(Sep 4th) Mark 15:33-47

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(Sep 4th) Mark 15:33-47 by Mind Map: (Sep 4th) Mark 15:33-47

1. Main Theme

1.1. The Death of The Son of God

2. Speaker

2.1. Tony Huy

3. Ancient Gods

3.1. ON CHRISTMAS EVE, ALMOST EVERYWHERE on earth the gods were thought to be many and undependable. Aside from having some magical powers, and perhaps the gift of immortality, the gods had normal human concerns and shortcomings. They ate, drank, loved, envied, fornicated, cheated, lied, and otherwise set morally “unedifying examples.” 1 Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 9). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

3.2. DESPITE WORSHIPPING MANY GODS, aside from Rome, most societies were not religiously diverse. Even when gods had their own individual temples, they were part of a unified system, fully funded and often closely with the state. Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (pp. 9-10). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

3.2.1. Consequently, the primary mission of pagan temples was to ensure that the gods favored the state and its ruling elite— often to such an extent that only the privileged few could gain admission to the temples. Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 10). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

3.3. Although Cumont made no mention of it, the chief emotional ingredient lacking in the traditional Roman faiths was love. Romans thought the gods might come to their aid, but they did not believe that the gods loved them— indeed Jupiter was depicted as quite unfriendly to human concerns. Consequently, pagan Romans often feared the gods, admired some of them, and envied them all, but they did not love them. Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 18). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

3.4. Zoroastrians

3.4.1. WHETHER THE JEWS OR the Zoroastrians were the first major group of monotheists cannot be determined, but it is clear that they influenced one another, especially during the captivity of the Jewish elite in Babylon at the time when Zoroastrianism was in its early and most energetic days. Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 11). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

3.4.2. Zoroaster revealed that Ahura Mazdā is engaged in a battle with the inferior Angra Mianyu, the “Fiendish Spirit.” He also taught that each human is required to choose between good and evil, and the outcome of the battle “rests on mankind: the support which each man lends to the side he has chosen will add permanent strength to it; in the long run, therefore, the acts of man will weight the scales in favor of one side or the other.” 5 No more powerful doctrine of “free will” and its implications has ever been stated. Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (pp. 11-12). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

3.4.3. In the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great submerged Chorasmia into his newly established Persian Empire, Zoroastrianism initially lost its official standing. But Cyrus’s son Darius became a convert, and when he gained the throne, Zoroastrianism regained power. 6 As the years passed and new Persian emperors followed one another to the throne, and especially as new societies committed to the old religions were made part of the empire, the influence of Zoroastrianism Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 12). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

3.5. Descent of gods

3.5.1. If Roman paganism differed by needing to be financially self-reliant, it did not differ in the number, character, and specializations of its gods. Nor could it have done so given that nearly all of Rome’s gods were of Greek origins, they in turn having come from Egypt, whose gods originated in Sumer! As the gods migrated, only their names were changed. Stark, Rodney. The Triumph of Christianity: How the Jesus Movement Became the World's Largest Religion (p. 14). HarperCollins. Kindle Edition.

3.6. THe new thing tabout the oriental faiths was prior, people just went to the temples, but in the oriental faiths, they belonged to a congregation. That is, there was a congregtaional life. THere was an identy - no romans really called themselves a Zeusite - but the Jews were different for example.

3.6.1. So what does Jesus do? The cross brings us in. Marks us. Identifies us

4. COnclusion

4.1. As Marshall states it, “They evaluate divine power purely in human, self-serving terms, according to their own standards of practice” (see 11: 18; 12: 1– 9; 14: 43, 48– 49). 17 That is what they would have done if they had that power. Jesus taught his disciples to “take up” the cross, not to “come down” from one. A miraculous rescue would have proven only that he was a superman, not the Messiah, the Son of God. Those who want tangible proof of the divine presence will never see anything. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 591). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.2. Comparison

4.2.1. Divine indications

4.2.1.1. Baptism = heavens rent and dove descends

4.2.1.2. Transfiguration = garment white and cloud descends

4.2.1.3. Cross = Sanctuary veil rent and darkness spreads

4.2.2. Voice

4.2.2.1. Batpsim = voice form heaven

4.2.2.2. Trans = voice from cloud

4.2.2.3. Cross = jesus  voice

4.2.3. Declaration

4.2.3.1. Baptsim - You are my beloved son

4.2.3.2. Trans = This is my son, the beloved

4.2.3.3. Cross = Truly this man was the son of God

4.2.4. Elijah

4.2.4.1. Bpatism - John batpiszes as elijah

4.2.4.2. Trans = Jesus appears with elijah

4.2.4.3. Cross = Is he calling Elijah?

4.3. The IRONY of what his death proves

4.3.1. Liekly the enemies of jesus believed his cross was prove he was not legit!! condemned

4.3.2. Likely those that read Marks gospel in Rome, who understood exactly who it was that suffered on crosses, had doubts about this "gospel" they have heard.

4.3.3. ILL: Who follows a guy that dies on a cross?  No one writes this up...! right?

4.3.4. But the irony is the cross is what leads the centurion to acknowledge that jesus is the son of God

4.4. The cross is the point at which the blind rage of humanity against God is unleashed with a horrible intensity and is shown for what it is. The Gospel story depicts many of the sins that put Jesus on this cross: pride, envy, jealousy, betrayal, cruelty, greed, indifference, cowardice, and murder. We need only add our own many sins to complete the list. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 605). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.4.1. The scene at the cross shows both the religious and irreligious inflicting their wounds on the heart of God. Jerusalem’s highest religious officials converged at the cross to add insult to injury with bitter vindictiveness. Soldiers ignored what was happening before them and concentrated on their lottery for his possessions. They cared only about gaining some extra profit from the day’s work. This kind of petty greed has not been driven from the human heart. One need only remember pictures of the piles of jewelry, clothes, and hair that the death camp workers collected from their doomed Jewish prisoners. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (pp. 605-606). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.5. The gospel is the only thing that makes sense of a world so ugly and so beautiful. After the horrors of the holocaust, a Jewish skeptic said that the only God that he could believe in was one who knows firsthand what it is like to be a Jewish child buried alive and knows what it is like to be a Jewish mother watching her child die. The cross reveals that God has indeed witnessed this tragedy firsthand and uses it to save the world from itself. Who would believe that such a horrifying death could bring such blessing to the world? Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 606). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.5.1. This thought can be crafted to lessen the view of propitiation, lessen the view of died for our sins ... in the sense of God's wrath.

4.6. The cross reveals how deeply loved you are

4.6.1. Ben Meyer put it like this: What, in the end, made Jesus operate in this way, what energized his incorporating death into his mission, his facing it and going to meet it? The range of abstractly possible answers is enormous … But … it is above all in the tradition generated by Jesus that we discover what made him operate in the way he did, what made him epitomize his life in the single act of going to his death: He ‘loved me and handed himself over for me’ …; ‘having loved his own who were in the world, he loved them to the end’ … If authenticity lies in the coherence between word (Mark 12:28–34 parr.) and deed (Gal. 2:20; Eph. 5:2; John 13:1; Rev. 1:5), our question has found an answer.231 Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Locations 12298-12307). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

4.6.2. Romans 8:28-32

4.7. The cross reveals that things are never what they seem in our world. It seems as if God is absent. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 607). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.7.1. But Henri Nouwen writes: “Where God’s absence was most loudly expressed, God’s presence was most profoundly revealed.” Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 607). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.8. The cross reveals that God’s love and power can win those one might never have dreamed would respond. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 607). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.8.1. The power of the gospel is so great that even those who persecute Christians may be won to the faith. The centurion may or may not have won the lottery for Jesus’ pitiful belongings, but he took away from this execution something infinitely more precious. He did not say that Jesus was innocent or that he did not deserve such a terrible fate. He made the confession that is the rock on which the church is built. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 607). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.8.2. We see joseph of arimethea soon

4.9. The cross also reveals the pain of the human situation. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 607). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.9.1. The Son of God took on our humanity and absorbed all the bitter suffering and anguish of the world. When cornered by evil, he prayed. According to a Jewish tradition, prayer has ten names. The first on the list is “cry.” 53 The cries come when we see no indication whatsoever that God is on our side, when we feel that God is silent. No one can go through life and not feel this isolation from humans and from God at times. What should we do when we are overwhelmed by inconsolable grief, when we feel completely forsaken? Defeat may tempt us to give up faith in God, but Jesus’ cry on the cross reveals a faith that will not let go of God even when deluged by the greatest of all suffering. He makes lament. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (pp. 607-608). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.9.2. Wink observes that “biblical prayer is impertinent, persistent, shameless, indecorous. It is more like haggling in an oriental bazaar than the polite monologues of the churches.” Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 608). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.9.3. Moses, for example, cried out to God (Ex. 5: 22– 23): O Lord, why have you brought trouble upon this people? Is this why you sent me? Ever since I Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 608). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.9.4. ex joshua

4.9.5. ex. Gideon

4.9.6. Job

4.9.7. Jeremiah

4.9.8. Such laments, which were a central part of the worship of Israel, have disappeared from our prayer and worship. We cannot obscure the hurtful side of life. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 609). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.10. The cross reveals a new way of life. - die for ourselves even though you can save yourself Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 609). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

4.10.1. Those who taunted Jesus assumed that anyone with power would use it to extricate himself from a personal life-threatening situation. The disciples heeded the call to save themselves when they fled into the night. Peter heeded it when he denied Jesus three times. The high priest heeded it when he moved quickly to eliminate this threatening prophetic figure. Pilate heeded it when he refused to take a stand for justice. Jesus lives out his teaching. The one who tries to save his life will lose it. The one who gives up his or her life will gain it and will give life to others. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 609). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

5. INTRO

5.1. https://www.facebook.com/therealskepticus/videos/518314911704436/

5.2. Much of the drama of the cross is "prove yourself" ... because if you are a god, of course you woudl do that, you could do that... no god is given to this .. none. Capricious.... either you are off in the distant or if you are a god come (greek mythology) you are carpicious.. for yourself.  Otherwise you are just a pretender. A feign. A bogus impersonator that plays on the simpletons.

5.2.1. the crowd

5.2.1.1. He can save others let him save himslef

5.2.2. soldiers - hit him .. .tell us who did it

5.2.3. pilate - are you a king?

5.3. The irony

5.3.1. “So also the chief priests with the scribes mocked him to one another, saying, “He saved others; he cannot save himself.” (Mark 15:31, ESV)

5.3.2. So true --- if he saves others, he cannot save himself, for in saving himself, he cannot save others!

5.3.3. The nails do not hold him fast to the cross; the love of God constrains him. He himself taught that whoever wants to save his own life will ultimately lose it (8: 35). His detractors cannot understand this way of looking at life. They cannot see that he dies as a ransom for many (10: 45) or that his body is being broken and his blood is poured out for the many (14: 22– 25). Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 591). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

5.3.4. The mockery reveals something about their shriveled theology. As Marshall states it, “They evaluate divine power purely in human, self-serving terms, according to their own standards of practice” (see 11: 18; 12: 1– 9; 14: 43, 48– 49). 17 That is what they would have done if they had that power. Jesus taught his disciples to “take up” the cross, not to “come down” from one. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 591). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

6. Review

6.1. To Golgaotha - the place of the skull

6.1.1. shkape?

6.1.2. place of skulls? Execution?

6.2. Simon

6.2.1. His cross enables our cross

6.2.1.1. Gill comments: “One of the profound paradoxes of Christianity is to be found in the fact that the one who was not able to carry his own cross (15: 21) is the one who enables us to carry ours.” Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 587). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

6.2.1.2. as seen in Simon

6.2.1.3. As seen in the soldier

6.2.1.4. As seen in the return of the disciples

6.3. mockery

6.3.1. “They evaluate divine power purely in human, self-serving terms, according to their own standards of practice” Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 591). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

6.4. About the cross

6.4.1. purpose

6.4.1.1. Punish the criminal by prolonging the pain as long as possible. Sometimes for days on the cross as they slowly died of asphyxiation

6.4.1.2. As a warning and deterent

6.4.1.2.1. Parade them through the streets to see the crime

6.4.1.2.2. placed in busy corner of well traveled roads

6.4.1.2.3. ex. Jerusalem revolt and the many crosses

6.4.1.3. Crucifixion was a powerful symbol throughout the Roman world. It was not just a means of liquidating undesirables; it did so with the maximum degradation and humiliation. It said, loud and clear: we are in charge here; you are our property; we can do what we like with you. It insisted, coldly and brutally, on the absolute sovereignty of Rome, and of Caesar. It told an implicit story, of the uselessness of rebel recalcitrance and the ruthlessness of imperial power. It said, in particular: this is what happens to rebel leaders. Crucifixion was a symbolic act with a clear and frightening meaning.15 Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Locations 10997-11001). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

6.5. timeline

6.5.1. 6am - pilate

6.5.2. 9am - cross

6.5.3. 12 - darkness covers the land

6.5.4. 9th hour - cries out

7. ps 22 references

7.1. Ps 22:18 - The division of the garments

8. “And when the sixth hour had come, there was darkness over the whole land until the ninth hour.” (Mark 15:33, ESV)

8.1. What does this represent?

8.1.1. Perhaps lamentations and mourning (Jer 4:27-28)

8.1.2. Perhaps as Virgil says, it represents the death of great men

8.1.3. Philo spoke of a supernatural natural eclipse of the sun or the moon as signifying "either the death of kings or the destruction of cities" (De Providentia H. 50). William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 6012-6013). Kindle Edition.

8.1.4. Ancient accounts of heavenly eulogyies of great men

8.1.4.1. Rabbinic literature records strange and fantastic accounts of events at the deaths of famous rabbis — including the appearance of stars at midday, the weeping of statues, lightning, thunder, and even the dividing of the Sea of Tiberias. 56 Likewise, at least two Roman writers record that at the death of Julius Caesar a comet shone for seven successive days. 57 These and similar portents were usually regarded as divine eulogies honoring the noble dead. For Mark, however, the darkness at midday is not a divine eulogy but something ominous and evil, like the plague of darkness over Egypt at the hardening of Pharaoh's heart (Exod 10: 21-23) or even the darkness Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8374-8379). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

8.1.5. The blindness of humanity

8.1.5.1. Big theme in mark

8.1.5.2. They speak the very truth to mock him but cannot see it

8.1.5.3. This is the climax of human blindness and iniquity spilling over in brutal outrage against God’s Son; Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 598). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

8.1.5.4. it is as if all of the earth is engulfed in this blindness - not just rulers, not just romans, not just judas, but all the disciples

8.1.5.5. Paul will say - the cross is a stumbling block to the jews and foolishness to the gentiles

8.1.5.6. ILL: newsclipping of a hard criminal and that is your god and savior. hard to believe? See how important the resurrection is?

8.1.5.7. The cross brings in God's way

8.1.5.7.1. Jesus is the mighty Son of God, who did not use his power for himself but died a seemingly powerless death. All traditional symbols have been reversed. Weakness is a sign of power. Death is the means to life. Godforsakenness leads to reconciliation with God. The perpetrators who executed Jesus did not realize that they were executing God’s will (14: 36) and that Jesus submitted willingly as God’s obedient Son (10: 45). They also did not realize that this death would not be the end of him. Instead, it meant the end of their whole order. They could not fathom how such a powerless death disclosed the character and power of God. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 598). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

8.1.6. The loving judgement of God

8.1.6.1. (see Ex. 10: 21– 23; Isa. 13: 9– 13; Jer. 13: 16; 15: 19; Joel 2: 10; 3: 14– 15; Amos 5: 18, 20).

8.1.6.2. But in mark, blindness is a judgement

8.1.6.3. Already Jesus has given the idea of darkness and jdugement

8.1.6.3.1. ““But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light,” (Mark 13:24, ESV)

8.1.6.4. Nothing seems clearer than Amos

8.1.6.4.1. ““And on that day,” declares the Lord GOD, “I will make the sun go down at noon and darken the earth in broad daylight. I will turn your feasts into mourning and all your songs into lamentation; I will bring sackcloth on every waist and baldness on every head; I will make it like the mourning for an only son and the end of it like a bitter day.” (Amos 8:9–10, ESV)

8.1.6.5. Darkness - the exodus ...

8.1.6.5.1. like the plague of darkness over Egypt at the hardening of Pharaoh's heart (Exod 10: 21-23) or even the darkness of chaos before creation (Gen 1: 2). 58 Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8378-8379). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

8.1.6.5.2. There the darkness comes, and God judgement comes and kills the first born. So we see here that darkness will precede the killing of the son of God.

8.1.6.6. ““But in those days, after that tribulation, the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light,” (Mark 13:24, ESV)

8.1.6.7. According to Mark, the darkness at the crucifixion is portrayed as an eschatological judgment of God, as in Amos 8: 9, "' In that day,' declares the Sovereign LORD, 'I will make the sun go down at noon and darken the earth in broad daylight.'" The emphasis on darkness covering "the whole land" has universal connotations: the whole earth (gē in Greek means "earth" as well as "land") is implicated in Jesus' death, not just the Jews. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8381-8384). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

8.1.6.8. Does not represent God's absence which is the judgement. He is there but you feel abandoned, disconnected.

8.1.6.8.1. and gave the law in darkness: “Moses approached the thick darkness where God was” (Ex. 20: 21).

8.1.6.8.2. He chose to dwell in thick darkness (1 Kings 8: 12; 2 Chron. 6: 1)

8.1.6.8.3. Hell being a place of utter darkness does not mean God is not present, but that God's judgement and wrath abides.

8.1.6.8.4. God descended for battle in darkness (2 Sam. 22: 10; Ps. 18: 9– 11).

8.1.6.9. but who here is being judged?

8.1.6.10. Signs were demanded (8:12, crowd misjudged the sign) and here is the sign ... God's judgement

8.1.6.11. The penultimate plaugt was the darkness

8.1.6.12. Darkness in the day showed the displeasure of GOd

9. A CRY - A cry from the Cross (34-37)

9.1. “And at the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, “Eloi, Eloi, lema sabachthani?” which means, “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?”” (Mark 15:34, ESV)

9.2. General remarks

9.2.1. These are the last words Jesus speaks in mark

9.2.2. Other gospels

9.2.2.1. “Father, into your hands I commit my spirit” (Luke 23: 46);

9.2.2.2. “It is finished” (John 19: 30).

9.2.3. The original Aramaic quotation, "' Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani,'" doubtlessly reflects Jesus' actual words, which Mark follows with a Greek translation for the benefit of his Gentile readers. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8386-8388). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

9.2.4. Crucifixions were marked by screams of rage and pain, wild curses and the shouts of indescribable despair by the unfortunate William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 6017-6018). Kindle Edition.

9.2.4.1. So much to learn here of what he says on the cross and does not say.

9.3. "cried with a loud voice"

9.3.1. is only used once other in Mark, "John the baptizer" crying in the desert

9.4. "why have you forsaken me?"

9.4.1. Some have tried to soften this

9.4.1.1. he quotes Ps 22 and some say he quoted the beginning to claim the whole, and the whole end triumpantly

9.4.1.1.1. Maybe but seems a stretch

9.4.1.2. Some say he felt this but it was not true

9.4.1.2.1. Watson goes further and challenges attempts to mitigate Jesus’ existential despair— that Jesus only felt abandoned. He argues that the crucifixion in Mark shatters the naive view of the world upheld with loving care by a heavenly Father. He writes: The God who was once gladly addressed as “Abba” has incomprehensibly turned away and hidden his face. In a moment of both bewilderment and insight, the reality of God-forsakenness as a characteristic of the world is recognized. No resolution to the problem is offered: only the question, “Why…?”, and the equally eloquent though wordless “loud cry” with which Jesus dies. 38 For Watson, the cry means that “God-forsakenness” is “an inescapable aspect of reality.” “Here, the story of Jesus makes the same point as the older story of Job: the world does not point unambiguously to a rational and loving providential care, and we must honestly accept this fact.” Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 600). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.4.1.2.2. Later Gnostics, in particular, assuming that human suffering fatally compromises true deity, attempted to spare Jesus from agony on Golgotha. In the apocryphal Gospel of Peter 19, for instance, Jesus cries, "' My Power, O Power,'" and is taken into heaven without suffering. Gnostics, who believed that true spirit was insusceptible to the ravages of a transient material world, would later maintain that Jesus only appeared to suffer on the cross. 62 Likewise, a suffering Son of God was seen by Jews as a contradiction in terms, 63 by Greeks as foolishness (1 Cor 1: 23), and by dispassionate Stoics as an embarrassment. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8392-8397). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

9.4.2. Some say he says this in failure

9.4.2.1. Albert Schweitzer interpreted Jesus’ death precisely this way, writing - that Jesus expected the kingdom of God to come and laid hold of the wheel of the world to set it moving on that last revolution which is to bring all ordinary history to a  close. It refuses to turn, and He throws Himself upon it. Then it does turn; and crushes Him. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 599). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.4.2.1.1. Consequently, he contended that Jesus died on the cross “with a loud cry, despairing of bringing in the new heaven and the new earth.” 36 The darkness that had beset the land now penetrated his own heart. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 599). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.4.2.2. Others contend that Jesus may have believed that God had failed him or that he had failed God in some way. The kingdom had not come, and he felt forsaken as his agony obscured his sense of communion with the Father. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 600). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.4.3. What it is

9.4.3.1. We must not blunt the edge of these words

9.4.3.2. “but your iniquities have made a separation between you and your God, and your sins have hidden his face from you so that he does not hear.” (Isaiah 59:2, ESV)

9.4.3.3. This in actuality is the sequel to the Garden of Gethseamen

9.4.3.3.1. “And he said, “Abba, Father, all things are possible for you. Remove this cup from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will.”” (Mark 14:36, ESV)

9.4.3.3.2. What is this Cup?

9.4.3.4. Calvin reasoned: “If Christ had died only a bodily death, it would have been ineffectual.… Unless his soul shared in the punishment, he would have been the Redeemer of bodies alone.” Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 599). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.4.3.5. Means he suffered in his full humanity

9.4.3.6. Means he substituted for us

9.4.3.6.1. As a substitute for sinners, he bore the punishment that was due us, and his cry expressed profound horror at his separation from God. He encountered the evil within and without the soul of humans and cried out when he sensed God’s turning away from that evil as he died on the wood of the cross (Deut. 21: 23; Gal. 3: 13). In that fearful hour, Jesus bore in his own consciousness the utmost penalty and cried out as one Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 599). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.4.3.6.2. "Jesus now experiences ences the most bitter blow which can befall the religious man: the sense of having ing been abandoned by God."161 Ben Witherington III. The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (Kindle Location 5962). Kindle Edition.

9.4.3.6.3. Imagine between two thieves .. who should be there? Mark has set this up brilliantly.

9.4.3.6.4. cut off

9.5. But in all of this, Jesus did not disbelieve in the goodness of his father. Please know that.

9.5.1. Remember, jesus has 3 times in mark talke dabout his suffering. Not news. not a surprise. And he prayed it - but your will be done!

9.5.1.1. And in all of it, he expects a resurrection, a vindication, a work of God in all of this! Not an abandonedment, not an absentee God!

9.5.2. and Jesus prayed the prayer of the righteous sufferer, who trusts fully in God’s protection. - PSALM 22 Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 601). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.5.2.1. Psalm 22 naturally came to mind because he was mocked (Ps. 22: 7– 9), his strength was dried up (22: 15– 16), his hands and feet were pierced (22: 16), and his garments were divided (22: 18). Jesus therefore did not simply let out an anguished wail of pain but deliberately quoted this lament, which moves from an expression of pain to confidence in God’s deliverance. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 601). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.5.2.2. Why would Jesus cry out to an absent God unless he believed that God was indeed there to hear and able to deliver him? Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 601). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.5.2.3. Senior argues: These words are, in effect, the final version of the prayer in Gethsemane where, also in a “lament,” Jesus affirmed his unbroken trust in his Father while feeling the full horror of approaching death (14: 32– 42). Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 601). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.5.3. He uses the opening as a real thing, not as "a hint that nothing ti shappening" but as a real thing.

9.5.3.1. And he utters this because he feels this.

9.5.3.2. But the hint here, the spark here .. is WHY? As a reader, we are left with why?

9.5.3.3. And that leads to the rest of the psalm...

9.5.3.3.1. That through his suffering, through his abandonment, God is doing a work of redeeming, a work of restoring, a work of saving.

9.5.3.3.2. YOu see, its not a needless suffering. It's not pointless, it's not what it seems on the surface.

9.5.3.3.3. And think about this .. think about this in the first century --- you hear of Jesus ... and he has been executed as a criminal, the cross is just so well known, so captured the moment .. so DIFFERENT than heroes then....  andyour message is he's the SON OF GOD

9.5.3.3.4. We will see this played out in the centurion.

9.5.3.4. This is the message today. It's the message today. It's not that God invites you to better your life, not that he comes to help you. The message is Jesus has undergone suffering to save you.

9.5.3.4.1. Andt through that, free you, and through that accept you, and through that invite you into a life different, a life so different, so subversive, so contrary to the way life happens.

9.5.3.4.2. All the structures, all the winds and undercurrents of humanity - all of that is inverted in teh cross work of Christ ... and he says take up your cross and follow me.

9.5.3.4.3. And the effect on the soul, the work on the soul - is freedom, and peace, and joy - cause we are not in rebellion, not alientated, but loved... so deeply loved!!!

9.5.3.4.4. ILL: Girl at torture

9.5.4. In other words, by using Psalm 22, Jesus chose to complain stridently about his suffering and tragedy but to look beyond it to express his faith in the God who vindicates the righteous. He identifies himself with the righteous sufferer, who feels the pain of his testing but whose intimacy with God allows him to voice his complaint bluntly and to demand rescue. He accepts his suffering, trusting that God’s intervention will come in his death. If one understands this cry as a prayer, God immediately answers it. The darkness lasting from the sixth to the ninth hour lifts, and the following events reveal in overwhelming fashion that his confident hope in God’s vindication has not been misplaced. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 602). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.5.4.1. “For he has not despised or disdained the suffering of the afflicted one; he has not hidden his face from him but has listened to his cry for help” (Ps. 22: 24). Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 602). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.5.4.2. Jews very use to the psalms

9.6. A lament of psalms

9.7. Application

9.7.1. The first readers, who also were experiencing insecurity and a sense of abandonment, would identify with this desperation. Tolbert argues: The content of Jesus’ cry from the cross, his expression of abandonment by God, stands as an assurance to his followers that the worst desolation imaginable, cosmic isolation, can be endured faithfully. What is separation from family and betrayal or denial by friends in comparison to that timeless moment of nothingness when God’s Son is deserted by God? Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (pp. 600-601). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.7.2. Hooker comments that “these words provide a profound theological comment on the oneness of Jesus with humanity, and on the meaning of his death, which  shares human despair to the full.” Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 600). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.7.3. "He did not abandon God"

9.7.3.1. My God My God

9.7.3.2. Schweizer puts it this way: "it is a radical expression of devotion to God which endures in every adverse experience ence - a devotion which continues to claim God as `my' God and will not let him go although he can be experienced only as the Absent One who has forsaken saken the petitioner. "164 Ben Witherington III. The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (Kindle Locations 5966-5967). Kindle Edition.

9.7.3.3. Authentic cries find anchors to hold to while share the deep lament of the soul

9.8. “And some of the bystanders hearing it said, “Behold, he is calling Elijah.” And someone ran and filled a sponge with sour wine, put it on a reed and gave it to him to drink, saying, “Wait, let us see whether Elijah will come to take him down.” And Jesus uttered a loud cry and breathed his last.” (Mark 15:35–37, ESV)

9.8.1. Popular Judaism believed that Elijah had been taken bodily into heaven without dying (2 Kgs 2: 11) and that he would return in times of crisis to protect and rescue the righteous. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8398-8399). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

9.8.2. The bystanders invoke the name of Elijah at Jesus' crucifixion, perhaps because they mistake Jesus' call to God (Aram. Eloi) as an appeal to Elijah (Aram. Eli). Surely if Jesus is righteous, God will spare him from suffering and death, "because anyone who is hung on a tree is under God's curse" (Deut 21: 23). Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8399-8402). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

9.8.2.1. that Jesus fulfills God's plan of redemption precisely in his suffering, by " 'giving his life as a ransom for many'" (10: 45) and taking the curse of humanity on himself. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8403-8404). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

9.8.3. Hoping to see a miracle of deliverance at the final moment, someone "filled a sponge with wine vinegar" and gave it to Jesus. The "stick" (Gk. kalamos) that extends the sponge to Jesus is the same instrument with which the soldiers beat Jesus in v. 19. It is of no more use to Jesus as an olive branch of comfort than it was as an instrument of pain. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8404-8407). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

9.8.3.1. The "wine vinegar" offered to Jesus was probably a mixture of sour wine or vinegar with water, known as posca in Latin, which was available to soldiers on duty as a stimulant. 66 Perhaps as a gesture of compassion, the drink is offered to Jesus. The drink, however, recalls for Mark the "gall" of Ps 69: 21, "They put gall in my food and gave me vinegar for my thirst" Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8407-8409). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

9.8.4. the drink

9.8.4.1. It was a common beverage for a soldier or a day laborer to drink. Ben Witherington III. The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (Kindle Locations 5971-5972). Kindle Edition.

9.8.4.2. Likely to help him, sustain him... they are curious .. will elijah come?

9.8.4.3. It's almost like they are thinking twice.. almost as if the effects of his death that will happen ont he centurion is happening to them....

9.8.4.3.1. They think.. maybe ... hmm.. let's see...

9.8.4.3.2. Bt then we read he dies. We are not told if he drinks or not ... that is not the point.

9.8.4.3.3. The piont is again, they missed the point

9.8.4.3.4. The poitn was not to be rescued but to rescue

9.8.4.3.5. The poitn was not to be freed, but to free

9.8.4.3.6. The poitn was hsi obeident death is victory, not his disobeideint saving.

9.9. "breathed his last"

9.9.1. The death of Jesus!

9.9.1.1. Consider how Jesus predicted this

9.9.1.2. Consider teh climax of god's plan - this was god's plan. Think of that

9.9.1.2.1. according to scripture

9.9.1.2.2. not my will but yours

9.9.1.3. Consider that this Jesus - in all he controls - he is in the roman mind the greatest of heros, hercules himself!

9.10. Mark therefore does not present Jesus’ death simply as a transaction. He certainly does not want his readers to think that Jesus’ faith faltered at the end and that he died in surprised despair. Jesus castigated his disciples for their lack of faith (4: 40) and encouraged others to have faith in the midst of woe (9: 23) and when facing insurmountable odds (11: 23– 24). Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 602). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.10.1. Mark’s first readers knew trial and tribulation. They faced the literal possibility of taking up their cross and dying the same way their Lord did. What they could see from the description of Jesus’ death was one who was obedient unto death because he trusted God. But he also could voice loudly his lament. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 602). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.11. Application (move to below)?

9.11.1. What he has done for us!

9.11.2. How we ought to suffer

9.11.2.1. Mark presents Jesus’ deportment during his Passion as a model for followers to emulate. When faced with severe trial, Jesus prayed. When dragged before authorities and put on trial for his life, he gave his fearless testimony. When beaten and taunted, he endured suffering without reviling. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 602). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

9.11.2.2. cry out

9.11.2.2.1. God does not call for us to be stoic, unmoved by grief, or to take our medicine “like a man.” We learn that we can vent our feelings and complain vociferously to God. Many other texts in the New Testament may be used to instruct listeners about views of the atonement. This text is best used to help those who are undergoing agonizing suffering and loss and acutely feel God’s distance in their own lives. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 602). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10. A CURTAIN - Temple veil torn (38)

10.1. SUMMARY

10.1.1. This is mark narrating visual theology at it's best

10.2. “And the curtain of the temple was torn in two, from top to bottom.” (Mark 15:38, ESV)

10.3. curtain of the temple

10.3.1. What curtain is this?

10.3.1.1. Temple had 2

10.3.1.1.1. one separated the sanctuary form forecourt

10.3.1.1.2. one separted the sanctuary from holy o fholies

10.3.1.2. Is it the veil between the Holy of Holies and the Holy Place, or the one between the sanctuary and the forecourt which could be seen in public? Ben Witherington III. The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (Kindle Locations 5974-5975). Kindle Edition.

10.3.1.3. “Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the holy places by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who promised is faithful.” (Hebrews 10:19–23, ESV)

10.3.1.4. Josephus, War 5.3, refers to a disturbance and some zealot activities but not specifically to the rending of the veil, yet he does indicate there was some sort of astonishing event in the temple about forty years before it was destroyed, which is to say in the year of Jesus' death. Ben Witherington III. The Gospel of Mark: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary (Kindle Locations 5977-5978). Kindle Edition.

10.3.1.5. Like the outter cours as people would then see it

10.3.1.5.1. The reference then is to the magnificent curtain which in Herod's Temple hung before the entrance and was visible from the forecourt when the doors were opened during the day (cf. Mt. 27:51, 54). This conclusion is supported by the fact that Jewish and Jewish-Christian traditions, which are divergent but clearly refer to the same event, speak of an astonishing happening at the entrance to the sanctuary, not at the partition between the sanctuary and the Holy of Holies.79 William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 6053-6055). Kindle Edition.

10.3.1.5.2. The early Church Fathers commonly interpreted the event as a warning sign of the impending destruction of the Temple, confirming ing the sober prophecy of Ch. 13:2. William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 6055-6056). Kindle Edition.

10.3.1.6. The veil was a screen that kept the holyp pace for the Most holy place

10.3.1.6.1. (Ex. 26: 31– 35; 27: 16, 21; 30: 6; 40: 21; Lev. 4: 17; 16: 2, 12– 15; 21: 23; 24: 3; Josephus, Ant. 8.3.3 § § 71– 72). Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 595). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.3.1.6.2. Josephus describes the tabernacle for his Greco-Roman readers as divided into three equal parts. The court and the Holy Place are likened to the land and the sea, which are accessible to humanity; the third area, the Holy of Holies, represents heaven, which is accessible to God alone. 27 He describes the veil as eighty feet high, a “Babylonian tapestry with embroidery of blue and fine linen, of scarlet also and purple, wrought with marvelous skill. Nor was the mixture of materials without its mystic meaning: it typified the universe.” It was embroidered with “the whole panorama of the heavens,” excluding the signs of the Zodiac. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 595). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.4. torn in two

10.4.1. What does this represent?

10.4.1.1. The destruction of the temple

10.4.1.1.1. That an intimate connection exists between the destruction of the Temple and the death of Jesus is established lished by the tradition preserved in Ch. 14:58 and the taunt of Ch. 15:29. The rending of the Temple veil is a public sign that the rejection of the Messiah by the leaders of the people discloses a failure in sensitivity to the divine purpose so serious that it seals the disaster of A.D. 70. Jesus' death and the destruction of the formal structures of Judaism are inseparably separably bound together. William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 6056-6059). Kindle Edition.

10.4.2. "schizo" - schizo phrenic

10.5. top to bottom

10.5.1. A divine act

10.5.2. 25 meters high

10.5.2.1. Outer curtain

10.6. meaning

10.6.1. When the veil rips, something is destroyed but also something that was previously hidden opens up to view. The positive and negative images of a torn veil suggest that Jesus’ death has both a positive and a negative impact. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 603). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.6.1.1. On the positive side, the torn veil symbolizes a new revelation. The veil that shielded the holiest part of the temple where God’s glory resided was torn away. The veil of secrecy lifted, and all could see the face of God and the love of God in Jesus’ death. Humans can now know and confess what was already announced from heaven (1: 11; 9: 7) and was known only to demons: Jesus is God’s Son, who was obedient unto death, even death on a cross. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 603). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.6.1.2. A second view understands that the torn veil lets something out. God’s glory cannot be confined to a national shrine of frozen stone but now floods the world. Just as the heavens ripped open and the Spirit descended on Jesus at his baptism, one can imagine that something breaks forth from the Holy of Holies to fill the world. God’s protecting presence is no longer limited to a chamber that only a high priest may briefly visit once a year. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 603). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.6.1.3. A third view contends that the tearing of the veil signifies that the barrier between God and humanity has been torn away. It vividly reveals the at-one-ment now available between God and humanity. Priests can no longer rope God off from others. This idea is expressed in prose by the author of Hebrews (Heb. 6: 19– 20; 9: 3, 7– 8, 12, 24– 28; 10: 19– 20). The tearing of the veil therefore implies that all now have direct access to a gracious God, who has allowed his Son to die on behalf of the many. Even Gentiles, formerly barred access even to the sanctuary, may now enter into the Holy of Holies. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (pp. 603-604). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.6.1.4. A fourth view understands that the torn veil marks the end of the old order. The veil is not opened but ripped in two, from top to bottom, indicating its destruction. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 604). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.6.1.4.1. Ultimately, God forsakes this temple, not Jesus. Jesus will be raised; the temple will be razed (Mark 13: 2), Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 604). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.6.1.4.2. The rending of the veil therefore provides confirmation for Jesus’ words against the temple (13: 1– 2; 14: 58; 15: 29). Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 604). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

10.6.2. The controlling story of exile and restoration

10.6.2.1. the means by which YHWH might bring his people from the one to the other, was that of exile (‘the present evil age’) and restoration (‘the age to come’). Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Locations 11655-11656). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

10.6.2.2. Once again, too, we must stress: return from exile, in this period, meant ‘forgiveness of sins’, and vice versa. ‘The punishment of your iniquity, O daughter Zion, is accomplished; he will keep you in exile no longer.’144 As long as Israel was still suffering under foreign rule, the ‘sins’ that had caused the exile had not been ‘forgiven’. Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Locations 11660-11663). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

10.6.3. And this is precisely why he is on the cross, because he opposed the temple cult

10.6.3.1. ‘Why did Jesus die?’ evokes a fivefold answer. He was sent to the Roman governor on a capital charge (i)   because many (not least many Pharisees, but also, probably, the chief priests) saw him as ‘a false prophet, leading Israel astray’; (ii)   because, as one aspect of this, they saw his Temple-action as a blow against the central symbol not only of national life but also of YHWH’s presence with his people; (iii)  because, though he was clearly not leading a real or organized military revolt, he saw himself as in some sense Messiah, and could thus become a focus of serious revolutionary activity; (iv)  because, as the pragmatic focus of these three points, they saw him as a dangerous political nuisance, whose actions might well call down the wrath of Rome upon Temple and nation alike; (v)   because, at the crucial moment in the hearing, he not only (as far as they were concerned) pleaded guilty to the above charges, but also did so in such a way as to place himself, blasphemously, alongside the god of Israel. Wright, N. T.; Wright, N. T.. Jesus Victory of God V2: Christian Origins And The Question Of God (Kindle Locations 11143-11152). Fortress Press. Kindle Edition.

10.6.4. More about the ability to believe, the removal of blindness, than perhaps access

10.6.4.1. Likewise, the tearing of the curtain of the temple enables the centurion to confess Jesus as the Son of God. Both confessions depend on the tearing in two of a veil so that something may be witnessed. The only curtain visible to a Gentile centurion was the outer curtain, not the curtain before the Holy of Holies. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8434-8436). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

10.6.4.2. Only other time in Mark, Baptism

10.6.4.2.1. “And when he came up out of the water, immediately he saw the heavens being torn open and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. And a voice came from heaven, “You are my beloved Son; with you I am well pleased.”” (Mark 1:10–11, ESV)

10.6.4.2.2. What wonder this is. What hope this is. You see, often times in baptism the idea was that you wer initiated into this new thing. You are put at the beginning of the finish line. And then you go, then you prove,t hen you make your mark, your statement.  And how well you did is how well you were liked and accepted. But in Jesus' baptism, it was already decided. You are my belvoed Son, with you I am well pleased

10.6.4.3. OUter curtain - Josepheus tells us is of Babylonians - earth, sea, sky - heavens renting!

10.6.4.4. So the cross if vital, because it does something for our faith, it empowers it, it frees us, enables  us, then the spriti of God calls us

10.6.4.4.1. We see this all through mark .. how is it they miss it, they don't understand?

10.6.4.4.2. The cross is so much more than a tonic created to heal us ... it's so much more than just putting it out on the table .. the cross is the continuation of God chasing us, freeing us

10.6.4.4.3. Thus, at both uses of schizein Mark signifies the rending of the skies — to open heaven to humanity in the baptism of Jesus and to open the temple as the locus Dei to Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8437-8439). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

10.6.5. A ransom for many (10;45)

10.6.6. The blood of the covenant (14:24)

10.6.7. “Therefore, brothers, since we have confidence to enter the holy places by the blood of Jesus, by the new and living way that he opened for us through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, and since we have a great priest over the house of God, let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, with our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience and our bodies washed with pure water. Let us hold fast the confession of our hope without wavering, for he who promised is faithful.” (Hebrews 10:19–23, ESV)

10.7. Paralellel to the baptism and what that means for us

10.7.1. Cried - used only then and here

10.7.2. God speaks forth by beloved son, here abandoned

10.7.3. Sky torn, veil torn

10.7.4. but there a declaration is made of Jesus alone - my beloved son - and here he cries why have you forsaken me

10.7.4.1. His forsakenness is our acceptance

11. A CONFESSION - Confessions of the Centurion (39)

11.1. “And when the centurion, who stood facing him, saw that in this way he breathed his last, he said, “Truly this man was the Son of God!”” (Mark 15:39, ESV)

11.2. SUMMARY

11.2.1. AS JESUS DIED on the cross, he daringly asked God “Why? [For what reason?]” (15: 34). The centurion’s confession offers one answer: His death will transform others and bring them to faith. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 604). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.3. Like at the baptism, God declares him the son of God, so teh centurion does so here

11.3.1. In that sense, marks' gospel starts with a premise (MArk 1:1), puts forward a declaration by God, and then ONLY now does one truly get it! A centurion by the way!!!

11.4. Centurion

11.4.1. Centurion is an unlikey one to be the first one to get it

11.4.1.1. A roman - the enemy

11.4.1.2. He is prociding over the cruxifition.

11.4.1.2.1. BTW - how many times has this happened? How many times in history has the prosecutor of those of God's people been converted?

11.4.1.2.2. Other gospels highlight the lowly thief - and there is hope there ... the humbled, the dead end .. etc ... but here... here is the positioned, the privileged, the empowered... and he humbles himself.

11.4.1.2.3. You see, Christianity is not a poor mans religoin, it is not a rich mans, religion, it is not a jewish religion, it is not a roman religion, it is not a, as my dad used to say, a white mans religion.... it's just life's religion!!!

11.4.2. one in charge of the execution

11.4.3. This profession of faith, ironically, comes not from a disciple, relative, or even a fellow Jew. It is rather a Gentile outsider — the captain of the execution squad, and thus an enemy — who first  declares Jesus as God's Son. The cross is the supreme revelation of Jesus as God's Son, and hence this title, which derives from God (1: 11; 9: 7), surpasses all other titles — whether Messiah, Son of Man, prophet, teacher, or Lord. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8507-8509). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.4.4. He shows us that the cross, not theological history, nor even proximity to "Jesus", the means by which faith is made. That is, in the cross is how we see Jesus most clearly!

11.5. "in this way breathed his last"

11.5.1. We are not sure what this refers to

11.5.1.1. was it "forgive them" as in Luke - one of trusting in God?

11.5.1.2. Was ti "it is finished" - as in John, - one of triump

11.5.1.3. was it still "why have you forsaken me" - that was likely common to hear. Hung up, klled. forsaken

11.5.2. What we know is this --- It is not just his suffering that makes the impact, but how he suffers (whatever that how may be)

11.6. TRULY THIS MAN WAS THE SON OF GOD

11.6.1. Theme

11.6.1.1. Son of God in Greco roman world

11.6.1.1.1. Sons of God were prominent in the Greco-Roman world, primarily as rulers, philosophers, poets, heroes, or miracle workers.

11.6.1.1.2. In the Hellenistic world the status of son of God, along with numerous other titles, was conferred as a result of superhuman distinction (see the excursus on Divine Man at 3: 12).

11.6.1.2. Son of God in biblical theology

11.6.1.2.1. In the Judeo-Christian tradition, by contrast, "Son of God" designates a unique filial relationship with God made possible not by human accomplishment but by God's grace. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8479-8480). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.6.1.2.2. Exodus 4:22-23 speaks of Israel as "my firstborn osn"

11.6.1.2.3. When Israel fails, the group narrows and God speaks of a descendant of david as father son relationship (2 Sam 7:13-14)

11.6.1.2.4. As kings die, we speak of a remnant (Ps 103:13; Mal 3:17)

11.6.1.3. Intertestamental literature

11.6.1.3.1. the concept Son of God is narrowed still further from the righteous remnant (Jub. l: 24ff.; Pss. Sol. 13: 8; 17: 30; 18: 4) to a righteous individual (Wis 2: 16ff.). Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8487-8489). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.6.1.3.2. Particularly in Wis 2: 12-20; 4: 10-14; 5: 1-5 and Sir 4: 10; 23: 1-4 the righteous individual will be vindicated as God's Son in the midst of suffering, which will have an atoning effect on behalf of others, thus fulfilling many motifs of the suffering righteous individual in Psalms 22 and 69 and in the Servant of the Lord passages in Isaiah 42, 49, 50, and 52-53. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8489-8491). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.6.1.3.3. With regard to the monarchy the concept of divine sonship proceeds in a different direction. As the monarchy declined after David and Solomon, and particularly after its demise at the time of the exile, "Son of God" becomes increasingly associated with messianic expectations, in which the Messiah as God's Son — Israel reduced to one, as it were — becomes the eschatological redeemer of God would both fulfill and surpass the ideals of the king as God's Son (4Q174 1: 10-13; 4Q246). Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8491-8494). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.6.1.4. Son of God within mark

11.6.1.4.1. At the beginning of the Gospel (1: 1), Mark announced that Jesus is the Son of God, but it remained to be seen what kind of Son of God he is. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8495-8496). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.6.1.4.2. Acknowledged by the Fatehr (1:11; 9:7)

11.6.1.4.3. Acknowledged by the deomsn (1:24; 3:11; 5:9)

11.6.1.4.4. 5:7

11.6.1.4.5. Hints at in parables (12:6)

11.6.1.4.6. In eschatological discourse (13:32)

11.6.1.4.7. High priest and Jesus confirms(14:61-62)

11.6.2. Here is the climax

11.6.3. The cross empowers the centurions confession

11.6.3.1. As defined at the cross, the Son of God is he who gives his life as a ransom for many (10: 45). Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8504-8505). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.6.3.2. The cross is also the birthplace of faith, for the centurion's confession is a saving confession of Jesus as God's Son. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8509-8510). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.6.3.3. The cross is the intersection where God meets humanity. Saving confession is not predicated on prior knowledge, proximity to Jesus, or privilege; it is, rather, an act of faith in a divinely revealed act of atonement. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8510-8511). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.6.4. He sees this final death and defeat and he declares that something heroic here has happened

11.6.4.1. It's a bit uncertain if he is saying a divine person or the son of God in it's full christological meaning.. but what we know is that

11.6.4.1.1. He knows what Jesus claims from teh crowd

11.6.4.1.2. Likely we know what he claims from Pilate

11.6.4.1.3. And he sees thsi .. and his heart is stirred

11.6.4.1.4. At a minim - he elevates jesus to that of the greatest hero

11.6.4.1.5. At a likely - he has experienced some understanding by teh Spirit of God though limited

11.6.4.1.6. he understands thsi is not just a mere failed insurrection and second, regiliious categories best describe him.

11.6.4.2. The pt is he sees not just eth admirable character of jesus in suffering, but he sees something in jesus that is only derived from a connection witht eh divine

11.6.4.3. But the pint is the death of Jesus - brings the revelation of Jesus!

11.6.5. The centurion's confession is the saving proclamation of the church, for it is the convergence point of Mark's two major themes: the meaning of Jesus and the meaning of faith. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8511-8512). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.7. "The Son of God" is Mark's load-bearing christological title, which until this moment has remained unconfessed by any human being. The centurion is the first person in the Gospel to confess Jesus as the Son of God, and the confession is evoked by his passion — his suffering and death on the cross. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8446-8448). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.7.1. In Matt 27: 54 the centurion's confession is evoked by the signs that attended Jesus' death — the resurrection of saints, the earthquake, and darkness at midday. In Mark, however, the confession is evoked not by miraculous signs, but by Jesus' very death, when the centurion "heard Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8449-8451). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.7.2. his cry and saw how he died." 72 The confession "the Son of God" is causally linked to the death of Jesus on the cross (John 8: 28). This centurion had doubtlessly seen other men die by crucifixion. But something in this crucifixion — in the very weakness and suffering of Jesus' death — becomes revelatory. 73 The suffering of Jesus on the cross, which utterly contradicts both Jewish messianic ideals and Hellenistic "divine man" conceptions, becomes, by an act of God, the window into the heart and meaning of Jesus, the significance of which is only captured in the confession "the Son of God." Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8451-8456). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

11.8. In contemporary practice the designation "Son of God" had been arrogated for the Roman ruler, who was worshipped in the state cult. Most effectively, therefore, Mark reports that the centurion proclaimed claimed that the crucified Jesus (and not the emperor) is the Son of God. 82 His words provide a discerning Gentile response to the death of Jesus. William L. Lane. The Gospel of Mark (Kindle Locations 6069-6070). Kindle Edition.

11.9. What it teaches us

11.9.1. If such a one could believe that Jesus is the Son of God only by witnessing how he died, then anyone can believe. Jesus’ death means that Caesar and all the values that Caesar’s world is built on are endangered. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 604). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.9.2. It reveals to Mark’s first readers and to today’s readers that faithful obedience unto death, not wondrous works of power, can convert even the executioner.

11.9.2.1. Christians can win the world, not by winning over them with violence but by winning them over through love and obedience to God. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 604). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.9.3. To make this confession, the centurion must have changed his perception of the basic things that governed his entire life. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 604). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.9.3.1. As a centurion he has sworn allegiance to the emperor, and he represents Roman imperial power. For the Romans, “the notion of power was central to the definition of deity,” 47 and the title “Son of God” properly belonged only to the emperor, who embodied Rome’s majesty. Remarkably, this soldier bestows the title on a Jew who has just been executed. He must have changed his mind not only about Jesus but also about what it meant to be a son of God. Divinity was no longer associated with the splendor and military might of an empire. It resided where there was no apparent splendor or might. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 604). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.9.3.2. Upside down values

11.9.3.3. The centurion therefore stands in stark contrast to those who wanted to see some great power demonstration. To refuse to believe unless God provides an obvious demonstration that meets their worldly criteria is the opposite of faith. The attitude that says, “Show us and we will believe,” never believes no matter how much is shown to them. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 605). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.9.4. Power is subverted

11.9.4.1. To make his confession, the centurion also must have completely revised his understanding of power. The power that Rome represented was coercive. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 605). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.9.4.2. It forced others to submit or else. Jesus’ powerless death exerts a different kind of power from what the centurion had served and used on others. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 605). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.9.4.3. power, which was revealed in the cross, is not coercive, exploitative, or manipulative. Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 605). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.9.4.4. The power he served crushed others and transformed life into death. The power of the cross gives itself for others and transforms death into life.

11.9.4.5. The cross reveals the truth about humankind but also about God’s incredible power. God’s power takes the venomous mockery spit out at Jesus and turns it into the proclamation of the Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 606). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

11.10. Why did he say this?

11.11. Jesus is a son of God unlike all sons fo God! - i.e. Augustus

11.12. This is the outcome of the torn viel - gentiles in

11.12.1. Fullfilment of this

11.12.1.1. Psalm 22: 27, “All the families of the nations will bow down before him.” Garland, David E.. Mark (The NIV Application Commentary Book 2) (p. 596). Zondervan. Kindle Edition.

12. summary

12.1. 4 action responses in mark

12.1.1. The first antiphony was Jesus' confession before the Sanhedrin (14: 61-62), followed by the mockery and maltreatment of the Sanhedrin (14: 63-65) and Peter's denial (14: 66-72).

12.1.2. The second was Jesus' appearance before Pilate (15: 2-5), followed by shouts from the crowd for his death (15: 6-15) and the mockery and maltreatment of the soldiers (15: 16-20). .

12.1.3. The third antiphony was the crucifixion of Jesus (15: 21-26), followed by mockery from the bystanders (15: 27-32).

12.1.4. The fourth antiphony in the present section consists of the death of Jesus (15: 33-37), followed by the confession of the centurion (15: 38-39).

12.2. Centurion

12.2.1. becomes the first person to confess Jesus in faith as God's Son, thus fulfilling the purpose of Mark's Gospel. While Jesus is alive, humanity wills his death; only in his death can humanity see him as the way to life. The death of Jesus on the cross is thus not a defeat but the consummation of his mission and the climactic revelation of his identity as the Son of God. Edwards Jr., James R.. The Gospel according to Mark (The Pillar New Testament Commentary (PNTC)) (Kindle Locations 8368-8371). Eerdmans Publishing Co - A. Kindle Edition.

13. OUTLINE

13.1. THe death of Jesus

13.1.1. What happened

13.1.2. What does it mean?

13.1.3. What is it good for?

13.1.4. An Alliteration

13.1.4.1. A cry

13.1.4.2. A curtain

13.1.4.3. A confession