is it for me? dream person to fullfil all our desires. So that person becomes an object. We don't see it as a noble act of giving, but a dreamy act of getting. Oh what disullsionment that brings.

4.6.1.1. And if your desire is for a spouse who will not demand a lot of change from you, then you are also looking for a spouse who is almost completely pulled together, someone very “low maintenance” without much in the way of personal problems. You are looking for someone who will not require or demand significant change. You are searching, therefore, for an ideal person— happy, healthy, interesting, content with life. Never before in history has there been a society filled with people so idealistic in what they are seeking in a spouse. Keller, Timothy. The Meaning of Marriage: Facing the Complexities of Commitment with the Wisdom of God (pp. 24-25). Penguin Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

4.6.1.2. Both men and women today see marriage not as a way of creating character and community but as a way to reach personal life goals. They are all looking for a marriage partner who will “fulfill their emotional, sexual, and spiritual desires.” 35 And that creates an extreme idealism that in turn leads to deep pessimism that you will ever find the right person to marry. This is the reason so many put off marriage and look right past great prospective spouses that simply are “not good enough.” Keller, Timothy. The Meaning of Marriage: Facing the Complexities of Commitment with the Wisdom of God (pp. 25-26). Penguin Publishing Group. Kindle Edition.

4.6.2. Jesus’ way soaks up the injustice, evil, and oppression like the venom of a sting and unleashes a far more powerful force of love and forgiveness. God’s way responds to evil redemptively and short-circuits it. On the cross, Jesus took the sting of death and absorbed all the poison. Our failure to choose this way stems from our failure to trust God. We may trust God to take care of the afterlife, but we do not trust God enough to let go of too much control of the here and now. If we have to suffer, we would rather put our trust in the Barabbases of this world, who fight back and murder enemies. We have yet to see that this way only leads to more death and tragedy. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 583). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.6.3. Matthew 16:25–28 (ESV) — 25 For whoever would save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake will find it. 26 For what will it profit a man if he gains the whole world and forfeits his soul? Or what shall a man give in return for his soul? 27 For the Son of Man is going to come with his angels in the glory of his Father, and then he will repay each person according to what he has done. 28 Truly, I say to you, there are some standing here who will not taste death until they see the Son of Man coming in his kingdom.”

4.7. There is something to know that your life is in the hands of God. There is a freedom to love, to care, to empower your giving like nothing else.

4.7.1. And you know how that is accomplished for the Christian? It's cause we know

4.7.1.1. that at the heart of who we are, what we are,w hat we are worth, it's because Christ has been substituted for us

4.7.1.2. Barrabbas, that's us. We already deserve to die, to be judged. We are guitly. We are painted. We plagued.

4.7.1.3. But Christ, he has taken our place. He has exchanged for us our unrightesouness for his rightewounsse

4.7.1.3.1. REF?

4.7.1.4. And when that is in view, when we understand that no matter what happesn in this life, what does it mean but the fullness of what we taste ALREADY but NOT FULLY YET?

4.7.1.5. So then, we life this way, we can be freed this way, we can be empowered this way.

4.7.2. Don't you see the need of that?

4.7.2.1. Think of our world. Think of all that is happening. Think of all the oliticlal jostling going on.

4.7.2.2. Or think of your life, your cirlce, your relationships. how much of that comes down to this? How much of what you want - is ultimately stopped or empowered by this freedom to self-forget, to give away, to love, to see death and say "oh death where is your sting" - and to not just mean - I'm goingn to heaven, but to mean - I get to live like Christ because God accepts me in christ.

4.7.2.2.1. I don't need money GOd doesn't care about that

4.7.2.2.2. I dont' need position God is not wowed by that

4.7.2.2.3. I don't need poewr, I don't  need .. all these motivations .. but

4.8. Jesus, therefore, appears to have believed that victory in the real messianic battle would consist in dying at the hands of the Romans, dying the death of the rebel on behalf of the rebels. Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Locations 12308-12309). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

4.8.1. All through his public career he had acted on the basis of compassion for the multitudes, for the poor, for the sheep without a shepherd. When questioned as to the greatest commandment in the law, he highlighted the love of God and of one’s neighbour. Not much is said in the scriptural text-base concerning the love which the Messiah might have for his people, but with Jesus this seemed to be uppermost, once more not simply as an idea but as a reality. We shall explore the roots of this theme in the next chapter, but it would be very odd not to draw attention to it at this point. The earliest Christians regarded Jesus’ achievement on the cross as the decisive victory over evil. But they saw it, even more, as the climax of a career in which active, outgoing, healing love had become the trademark and hallmark. Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Locations 12291-12297). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

4.8.2. As a would-be Messiah, Jesus identified with Israel; he would therefore go ahead of her, and take upon himself precisely that fate, actual and symbolic, which he had announced for nation, city, and Temple. Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Locations 12314-12315). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

4.8.3. He would do, once and for all, what he had done in smaller, anticipatory actions throughout his public career, as he identified with the poor and sinners, as he came into contact with lepers, corpses and other sources of impurity. ‘He has gone in to eat with a sinner’ (Luke 19:7) would turn into ‘he has gone out to die with the rebels’. Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Location 12318). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

4.8.4. jesus becomes what israel could not be

4.8.4.1. He would act on behalf of, and in the place of, the Israel that was failing to be what she was called to be. He would himself be the light of the world. He would be the salt of the earth. He would be set on a hill, unable to be hidden. Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Locations 12330-12331). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

4.9. Jesus did this publically. The crowds said crucify him. He was crucified publically. Shamed. Not hidden.

4.9.1. What kind of religion starts that way?

4.9.2. His suffering and rejection is not a shame, but a mark of His love.

4.9.2.1. And such it bids us to come and die. To take uopn ourselves this type of life, this type of livin, this type of attitude

4.10. Power is seen so different in this passage

4.10.1. Twice we have seen kings in  Mark, a jewish King and a Gentile King, both are crippled by those around them

4.10.1.1. Mark 6:22–29 (ESV) — 22 For when Herodias’s daughter came in and danced, she pleased Herod and his guests. And the king said to the girl, “Ask me for whatever you wish, and I will give it to you.” 23 And he vowed to her, “Whatever you ask me, I will give you, up to half of my kingdom.” 24 And she went out and said to her mother, “For what should I ask?” And she said, “The head of John the Baptist.” 25 And she came in immediately with haste to the king and asked, saying, “I want you to give me at once the head of John the Baptist on a platter.” 26 And the king was exceedingly sorry, but because of his oaths and his guests he did not want to break his word to her. 27 And immediately the king sent an executioner with orders to bring John’s head. He went and beheaded him in the prison 28 and brought his head on a platter and gave it to the girl, and the girl gave it to her mother. 29 When his disciples heard of it, they came and took his body and laid it in a tomb.

4.11. Politics

4.11.1. On the one hand, he was creating a tradition, a powerful tradition, in which Christians, because of Jesus’ ambiguity about this (yes and no), call into question and resist totalitarian claims of any government. Jesus created space for this … to judge, to bring governments into judgment. This is the reason why in Eastern Europe, communism, and the totalitarianism of the left … who brought that down? Who resisted them? It was the churches. On the other hand, in World War II, Nazism, and the totalitarianism of the right … you have Dietrich Bonheoffer and those folks … Why? Why did they do civil disobedience? Why did they resist? Because there was a higher authority than the state … God. The state could never make totalitarian claims. Jesus created a perfect example of this tradition when he said (on the one hand), “Don’t you ever think that political power is the ultimate power. Don’t let any government actually speak in the name of God and say, ‘God and us, we’re the same.’ You must always be able to bring totalitarian claims … You must bring the state under the judgment of God’s law.” If you want a perfect example of this balance, you couldn’t look further than Martin Luther King Jr.’s Letter from Birmingham Jail. He was in jail because he was doing civil disobedience. He was protesting segregation in the South by disobeying the laws peacefully and going to jail. A lot of people, basically white ministers, said, “How dare you do civil disobedience. If you’re a Christian you should be a law-abiding citizen. You shouldn’t question the government. You shouldn’t do that.” Martin Luther King Jr., right out of what we’re talking about here, right out of this teaching of Jesus, says in the letter, “One may well ask: ‘How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others?’ The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust.” “Well, how does one determine whether a law is just or unjust?” you ask. A just law is a man-made code that squares with the law of God. An unjust law is a code that is out of harmony with the moral law of God. In his letter, Martin Luther King Jr. goes on to say, “One who breaks an unjust law must do so openly, lovingly, and with a willingness to accept the penalty.” Isn’t that amazing! There you have it. On the one hand, yes, be involved, but on the other hand, don’t … Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

5. INTRO

5.1. Opening Thoughts

5.1.1. PRESENT DAY MERGING OF POLITICS AND RELIGION - Very interesting to see the candidates court the evangelical world and try to merge politics and religion

5.1.1.1. 3 Days ago, Tim Kaine tried to make the case that Hillary Clinton's faith is the "root of all she does."

5.1.1.2. A few months ago, Donald Trump gathered a board of evangelicals to listen to them, and out from that came Dr. Dobson's delcaration that Donald Trump has accepted Jesus into his life.

5.1.2. ANCIENT CULTURES - This of course, this merging of religion and politics is not a 21st century invention.

5.1.2.1. When Egypt was ruled by Pharaoh's, he was believed to be a god on earth, so he held titles like - 'Lord of the Two Lands’ and 'High Priest of Every Temple’.

5.1.2.1.1. BTW, this is why Exodus is so important. God was not only delivering his people in Exodus, but God was proving the YAWEH was the true God by defeating Pharaoh himself.

5.1.2.2. Babylonians, Nabuchadnezzar

5.1.2.2.1. Nabu- son of nabu

5.1.2.2.2. "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son"

5.1.2.3. Romans - god and caesar

5.1.2.3.1. Mark 12 - hen he says, “Whose image is on the coin?” the inscription was a picture of Tiberius Caesar, but the inscription on a denarius said, “Tiberius Caesar, son of the divine Augustus.” What it actually said on the coin was, “Tiberius King, Son of God.” Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

5.1.2.3.2. All governments were totalitarian. The temples and the state mutually supported each other. The governments were always done in the name of the gods. The emperor or the king in some cases was considered a god! There was no idea of a limited state, no idea of a state in which you had human rights, or space for human rights, or space for conscience or protest. Keller, T. J. (2013). The Timothy Keller Sermon Archive. New York City: Redeemer Presbyterian Church.

5.1.2.4. But then jesus comes and it's so different, so strange, so upside down... and from that, he sets a pattern for us

5.1.3. THE BELIEF WAS - God ruled, andt herefore those that ruled reflected God. So power was a mirror, dominance was a clue, strength was an affirmation of annointing.

5.1.3.1. God as power, God as ruler, God as subjugator

5.1.3.2. All true

5.1.4. BUT THEN CHRISTIANITY COMES ON THE SCENE - and it's led by a leader name Jesus, whose life, whose death turned this idea of power, divine power, upside down.

5.1.4.1. He has power over demons, over nature, over discease - so clearly God -

5.1.4.2. But he comes not to be served but to serve

5.1.4.3. He comes not to conquor but to sacrifice

5.1.4.4. he comes not to take and pillage but to give

5.1.4.5. Every world leader before him establishes their might and claim to diety by spilling the blood of their enemies, and onto the scene comes this religion that has as it's head the divine ruler who spills his own blood to establish his kingdom.

5.1.4.6. He's so upside, he's so different, he's so contrary, he's so different.

5.2. CONNECTION

5.2.1. WE SEE THIS SO CLEARLY IN CHAPTER 15 of MARK's GOSPEL. We see this as Jesus is now confronted by Pilate, the might of Rome. we see this in the jocking for power between Jewish leaders and Roman leader, We see this in the decree of life and death, justice and amnesty. And in all of this Jesus stays silent, he stays resolved to die, and in doing so .. there's this contrast, this pattern.

5.2.2. HOW WE NEED THIS PICTURE OF JESUS to SHAPE US. We live in a world vying so much for power, so much for control. What is our view of life, our view of self?

5.3. OUTLINE

5.3.1. TITLE:

5.3.1.1. Doing Politics Through The Cross

5.3.2. POINTS

5.3.2.1. Jewish Leaders - lack of justice

5.3.2.1.1. irst, envy is closely linked to the lust for praise and the acclaim of the crowds. While Christ’s ministry had long been a threat to the Jewish leaders, the raising of Lazarus marked a new stage in their hostility. By calling the dead man from the grave in a very public way, Christ glorified himself in the sight of many people (John 11:6), so that many believed in him (John 11:45). The divine sign was so manifest, and its effectiveness so pronounced, that when Jesus arrives on his humble donkey, people flock to him, with many testifying to his power and grace (John 12:12–18). The Pharisees see God’s blessing in and through Jesus, and all they can see is the crowds departing from them. “Look, the whole world has gone after him” (John 12:19).

5.3.2.1.2. John 12:48 If we let him go on like this, everyone will believe in him, and the Romans will come and take away both our place and our nation.”

5.3.2.2. Pilate - Driven by Self-Preservation

5.3.2.3. Barabbas - Driven by hatred

5.3.2.4. Pilate - Driven by approval of others

5.3.2.5. Crowd - Driven by pressure

5.3.2.6. Jesus - Driven by love

5.3.3. Conclusion

5.3.3.1. The church is driven this way

5.3.3.2. Because secure in substitution