My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. 5 Effects of Schooling

1.1. 1) Knowledge & Attitudes

1.1.1. School has a definite impact on students; their overall human development and their attitudes about education.  Whether or not education equals gains in student achievement is highly dependent upon student SES, and other indicators of school quality.  In total, research supports findings that the greater the level of educational attainment, the more knowledge one has and the more socially engaged one is.

1.2. 2) Social Mobility

1.2.1. There is a belief in the U.S. that education provides all with equal opportunity for social and economic mobility.  Unfortunately, premised on a broken and unjust system, meritocracy is a falsehood. Those most disadvantaged see the injustices, and are well acquainted with the social and economic stagnation perpetuated by the current social/educational structure.

1.3. 3) Curriculum/Tracking

1.3.1. One of the ways in which prejudice manifests in the educational structure is through curricula.  Culturally unresponsive curricula, reflecting the ideals, works, and experiences of only the dominant social group is inherently exclusive, and alienates/marginalizes large portions of the student population.  Ideals of undervaluing minority groups and their experiences are subliminally communicated to student, teacher, and parent populations.  Therefore, it is not surprising when minority students are tracked for vocational, general, and special education.  Ultimately, engendering a lesser quality of employment and lower quality of life for these students.

1.4. 4) Teacher Behavior

1.4.1. There is clear evidence that high quality educational experiences cannot happen outside of a context of safe, warm, supportive relationship with a knowledgeable adult. Within that relationship context lies teacher expectation. Teacher expectations are directly linked to student outcomes; and some studies suggest is the strongest indicator of student outcomes. These expectations, often times, can be wrapped in implicit bias; many time unbeknownst to the teacher, but often very apparent to the student. Research findings have identified many ways in which pedagogic practices are biased against students; minority groups in particular. This is also, likely, a result of the fact that, adequate numbers of minority teachers are underrepresented in the educational system; which is especially vital in inner city and urban communities where minority students represent the largest portions of student bodies.

1.5. 5) Inadequate Schools/De Facto Segregation

1.5.1. Refers to the large scale failure of the educational system to provide an adequate educational experience to minority and poor students that will prepare them to lead productive, well-adjusted lives.

1.5.2. De Facto segregation is the informal practice of segregating schools via segregated housing patterns, curriculum tracking, other disciminatory school policies (i.e. school choice)

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. Functionalist Theory

2.1.1. Functionalism asserts that schooling and society should maintain an interdependent relationship, and require a state of consensus surrounding shared moral values, and views conflict as a threat to the unity and overall peaceful, cohesive functioning of society. Therefore, it is asserted that education's primary role is to socialize students into "appropriate" values.  Thus, creating a climate of shared values, resulting in a societal sense of "moral unity", facilitating cohesion and cooperation within society.

2.1.1.1. Functionalist Reform

2.1.1.1.1. School reform from a functionalist perspective encourages technological advancement and educational structures, along with their inner workings, which promote social cohesion.

2.2. Conflict Theory

2.2.1. describes relationship between school and society in terms of relational power dynamics; specifically, the struggle for power between the two (i.e. dominance, subordination, and social control through means of this relationship).  Conflict theorists state upper classes legitimize inequality through a conjecture that they have their wealth as a result of inevitable, inherent superiority of positive character traits and intelligence; rather than unjust and inequitable subordination of subgroups.

2.2.1.1. Conflict Theorist Reform

2.2.1.1.1. proposes that school organization has a direct link to the organization of society, and until society is restructured, schools will continue to be a reflection/reproduction of the current societal structure, and its inherent inequalities.

2.2.2. Within schools, this theory manifests itself through conflict between students and teachers, and teachers struggle against administrators.  Teachers and students are deceived by school, city, and state administrators, into thinking that schools promote learning (achievement ideology), when in reality, they perpetuate systematic inequality through tracking, and other discriminatory and bigoted policies, in an effort to reproduce the societal structure and maintain their power.

2.3. Interactional Theory

2.3.1. attempts to bridge micro- and macro-sociological perspectives to allow for a more wholistic understanding of how the two are related. This theory focuses on interpersonal relationships that exist within the educational system (i.e. teacher-student, student-student) and queries their unquestioned qualities and practices in order to reveal previously hidden, or unrecognized, relationships and patterns.  The goal of this theory is to "narrow the target" in order to identify practical applications for reform. Analysis of everyday actions and practices that exist within interpersonal interactions between students-teachers-administrators-system, reveal how those practices reflect and connect to the larger social structure.

2.3.1.1. Interactionalism & Reform

2.3.1.1.1. By identifying relationships, and isolating influencing factors in those relationships, solutions can be developed and implemented.

3. Philosophies of Education

3.1. Pragmatism

3.1.1. Generic Notions:

3.1.1.1. Pragmatism views education as a means of attainment of a better society.  It approaches learning through inquiry and experimentation in collaborative settings; experimentation of logical ideas and step processes potentially lead to valid solutions. Pragmatism also asserts that learning should be experiential, developmental, and reflect the needs and interests of the student.  Pragmatism also calls for the classroom, or educational process, to reflect the ideals and values of democratic society.  There is a large emphasis on student freedom and responsibility, and preparation for participation in the processes of democratic society.  Therefore, this approach states that students should have a say in the content and course of study.

3.1.2. Key Researchers

3.1.2.1. Francis Bacon

3.1.2.2. John Dewey

3.1.2.3. William James

3.1.2.4. George Sanders Pierce

3.1.2.5. John Locke

3.1.2.6. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

3.1.3. Goal of Education

3.1.3.1. 1) Socialization of the Democratic Citizen: to equip students with the understanding of how a democratic society functions, their role in it, and their responsibility to improve it.

3.1.3.2. 2) Growth (progress)...of society and the individual

3.1.3.3. 3) Balance the needs of the community/society with the needs of the individual.

3.1.4. Role of the Teacher:

3.1.4.1. Viewed the teacher as a facilitator of learning, and as having a supportive role in learning; and as highly knowledgeable across several disciplines, so as to be able to implement and integrated curriculum.

3.1.5. Method of Instruction

3.1.5.1. Inquiry-based instruction

3.1.5.2. Utilizes a project-approach, and applies concepts across multiple disciplines through this method.

3.1.5.3. Encourages cooperative learning, but allows for independent study as well

3.1.6. Curriculum

3.1.6.1. Core or integrated curriculum

3.1.6.2. Child-centered

3.1.6.3. Flexible and responsive to societal changes and students' needs

3.2. Existentialism

4. Equality of Opportunity

4.1. Race

4.1.1. Minority groups are more likely to be from lower SES family backgrounds, meaning minority groups are also more likely to be negatively labeled by teachers, and adversely affected by inequality of educational opportunity that exists within schools.

4.2. Class

4.2.1. Higher SES= sufficient family/school/community resources=higher student educational outcomes - VS. - Lower SES=insufficient family/school/community resources req'd for school success=lower student educational outcomes.

4.3. Gender

4.3.1. Females are only outperformed by males in higher levels of math and science at certain ages. Females outperform males in subjects of reading and writing. More females attend higher education institiutions than males. Nevertheless, within the labor force social and economic capital is still given preferentially to males, and females are undeniably discriminated against on the basis of sex.

4.4. Coleman Study (1982)

4.4.1. 1) The first response to the initial Coleman Study (1982) was disbelief and doubt. Consequentially, many researchers went to work duplicating Coleman's efforts in order to test the validity of his findings. Jenks (1985) found that the statistical differences between public and Catholic schools weren't significant enough to allege that marked differences in student learning existed.

4.4.2. 2) The second response to Coleman (1982) was Borman & Dowling (2010). These researchers investigated Coleman's controlled variable of individual background and social composition. In doing this Borman & Dowling found that the racial and ethnic composition of schools has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class. Furthermore, they brought attention to the fact that school segregation, based on race and SES, combined with a landscape of teacher-student interactions guided by middle-class values are predominantly responsible for student achievement gaps. Borman & Dowling concluded that education reform MUST focus on desegregation of highly segregated schools, in addition to ending tracking practices and all other systems within the education system that favor Caucasian & middle-class students.

5. Politics of Education

5.1. 4 Purposes of Schooling

5.1.1. Intellectual

5.1.2. Political

5.1.3. Social

5.1.4. Economic

5.2. Political Perspectives

5.2.1. Conservative

5.2.1.1. Role of School

5.2.1.1.1. Provides most talented, hard-working individuals with necessary training, that they be equipped with tools needed to maximize their economic and social productivity

5.2.1.1.2. Transmitter of cultural norms, values, and traditions.

5.2.1.2. Explanations of Unequal Performance

5.2.1.2.1. Viewed through an assumption that school provides all students with equal opportunity to succeed, the conservative perspective assigns blame or credit to the individual for his/her academic failure or success. Failure is attributed to an individual's, or a group of individuals', lack of "inherent" positive personality/character traits (i.e. Intelligence, determination, perseverance, strength, etc.)

5.2.1.3. Definitions of Educational Problems

5.2.1.3.1. Decline of Standards

5.2.1.3.2. Decline of Cultural Literacy

5.2.1.3.3. Decline of Civilization

5.2.1.3.4. Decline of Authority

5.2.1.3.5. School Inefficiency

5.2.2. Liberal

5.2.3. Radical

5.2.4. Neo-liberal

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. Stakeholders

6.1.1. Local School Board Members

6.1.1.1. President- Dr. Terri Johnson

6.1.1.2. VP- Ranae Bartlett

6.1.1.3. Member- Connie Spears

6.1.1.4. Member- Tim Holtcamp

6.1.1.5. Member- David Hergenoeder

6.1.2. Superintendent (Local)- Dr. Ed. Nichols (Interim)

6.1.3. Superintendent (State)- Michael Sentence

6.1.4. AL State Senator- Bill Holtzclaw

6.1.5. AL State Representatives- Mike Ball

6.1.6. U.S. Senators- Jeff Sessions & Richard Shelby

6.1.7. U.S. Representative- Mo Brooks

6.2. Elements of Change in School Processes & Cultures

6.2.1. Conflict-issues must be brought to the surface in order to be dealt with and effectively resolved to allow for opportunity to reach consensus.

6.2.2. New Relationships & Behaviors- essentially providing the opportunity for leadership abilities to be identified, taught, and honed. Conflict resolution, effective communication, and collaborations are all skills required for effective leadership; these must also be learned.

6.2.3. Sense of School Community Established- there must be work done in order to establish, strengthen and maintain a sense of an inclusive school community. There is shared power in decision-making and a sharing of space for student and staff voice to be expressed and given legitimacy.

6.2.4. Content & Process are Interrelated- the way a project is implemented impacts the status of the relationships that exist among faculty, students, and other school community members. The process can either have a negative or positive effect on attainment of goals related to school culture change.

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Curriculum Theory

7.1.1. Social Meliorist Curriculum- rooted in critical theory. Advocates that students be taught "how to think" in order to allow for analysis of social/societal problems and their resolutions. Also works to empower students to become active agents of change and societal reformation toward a more equal, fair, and democratic society.

7.1.2. Developmentalist Curriculum- rooted in a progressivist philosophy. Student-centered, flexible and responsive to individual students' needs, interests, and life experiences. Also takes into account developmental stages of students as it relates to delivery of instruction.

7.2. Dominant Traditions of Teaching

7.2.1. Mimetic- views teacher-student relationship as an authoritarian one, with the teacher in control; "transmission of knowledge" where teacher is "knower" and student is "learner". Emphasizes didactic method of teaching, rational sequence of learning and measurable goals and outcomes of learning.

7.2.2. Transformative- Sees teacher-student relationship as reciprocal and more egalitarian; states learning happens in a fluid-like manner with student becoming an active participant in the construction of knowledge, rather than in a controlled, one-directional flow from teacher to student. Utilizes the dialectical method heavily. Views learning as multidimensional/happening on various developmental levels (intellectually, spiritually, emotionally, creatively); outcomes are clearly evidenced, but may be difficult to "measure". Defines purpose of education a one in which human consciousness is raised and societal change, consequently, happens simultaneously.

8. History of U.S. Education

8.1. Reform Movements

8.1.1. Common School Era

8.1.1.1. Establishment of compulsory elementary and secondary education in an effort to transmit western culture, and perpetuate the existing social order through vocational training that would provide for tracking of students.

8.1.2. Progressive Era

8.1.3. Post-WWII Era

8.1.4. The Standards Era

8.2. Historical Interpretations

8.2.1. Democratic-Liberal School

8.2.2. Radical-Revisionist School

8.2.2.1. Attributes school expansion to elites' efforts to meet their own political and economic needs; specifically, to allow for a direct pathway through which working class immigrants would receive training for factory work and socialization into American society.  The radical-revisionist school also states that school expansion never made equality of opportunity come to fruition.

8.2.3. Conservative Perspective

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Explanations for Educational Inequality

9.1.1. Student-Centered

9.1.1.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

9.1.1.1.1. posited that low-income and poor, minority students lack school-readiness skills due to having a culture which lacks values of educational achievement and attainment, hard work and delayed gratification. Places blame on students and families victimized by effects of poverty; removes responsibility to facilitate student success from schools & communities.

9.1.1.2. Cultural Difference Theory

9.1.1.2.1. acknowledges that poor minority students do come from a culture different from that of middle-class, Caucasian culture, but that cause of students' lack of readiness comes from poverty which is induced by a society whose social systems are embedded with racism and discrimination; equaling to unequal, inequitable life chances for poor minority students.

9.1.2. School-Centered

9.1.2.1. School Financing

9.1.2.1.1. Because schools are traditionally funded via property tax revenue, and housing patterns are typically highly stratified by class & race, schools in suburban middle-class and affluent areas receive much higher amounts of funding than rural and and urban areas. This create a huge disparity in per pupil expenditures across districts and within school systems.

9.1.2.2. School Effectiveness

9.1.2.2.1. Effective schooling' places responsibility for student success back on teachers and schools by recognizing that schools do, in fact, affect educational outcomes. This explanation provides specific characteristics that effective schools have but fails to provide a research-validated pathway to development of school effectiveness.

9.1.2.2.2. Between Schools

9.1.2.3. School Differences

9.1.2.3.1. Within Schools

9.1.2.4. Gender

9.1.2.4.1. Curriculum

9.1.2.4.2. School Organization

10. Educational Reform

10.1. School-Based Reforms

10.1.1. School-Choice

10.1.1.1. The general idea of this policy is to give students and parents alternative choices for school attendance outside of their home school, in order to better their opportunities for school success. This policy has been evidenced to increase stratification within school districts and doesn't clearly evidence an increase in student achievement.

10.1.2. Charter Schools

10.1.2.1. These are schools which receive state funding, but are run by private for-profit companies. The notion behind the justification for charter schools is that privatization will liberate school processes from bureaucracy and increase the functionality and effectiveness of the school as a whole. Research does not unequivocally support this claim.

10.1.3. Privitization

10.1.3.1. For-profit companies are hired to take over failing school, provide tutoring, and contracts for educational materials and equipment. Strategical efficacy of such efforts has not yet been evidenced to be more advantageous in regard to increased student learning.

10.1.4. Vouchers

10.1.4.1. Provide state money to parents to pay for their students to attend private schools. The justification for this policy is that low-income, minority students will be given an opportunity to attend a school that will increase their achievement and better their life chances. Again, the research on the relationship between voucher systems and student achievement does not evidence statistically significant gains.

10.2. Societal Reforms

10.2.1. School Finance Reform

10.2.1.1. Aim at providing equitable funding for all schools based on the needs of the students enrolled in a given district. The only critique of this reform is that without addressing social and economic factors associated with poverty, school finance reform will not be enough to affect the achievement gap.

10.2.2. Full Service & Community Schools

10.2.2.1. These schools provide a comprehensive system of medical, educational, financial, and social services to families of a certain community in order to fully meet the needs of low-income families and students. HCZ is a program that utilizes this approach, and it has yielded statistically gains in student achievement. Nevertheless, critics of the model have warned of the model's perspective of cultural deficiency, highly disciplinarian processes.