Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. perspectives

1.1.1. liberal

1.1.2. conservative

1.1.3. radical

1.1.4. neo-liberal

1.1.4.1. mix between conservative and liberal

1.2. purposes of schooling

1.2.1. intellectual

1.2.1.1. cognitive skills in math, science, history, and language

1.2.2. political

1.2.2.1. to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism

1.2.3. social

1.2.3.1. to help people be sociable

1.2.4. economic

1.2.4.1. prepare students for their occupation

1.2.5. society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, and values

1.3. what type of society do we live in?

1.3.1. every person determines their outcome

1.3.2. every person is responsible for their outcome

1.3.3. economically free markets best serve people

1.3.4. individuals make their own future and determine their own success

1.3.5. individuals make society

1.3.6. capitalism and free economies must be kept in check

1.3.7. governments must intervene to insure equality

1.3.8. governments must address societal issues

1.3.9. economies unregulated cause unfair distribution of wealth and opportunities

1.3.10. educational opportunities must be equal across the nation

1.3.11. government should be able to provide all citizens with a minimally acceptable standard of living

1.3.12. capitalism and free economically is the root of the educational problems

1.3.13. problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation

1.3.14. issues must be addressed at the social class level not the individual

1.4. FAPE

1.4.1. Free and Appropriate Public Education

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Brown v. Board of Education

2.2. Plessy v. Ferguson

2.3. The school serves as the focal point for addressing societal issues.

2.4. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647

2.5. Colleges were established before the country was created. (Harvard, 1636, Yale 1701)

2.6. Wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, civics.

2.7. Franklin saw education to support trades and common man. Jefferson supported public education.

2.8. rise of common school

2.8.1. meritocracy

2.8.1.1. higher education

2.8.2. grammar school became elementary schools

2.8.3. dame schools created for girls

2.8.4. secondary schools were for boys and the elite

2.8.5. in the south, education was mainly for upper class

2.8.6. first state board of education

2.8.6.1. 1837 in Massachussets

2.8.7. teacher education

2.8.8. public education was for public stability and social mobility

2.9. Morrill Act est. land grants in each county and state for public education

2.10. education for women and slaves was limited

2.10.1. women were educated for domestic purposes

2.10.2. slaves were not educated with the exception of a few northern states that had special schools for African Americans

2.11. Mount Holyoke Seminary 1837, women’s college had same requirements for women as for men.

2.12. first public university to admit women was the University of Iowa in 1856

2.13. gap between rich and poor widened as industrial revolution called for educated workers

2.14. John Dewey-progressivism

2.15. committee of ten

2.15.1. the committee's recommendation for high school in 1918

2.15.2. 1. health

2.15.3. 2. command of fundamental process

2.15.4. 3.worthy home membership

2.15.5. 4. vocation

2.15.6. 5. citizenship

2.15.7. 6. worthy use of leisure

2.15.8. 7. ethical character

2.16. four themes for high school purposes in 1875

2.16.1. Tension between classical subjects such as Latin and Greek versus science and math, etc.

2.16.2. College entrance requirements due to so many disparities in entrance requirements.

2.16.3. High School students should be prepared for life not college.

2.16.4. All students should follow the same courses of study regardless of need for further education.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

3.2. persell's model for analyzing school and societies relationship

3.2.1. The societal level includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

3.2.2. The institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media.

3.2.3. The Interpersonal includes all the processes, symbols  interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals.

3.2.4. The Intrapsychic which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

3.3. schools v society

3.3.1. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission.

3.3.2. Students are taught the values and beliefs of the society for them to think and act like other members of society.

3.3.3. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which results in how they are successful.

3.3.4. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend.

3.3.5. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement.

3.3.6. Where you go to school can determine your success more than achievement.

3.3.7. Interactional theorist suggest that schools are middle class organizations and lower social classes are at a disadvantage.

3.4. academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement

3.5. Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis.

3.6. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. generic notions

4.2. key researchers

4.2.1. idealism

4.2.1.1. Socrates

4.2.1.2. Plato

4.2.2. realism

4.2.2.1. Thomas Aquinas

4.2.2.2. Francis Bacon

4.2.2.3. John Locke

4.2.3. pragmatism

4.2.3.1. John Dewey

4.2.3.2. George Sanders Pierce

4.2.3.3. William James

4.2.3.4. John Locke

4.2.3.5. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.3. goal of education

4.3.1. Realism

4.3.1.1. understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

4.3.2. pragmatism

4.3.2.1. learning through experience

4.3.2.2. scientific inquiry

4.3.2.3. provide students with the knowledge to improve society

4.3.3. existentialism

4.3.3.1. the focus is on the individual

4.3.3.2. cognitively and affectively

4.3.4. neo-marxism

4.3.4.1. schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups

4.3.5. post-modernists

4.3.5.1. explore differences

4.3.5.2. explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible

4.4. role of teachers

4.4.1. who they are

4.4.2. why they do what they do

4.4.3. selecting knowledge for their classroom

4.4.4. idealist

4.4.4.1. role model

4.4.4.2. provoke thoughts

4.4.5. realist

4.4.5.1. presents ideas in a clear and consistent manner

4.4.5.2. enable students to examine from an objective approach

4.4.6. pragmatism

4.4.6.1. facilitator of learning activities

4.4.7. existentialism

4.4.7.1. the reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students

4.4.7.2. personal relationship with students

4.4.8. neo-marxism

4.4.8.1. engage students to critically examine the world which is similar to "wide wakeness"

4.4.9. post-modernists

4.4.9.1. an agent of change

4.5. method of instruction

4.5.1. realism

4.5.1.1. lecture

4.5.1.2. question and answer

4.5.1.3. discussion

4.5.2. idealism

4.5.2.1. disscussion

4.5.2.2. questioning

4.5.2.3. lecture on material not present

4.5.3. pragmatism

4.5.3.1. learn individually as well as in groups

4.5.4. existentialism

4.5.4.1. each students has a different learning style

4.5.4.2. pose questions

4.5.4.3. work together

4.6. curriculum

4.6.1. idealism

4.6.1.1. study the great works

4.6.1.2. study history

4.6.1.3. basic core foundation

4.6.2. realism

4.6.2.1. consist of a basic body of knowledge

4.6.3. pragmatism

4.6.3.1. integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum

4.6.4. existentialism

4.6.4.1. humanities are heavily emphasized

4.6.4.2. students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world

4.6.5. neo-marxism

4.6.5.1. socially constructed

4.6.6. post-modernist

4.6.6.1. democratic process

4.6.6.2. everyone is involved

4.6.6.3. agents of change

4.7. dialectic

4.8. doctrine of reminiscence

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Governance

5.1.1. each state is responsible for education

5.1.2. US Department of Education created in 1970

5.1.3. Department of Edu has little power

5.2. Centralization

5.2.1. 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion

5.2.2. average elementary school - 450 students

5.2.3. average high school - 856 students

5.3. Student Composition

5.3.1. 53% white

5.3.2. ten states have no minorities

5.3.3. NYC 85% minority

5.3.4. LA 91% minority

5.3.5. Detroit 97% minority

5.4. Degree of Openness

5.4.1. open to all

5.4.2. very inclusive

5.4.3. democratic process

5.5. Private School

5.5.1. 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the US

5.5.2. constitute 25% of all schools

5.5.3. only educate 10% of all students

5.5.4. most are located on east and west coasts

5.6. Great Britain

5.6.1. in 19th century rich went to private schools and poor weren't educated

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Social Influences, Political influences and cultural and special interest

6.2. Conservatism of the 1980s and 1990s say we should teach what is fundamentally basic a common culture. Social Efficiency curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive

6.3. social efficiency is cornerstone of progessivism. Conservatist say social efficiency has diluted the curriculum.

6.4. social meliorist reform society through schools. Communities reflect what is important to them.

6.5. political influences of the curriculum have determined and set battle lines.

6.6. private schools gain popularity because students choose schools that support their belief.

6.7. other influences

6.7.1. evolutionist

6.7.2. creationists

6.7.3. science and math

6.7.4. nation at risk

6.7.5. NCLB

6.7.6. RTT

6.8. sociology of the curriculum

6.8.1. society influences curriculum

6.8.2. formal curriculum

6.8.3. informal or hidden curriculum

6.8.4. null curriculum

6.9. social order determines the curriculum

6.10. capitalist society

6.11. multiculturalist

6.12. conservatists

6.13. pedagogic influences

6.13.1. mimetic and transformative approaches

6.14. stratification of the curriculum

6.14.1. students are tracked and directed to specific curriculum

6.14.2. tracking begins in elementary

6.15. effects of curriculum

6.15.1. schooling does have an impact

6.16. maturity includes chronological maturity

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. calculating educational and life outcomes

7.1.1. social stratification

7.1.2. human differences

7.2. social stratification-three systems

7.2.1. caste

7.2.2. estate

7.2.3. class systems

7.3. functionalist theorists support the idea that each students' success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed

7.4. class

7.4.1. schools represent the middle and upper class

7.4.2. parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance

7.5. race

7.5.1. minorities do not receive same as white americans

7.6. gender

7.6.1. in twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender

7.6.2. disparities still exist

7.7. SAT and ACT test determine factor for education success

7.8. students with special needs have had tremendous gains

7.9. school differences and educational outcomes

7.9.1. do differences in schools contribute to successe

7.9.2. what about location

7.10. the coleman study 1966

7.10.1. study found it did not contribute to student outcome as much as student body composition between schools

7.11. coleman study 1982

7.11.1. private school students outperform public

7.11.2. difference in schools makes a difference

7.12. coleman study 2010

7.12.1. where people go is related to race

7.12.2. therefore schools make a difference

7.13. school segregation

7.13.1. despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is rising

7.14. educational attainment and economic achievement

7.14.1. college grads have higher salaries

7.14.2. the amount of education is related to life chances

7.14.3. life chances are related to social level and race

7.15. education provides social and economic mobility

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind. Conservatist say we should return to humanist foundations

8.2. sociological explanations

8.2.1. conflict theorists support the idea that student's success is affected by their environment

8.2.2. interactionists theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

8.3. multidimensional factors include everything

9. Educationally Reform

9.1. characteristics of a highly effective teacher

9.1.1. a calling for the profession

9.1.2. professional knowledge

9.1.3. personal qualities

9.1.4. with-it-ness

9.1.5. instructional effectiveness

9.1.6. good communicator

9.1.7. street smart

9.1.8. willing to go the extra mile

9.1.9. lifelong learner

9.2. federal involvement

9.3. school-based reform

9.4. societal, community, economic, and political reforms

9.5. school finance reforms

9.6. full service schools

10. Limits and Promises

10.1. achievement gap

10.1.1. where students are vs where they should be

10.1.2. caused due to funding, environment, teacher quality, parents

10.1.3. needs assessment

10.2. Crisis in Urban Education

10.2.1. demographic trends

10.2.2. social stratification

10.2.3. socioeconomic/academic achievement

10.2.4. inequalities in school systems

10.2.5. school choice is an issue

10.3. Decline of Literacy

10.3.1. basic skills of fundamentals

10.3.2. teaching to the test

10.3.3. pass them due to age and nowhere to go

10.3.4. schools become overcrowded

10.3.5. raising academic standards

10.4. Assessment Issues

10.4.1. just teaching for the test

10.4.2. authentic/true assessments

10.5. Four Elements of Foundations of Education

10.5.1. History

10.5.2. Philosophy

10.5.3. Politics

10.5.4. Sociology