CHAPTER 4: IMAGES

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CHAPTER 4: IMAGES by Mind Map: CHAPTER 4: IMAGES

1. Before You Start to Create

1.1. Plan your approach:

1.1.1. Outline projects and graphics ideas first - Make a flowchart and storyboards.

1.2. Organize the available tools:

1.2.1. create the graphic object of multimedia directly on screen

1.3. Configure computer workspace:

1.3.1. Have multiple monitors, if possible, for lots of screen real estate (viewing area)

2. Making Still Images

2.1. Still images are generated in two ways:

2.1.1. Bitmaps (raster)

2.1.1.1. editors called painting program

2.1.2. Vector-drawn graghics

2.1.2.1. editors called drawing programs

2.2. Bitmaps

2.2.1. simplest element in digital world, an electronic digit that on or off, black or white, or true (1) or false (0)

2.2.2. simple matrix of the tiny dots that form an image and are displayed on a screen or printed

2.2.3. data matrix that describe the characteristics of all the pixels making up an image

2.2.4. images can have varying bit and color depth

2.2.5. made up of individual dots or picture elements known as pixels or pels

2.2.6. Image format suited for creation of:

2.2.6.1. Photo - realistic images

2.2.6.2. Complex drawings requiring fine detail

2.3. Bitmap Sources:

2.3.1. Where do bitmaps come from:

2.3.1.1. capture using a camera

2.3.1.2. photo or other artwork using a scanner to digitize the image

2.3.1.3. Make a bitmap from scratch with a paint or drawing program

2.3.1.4. Active computer screen with a screen capture program, then paste it into a paint program or your application

2.3.1.5. Suppliers of clip arts, and from photo-graph suppliers

2.3.1.6. Clip art are available online and images are downloadable (usually for a fee)

2.3.1.7. Be aware of who owns the copyright to the image you wish to use and what is required to reproduce the image legally

2.3.2. Legal rights protecting use of images from clip art galleries fall into three basic groupings:

2.3.2.1. Public domain images were either never protected by a copyright or their copyright has ended

2.3.2.2. Royalty-free images are purchased and then used without paying addition license fees

2.3.2.3. Right-managed images require you negotiate with the right holder regarding terms for using the image and how much you will pay for that use

2.4. Bitmap Software

2.4.1. The industry-standard programs for bitmap painting and editing are:

2.4.1.1. Adobe's Photoshop and IIlustrator

2.4.1.2. Corel's Painter and CorelDraw

2.5. Capturing and editing images

2.5.1. from the screen is another way to assemble images for multimedia

2.5.2. PRINT SCREEN key in windows or the COMMAND-SHIFT-4 key allows to drag a selection rectangle to make your screen shot file from just a part of the screen

2.6. Image editing programs enable the user to:

2.6.1. Enhance and make composite images

2.6.2. Alter and distort images

2.6.3. Add and delete elements

2.6.4. Morph, allow to smoothly blend two images so that one image seems to melt into the next

3. Vector Drawing

3.1. Vector-drawn graphics

3.1.1. Application of vector-drawn object

3.1.2. How vector-drawn images work

3.1.3. Vector-drawn images versus bitmaps

3.2. Vector-drawn images are used in the following areas:

3.2.1. Computer-aided design (CAD) programs needed by architects and engineers

3.2.2. Graphic artist designing for the print media

3.2.3. 3-D animation programs - changes of position, rotation, and sharing of light

3.2.4. Application requiring drawing of graphic shapes

3.3. Vector-drawn images

3.3.1. line that describe by the location of its two endpoint

3.3.2. drawing make uses of Cartesian coordinates

3.3.3. Cartesian coordinates are number that describe a point in two-or three-dimensional space as the intersection of the X, Y, and Z axes

4. Vector-drawn Images versus Bitmaps

4.1. use less memory space and have a smaller file size as compared to bitmaps

4.2. vector graphics in plug-ins download faster and, when used for animation, draw faster than bitmaps

4.3. easily scalable without loss of resolution or image quality

4.4. resizing either duplicating pixels, while vector image, a rescaled image retains the quality of the original

4.5. cannot be used for photorealistic images

4.6. require a plug-in for web-based display

4.7. Bitmaps are not easily scalable and resizable

4.8. Bitmap can be converted to vector image using autotracing

5. 3-D drawing and rendering

5.1. 3-D animation tools

5.1.1. Daz 3D

5.1.2. Form *Z

5.1.3. NewTek's Ligfhtwave

5.1.4. Autodesk's Maya

5.1.5. Trimble's SketchUp

5.2. Features of a 3-D application

5.2.1. Modeling

5.2.1.1. Placing all the elements into 3-D space

5.2.2. Extrusion

5.2.2.1. The shape of a plane surface extends some distance

5.2.3. Lathing

5.2.3.1. A profile of the shape is rotated around a defined axis

6. Rendering

6.1. Use of intricate algorithms to apply user specified effects

6.2. Takes many hours for a single image

7. Colors and Palettes in Multimedia

7.1. Understanding natural light and color:

7.1.1. Light comes from an atom where an electron passes from a higher to a lower energy level

7.1.2. Each atom produces uniquely specific colors

7.1.3. Light wave within the narrow band of the electromagnetic spectrum to which the human eye responce

7.1.4. Addictive color

7.1.4.1. combining color light source in three primary colors - red, green, and blue (RGB)

7.1.4.2. TV and computer monitor use this method

7.1.5. Subtractive color

7.1.5.1. Colored media such as paints or ink

7.1.5.2. some part of the color spectrum of light and reflect the others back to the eye

7.1.5.3. process used to create color in printing

7.1.5.4. consist of tiny halftone dots of three primary colors: cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMY)

7.1.6. Color palettes

7.1.6.1. mathematical tables that define the color of pixels displayed on the screen

7.1.6.2. Palettes are called "color lookup tables," or CLUTs, on the Macintosh

7.1.6.3. common palettes are 1-, 4-, 8-, 16-, and 24-bits deep

7.2. Dithering

7.2.1. color value of each pixel is changed to the closest matching color value in the target palette

7.2.2. done using a mathematical algorithm

7.2.3. usually, digitised images are 24-bit, 16 million color depth

7.2.4. display system less than 16 million colors, the image must be transformed for display in the lesser color environment

8. Computer Color Models

8.1. Models specify color in computer terms are:

8.1.1. RGB model- A 24-bit methodology: color specified is red, green, and blue values ranging from 0 to 255

8.1.2. HSB and HSL models: angle from 0 to 360 degree on a color wheel

8.1.3. Other models include CMYK, CIE, YIQ, YUV, and YCC

9. Image File Types Used in Multimedia

9.1. Macintosh Formats

9.1.1. commonly used format is PICT

9.1.2. PICT is a complicated and versatile format developed by Apple

9.1.3. almost every image application on the Macintosh can import or export PICT files

9.1.4. both vector-drawn objects and bitmaps and reside side by side

9.2. Windows Formats

9.2.1. commonly used image file format on Windows is DIB, also known as BMP

9.2.1.1. DIB stands for device-independent bitmaps

9.2.2. used for Window developers:

9.2.2.1. BMP - A window bitmap file

9.2.2.2. TIFF - Extensively used in DTP packages

9.2.2.3. PCX - Used by MS-DOS paint software

9.3. Cross platform Formats

9.3.1. JPEG, GIF, AND PNG - used on the Web

9.3.2. Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) - manages multimedia content

9.3.3. PSD, AI, CDR, DXF - proprietary formats used by application

9.3.4. Initial Graphic Exchange Standard (IGS or IGES) - standard for transferring CAD drawings

9.3.5. COLLADA 3D - standard for transferring 3-D files

9.3.6. KML (Keyhole Markup Language) and KMZ (a zipped package of KML files and images) - XML text - based formats used by google for mapping

9.4. Image File Compression

9.4.1. Lossy formats - JPEG files

9.4.2. Lossless formats - PSD, PSP, GIF, PNG, BMP, TIFF, and RAW