Foundations of Education By: Alada Sparks

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Foundations of Education By: Alada Sparks by Mind Map: Foundations of Education By: Alada Sparks

1. Chp. 2: Politics of Education

1.1. Four purposes of education

1.1.1. 1. intellectual purposes of schooling-to reach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics; to transmit specific knowledge. (e.g. literature, history, the sciences, ect.) and to help students to acquire higher-order thinking skills such as analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

1.1.2. 2. political purposes of schooling- to reinforce patriotism, to prepare students to participate in being patriotic, to help incorporate diverse culture groups.

1.1.3. 3. social purposes of schooling- help solve social problems.

1.1.4. 4. economic purposes of schooling- to prepare students for their later occupational roles.

1.2. The Role of school

1.2.1. Conservative perspective- sees the role of the school as providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity. The believe that schools socialize children into the adult roles necessary to the maintenance of the social order. Conservative perspective views the role of the school as essential to both economic productivity and social stability.

1.2.2. Liberal perspective- Stresses the school's role in providing the necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society.

1.2.3. Radical perspective- negative about U.S. society. It argues that the society structurally creates morally indefensible inequalities between its members. The favor a movement toward a democratic socialism.

1.3. Explanations of unequal performance

1.3.1. Its explains why certain groups, particularly from lower socioeconomic backgrounds, perform less well in school.

1.3.1.1. Conservatives- argue that individuals or groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative, and that achievements is based on hard work and sacrifice.

1.3.1.2. Liberal- argues that individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages than others. Therefore, society must attempt through policies and programs to equalize the playing field so that students from disadvantaged backgrounds have a better chance.

1.3.1.3. Radicals- believe that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds begin school with unequal opportunities. Unlike liberals, however, radicals believe that the conditions that result in educational failure are caused by the economic system, not the educational system.

1.4. Definition of Educational Problems

1.4.1. Conservative- In response to liberal and radical: lowered academic standards and reduced educational quality; they refer to this problem as decline of standards. Demands for greater equality,multicultural education, cultural relativism, individuality and freedom.

1.4.2. Liberal- Believe that the problem of underachievement is a critical issue, too much discipline and authority, the difference in quality and climate between urban and suburban/ socioeconomic status of schools.

1.4.3. Radical- Believes that the educational system has failed the poor,minorities, and women through classist, racist, sexist, and homophobic policies.

2. Chp. 3 History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform movement: Cardinal Principals of Secondary Education

2.1.1. I believe that this has the biggest impact on education because these principals opened the door to a curriculum less academically demanding and far more useful than the one that Charles Elliot's Committee of Ten created. I also like the goals of this movement.

2.2. Historical interpretation of U.S. education:

2.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School interpretation: This interpretation believes in providing equality of opportunity for all. Historians such as Ellwood Cubberly, Merle Curti, and Lawrence A. Cremin are representative of this view. Both Cubberly and curti have portrayed the Common School era as a victory for democratic movements and the first in opening U.S. education to all. That is, as more students from diverse backgrounds went to school for longer periods of time, the goals of education became more diverse, with social goals often becoming as or more important than intellectual ones.

3. Chp.4 The Sociology of Education

3.1. Functionalism: Functionalists focus on the positive functions performed by the education system. There are four positive functions that education performs: 1. Creating social solidarity, 2. Teaching skills necessary for work,  3. Teaching us core values, 4. Role Allocation and meritocracy

3.1.1. Conflict theory: Conflict theory sees the purpose of education as maintaining social inequality and preserving the power of those who dominate society. Conflict theorists examine the same functions of education as functionalists. conflict theorists argue that schools sort along distinct class and ethnic lines. According to conflict theorists, schools train those in the working classes to accept their position as a lower‐class member of society. Conflict theorists call this role of education the “hidden curriculum.”

3.1.1.1. Internationalism: limit their analysis of education to what they directly observe happening in the classroom. They focus on how teacher expectations influence student performance, perceptions, and attitudes. Robert Rosenthal and Lenore Jacobson conducted the landmark study for this approach in 1968.

3.2. 5 effects of schooling on individuals:

3.2.1. Knowledge and attitudes: Indicates that in schools where students are compelled to take academic subjects and where there is consistent discipline, student achievement levels go up.

3.2.2. Employment: Most students believe that graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities. Research has shown that large organizations, such as corporations, require high levels of education for white-collar, managerial, or administrative jobs.

3.2.3. Education and Mobility: The number of years of education is one measure of educational attainment, but where people go to school also affects their mobility. Private school mobility may act as a "mobility escalator" because it represents a more prestigious educational route.

3.2.4. Teacher Behavior: Teachers have a huge impact on student learning and behavior. Research indicates that many students may be trapped within a vicious cycle of low expectation- low achievement- low expectation.

3.2.5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation: Some argue that school violence is increasing because teachers are underpaid and classes are too large. This may explain some of the violence. In today's culture, violence is far more acceptable, even glorified in the popular media. Being "bad" is misconstrued as being tough and smart.

4. Chp. 5 Philosophy Of Education

4.1. Pragmatisim

4.1.1. It is intimately related with the American life and mind. It is the product of practical experiences of life.

4.2. What is Philosophy of Education

4.2.1. Philosophy of Education is firmly rooted in practice, whereas philosophy, as a discipline, stands on its own with no specific end in mind.

4.3. Generic Notions

4.3.1. Existentialists pose questions as to how their concerns impact on the lives of the individuals. This philosophy is very modern.

4.4. Key researchers

4.4.1. 19th century European philosopher Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855). More recent philosophers who work in this school include Martin Buber (1878-1965), Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Jean Paul Sarte (1905-1986), and the contemporary philosopher Maxine Greene. Phenomenology was primarily developed by Edmund Husserl, martin Heidegger, and Maurice Marleau-Ponty. Since both existentialism and phenomenology have much in common, and since many phrenologists are existentialists as well.

4.5. Goal of Education

4.5.1. Existentialists believe that education should focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and effectively. They see education as an activity liberating the individual from a chaotic, absurd world.

4.6. Role of the teacher

4.6.1. They believe that teachers' roles should understand their own "lived worlds" as well as that of their students in order to help their students achieve the best "lived worlds" they can. The role of the teacher should be a personal one that carries with it a tremendous responsibility.

4.7. Method of instruction

4.7.1. They believe that each child has a different learning style and it is up to the teacher to discover what works for each child.

4.8. Curriculum

4.8.1. Existential curriculum content is focused on individuals and relationships: relationships between learners, learner-teacher relationships, and even the learners’ relationships with historical individuals, who demonstrate possible actions and choices for the learner to model their own life after. The primary aim of the curriculum is to help learners develop their own values and understand themselves within their own cultural context: rather than being dense with facts to learn, an existential curriculum includes activities that will help learners explore and express their own values and identities.

4.9. Videos to help better understand this lesson

4.9.1. https://youtu.be/RwlhUcSGqgs

4.9.2. https://youtu.be/YaDvRdLMkHs

5. Schools as Organizations

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

7. Equality of Opportunity

8. Educational Inequality

9. Educational Reform