Chapter 3: Text

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Chapter 3: Text by Mind Map: Chapter 3: Text

1. Using Text Elements  in a Multimedia Presentation

1.1. text elements used in multimedia

1.1.1. Determine Next Stage Tasks - A user navigates through content using a menu.   - A simple menu consists of a text list of topics.

1.1.2. Interactive buttons - A button is a clickable object that executes a command when activated. - Users can create their own buttons from bitmaps and graphics

1.1.3. Symbols and icons concentrated text in the form  of stand-alone graphic constructs. used to convey meaningful messages. used to convey human emotions are called emoticons. Icons are symbolic representations of objects and processes.

1.1.4. Fields for reading - Reading a hard copy is easier and faster than reading from the computer screen. - A document can be printed in one of two orientations: portrait or landscape. The taller-than-wide orientation used for printing documents is called portrait. The wider-than-tall orientation that is normal to monitors is called landscape.

1.1.5. Follow-Up Stage Assessment - HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. -  standard markup language used to create web pages. - HTML documents are marked using tags. - An advanced form of HTML is DHTML.   - DHTML stands for Dynamic Hypertext Markup Language. - a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites. DHTML uses static HTML Client side scripting language- such as Javascript Cascading Style Sheets (CSS).

1.2. Some of the commonly used tags are:

1.2.1. The <B> tag for making text boldfaced

1.2.2. The <OL> tag for creating an ordered list

1.2.3. The <IMG> tag for inserting images

1.3. Choosing text fonts

1.3.1. Consider legibility and readability Avoid too many faces. Use color purposefully. Use anti-aliased text. Use drop caps and initial caps for accent. Minimize centered text. Use white space. Use animated text to grab attention.

2. Importance of text in a multimedia presentation

2.1. simplest  of  data  types and  requires  the  least  amount  of  storage

2.1.1. Recruit Project Sponsor

2.1.2. Recruit Project Manager

2.1.3. Review Related Projects and Lessons Learned

2.1.4. Prepare Project Initiation Plan

2.1.5. Brief the Initial Project Team

2.1.6. Review Project Kick-off Plans and Presentation Map

2.1.7. Hold Project Kick-off Meeting

2.2. form of symbols, words, sentences, and paragraphs.

2.2.1. Establish Project Administration Procedures

2.2.2. Establish Quality Control Procedures

2.2.3. Establish Progress Control Procedures

2.2.4. Establish Change Control Procedures

2.2.5. Establish Issue Resolution Procedure

2.2.6. Review Project Control Procedures

2.3. vital element of multimedia menus, navigation systems, and content.

2.3.1. Estimate Project Costs

2.3.2. Identify and Quantify Benefits

2.3.3. Determine Break-even Point

2.3.4. Analyze Risk

2.3.5. Review Business Case

3. Understanding Fonts and Typefaces

3.1. A typeface is a family of graphic characters, often with many type sizes and styles.

3.1.1. Example : Bookman Old Style

3.2. A font is a collection of characters of a single size and style belonging to a particular typeface family

3.2.1. Example : Arial 18 point Bold

3.3. fonts and typefaces

3.3.1. Font styles Boldface Italic Underlining Outlining

3.3.2. Font Terminology Baseline the line on which the bases of characters are arranged Cap height cap height refers to the height of a capital letter x-height the distance between the baseline and the top of a lower-case letter x Ascenders/descenders strokes that rise above the x-height/drop below the baseline Kerning adjustment of space between certain pairs of letters (e.g. AV) to make them look more uniform Tracking adjustment of space for groups of letters continued Tracking vs Kerning Tight tracking L o o s e  t r a c k i n g Serif versus sans serif - A serif is the little decoration at the end of a letter stroke. - Serif fonts are used for printed media or documents that have large quantities of text. - Sans serif fonts do not have decoration at the end  of a letter stroke. - Sans serif fonts are used for headlines and bold statements. It is considered better for computer displays.

3.3.3. Cases - A capitalized letter is referred to as uppercase, while a small letter is referred to as lowercase. - Placing an uppercase letter in the middle of a word is referred to as an intercap or CamelCase.

4. Computers and Text

4.1. Bitmap vs Vector

4.1.1. Fonts can either be stored as bitmapped or vector

4.1.2. Bitmaps font consist of a matrix of dots or pixels representing the image.   - File size increases as more sizes are added. - Require a lot of memory. - Non-scalable.

4.1.3. Vector fonts drawing use instructions and mathematical formulae to describe each glyph.

4.1.4. can draw any size by scaling the vector drawing primitives mathematically   - File size is much smaller than bitmaps. - TrueType, OpenType and PostScript are vector font formats.

4.1.5. Rasterization -  converting text from a vector description to a raster or bitmap description - Jaggies are the jagged edges you see when a bitmapped image is resized

4.1.6. Anti-aliasing - Antialiasing blend the font into the background color.   - smoothing of jagged edges of drawn graphics and text to improve their appearance or readability

4.2. Character sets

4.2.1. - Computers can only understand numbers, so an ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) code is the numerical representation of a character. - unique 7-bit binary code word, meaning that there are 128 (27) alternative characters.

4.2.2. Extended Character Set (ISO Latin-1) - Extra 1 bit in ASCII –up to 256 characters - is used while programming the text of HTML pages.

4.2.3. Unicode - Unicode is a 16-bit architecture for multilingual text and character encoding. - covers 96,382 characters   - Unicode can support a wide variety of non-Roman alphabets including Han Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Korean, Bengali, and so on.

4.3. Font Editing and Design Tools

4.3.1. Font Mapping is not available in other people’s computer, a default font will be used for substitution ( font mapping)

4.3.2. FontLab, Ltd.

4.3.3. Creating attractive texts

4.3.4. Fontographer - Fontographer is a specialized graphics editor. - It is compatible with both Macintosh and Windows platforms. - used to develop PostScript, TrueType, and OpenType fonts. - modify existing typefaces and incorporate PostScript artwork.

5. Hypertext vs Hypermedia

5.1. enables the user to navigate through text in a nonlinear way.

5.1.1. Hypertext - Hypertext is a text which contains links to other texts.   - The term was invented by Ted Nelson around 1965. - Hypertext is the subset of hypermedia. Electronic publishing and reference works Technical documentation Educational courseware Interactive kiosks Electronic catalogs

5.1.2. Hypermedia -Hypermedia is not constrained to be text-based.   -It can include other media, e.g., graphics, images, and especially the continuous media – sound and video. Links Nodes Anchors