Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Schooling

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual purpose is to teach basic cognitive skills and help students acquire higher thinking skills.

1.1.2. 2. Political purpose are to inoculate allegiance to the existing political order, to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order, and help assimilate diverse cultural groups into common political order, and to teach children the basic laws of society.

1.1.3. 3. Social purpose to help solve social problems such as socializing children in various social roles.

1.1.4. 4. Economic purpose helps prepare students for occupational roles later in life, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

1.2. The Conservative Perspective

1.2.1. 1.Role of the school-providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard working individuals receive the tools needed to maximize economic and social productivity.

1.2.2. 2.Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance-argue that students will rise or fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative.

1.2.3. 3. Definition of Educational Problems-decline of standards, cultural literacy, values or civilization, and authority.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Equality of Opportunity

2.1.1. I believe this was an important reform movement for education. It allowed so many opportunities for many people. 1. Servicemen and woman were granted the right to a higher education. 2. Working class and the poor were now helped and allowed to go to certain colleges/schools. 3. Coeducation began during this movement. African Americans and other origins were now allowed in schools, although there wasn't many to go.

2.2. The Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1. They believe that the U.S. educational system needs to continue to come together. There is many people that have portrayed this movement. 1. Lawrence A Cremin- states that evolution of the U.S education in terms of two processes: popularization and multitudinousness. 2. Horace Mann and Henry Barnard dedicated to the egalitarian principles. 3. Ellwood Cubberly and Merle Curti stated it was a victory for democratic movement and the first step in opening U.S. Education to all.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Persepctives

3.1.1. 1. Functional Theories-They view society as a kind of machine, which work together to make society work along with education.

3.1.2. 2. Conflict Theories-Sociologists of education believe that society is held together by shared values alone.

3.1.3. 3. Interactional Theories-Summarizes the relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives.

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitude-This is important because it gives students self esteem. It is found that the higher the social class background of the student the higher their achievement level will be.

3.2.2. 2. Employment-Most students believe that graduating from college will lead them to better employment in the real world.

3.2.3. 3. Education and Mobility-Occupational and social mobility begin at the schoolhouse door is very critical.

3.2.4. 4. Gender-Discrimination by gender provides inequalities. This causes some girls to have low self esteem due to the fact that men have more opportunities.

3.2.5. 5. Teacher Behavior-Teachers have a huge impact on student learning. The teachers are models for the students, and instructional leaders.

4. Curriculum and Pedagogy

4.1. The Developmental Curriculum

4.1.1. This type of curriculum is when the teacher focuses on the needs of the students not the need of society. It is very student centered. Dewey and Piaget helped establish this type of curriculum. I seem to like it more because not all students learn as fast as other in certain subjects.

4.2. Dominant Traditions of Teaching

4.2.1. The teachers focus on how the content will be distributed and taught to the students instead of why the curriculum looks the way it does. When the teacher does this it will answer all the questions in the teaching world. The politics of education examines the battles and conflicts over what is and should be taught in schools.

5. Equality of Opportunity

5.1. Education Impacts

5.1.1. Classes of families is what also impacts education. The families that are upper and middle class are more than likely to have children that will graduate. The lower and working class families will be have more children that will not finish school.

5.1.2. Race has to do with most of the testing scores in school. Majority of the white students will score well and read on high scores. Minority students will receive less education opportunities then those that are white.

5.1.3. Gender played a role in the past that girl were to receive less educate than men. Males are supposively better in mathematics then women.

5.2. The Cole Study Responses

5.2.1. The first response was in a debate over if the schools make a difference on child's development. It took a while with all the arguing but they stated that only private schools were the ones that were different then any other school's curriculum.

5.2.2. The other response was showing how where an individual goes to school is often related to race and socioeconomic. Segregation was a big role of the education that students would receive.

6. Educational Inequality

6.1. Cultural Deprivation

6.1.1. 1. The first type is that working class and nonwhite families lack many resources culturally such as books, stimuli, and have educational disadvantages.

6.1.2. 2. Another example of this theory is education programs that have helped many but the disadvantaged students have not been one of these groups to gain from them.

6.2. Explanation for Educational Inequality

6.2.1. 1. School Finance-private schools get more income and generally better curriculum. The public schools only if in a bigger city get more income.

6.2.2. 2. Effective School Research-Depending on the school system the teachers could possibly not help any situations because the research just wasn't there.

6.2.3. 3. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices-This shows examples of how school climates affect academic performance.

6.2.4. 4. Curriculum and Ability Grouping-The fact that different groups of students in the same schools perform differently that the school may be causing this.

7. Educational Reform

7.1. School Based Reforms

7.1.1. 1. School Based Reforms-This has to do with school choice, charter schools, and tuition vouchers. Researchers indicated that public schools were failing in terms of students achievement, discipline, and morality. All of this was believed to be determined because of the difference of curriculum in public and private schools.

7.1.2. 2. School Partnerships-Business leaders became very upset because the graduates from schools were not good enough for the economy and jobs.

7.2. Societal, Community, Economic, and Political Reforms

7.2.1. 1.School Finance Reform-There is no right to equal education, school finance equity, and adequacy advocates at the state level. Most funding was needed to serve children in the poorer schools. Also additional money was needed for organizations throughout the schools.

7.2.2. 2.Full Service and Community Schools-This was a way to attack education to examine and plan to educate not only the whole child but the whole community.

8. Philosophy of Education

8.1. 1. Generic Notations-Dewey's form of pragmatism was founded on the new psychology, behaviorism, and the philosophy of pragmatism.

8.2. 2. Key Researchers-George Peirce, William James, and John Dewey.

8.3. 3. Goal of Education-Dewey's vision of school was rooted in social order. He didn't see ideas separate from social conditions. He stressed the importance of school was where ideas could be implemented, challenged, and restructured with the goal of providing students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order.

8.4. 4.Role of the Teacher-The teacher encourages, offers suggestions, questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study.

8.5. 5. Method of Instruction-Dewey's method of instruction was problem solving or inquiry method. He proposed that children learn both individually and in groups.

8.6. 6. Curriculum-Progressive schools generally follow Dewey's notion of a core curriculum. A particular object under investigation by students (whale) would be used to solve problems in all different subjects.

9. Schools As Organizations

9.1. Stakeholders

9.1.1. 1. State Senators- Richard Shelby and Jeff Sessions 2. House of Representatives- Mac McCutcheon, Speaker of the House, District 25 3. State Superintendent- Michael Sentence 4. Rep on State School Board- David Standridge 5.Local Superintendent: Rodney Green 6.Local School Board: Ken Benton, District 1 Jackie Sivley, District 2 Bruce McAfee, District 3 William Ferry, District 4 Chris Latta, District 5

9.2. Elements of Change

9.2.1. Team Building

9.2.2. Conflict

9.2.3. Processes in classrooms