Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. History of Education

1.1. Reform Movement

1.1.1. a movement in education to make schools more accessible and equal to everyone.

1.1.2. Horace Mann- began the reform movement in education. Mann played a key role in the beginning of free public education. He lobbied for and served on the first state Massachusetts Board of Education.

1.2. Historical Interpretation

1.2.1. Equity and excellence- a way of interpreting the U.S. school system and its history. Education has not always been for everyone, but it has evolved into a more equal place for all students to learn.

1.3. Brown v. Board of Education

1.3.1. Contradicted the Plessy v. Ferguson case by stating that racial segregation in schools was unconstitutional.

1.4. Plessy v. Ferguson

1.4.1. U.S. Supreme Court case from 1896 that upheld the rights of states to pass laws allowing or even requiring racial segregation in public and private institutions such as schools.

1.5. The Committee of Ten created by National Education Association and chaired by Charles Elliot

1.5.1. Recommendations for high school cirriculum in 1918:                       1.Health 2. Command of fundamental processes 3. Worthy home membership 4. Vocation 5. Citizenship 6. Worthy use of leisure 7. Ethical character

1.5.2. They also est. Carnegie units for graduation and college entrance curriculum.

2. Sociology of Education

2.1. Relationship between School and Society is a flow of 4 levels:

2.1.1. The Societal Level- the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification

2.1.2. The Institutional Level- family, schools, churches, business, government and media

2.1.3. The Interpersonal Level- all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals

2.1.4. The Intrapsychic Level- the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions

2.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

2.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

2.2.2. Employment

2.2.3. Education and Mobility

2.2.4. Inside the Schools

2.2.5. Teacher Behavior

2.2.6. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

2.2.7. Education and Inequality

2.2.8. Inadequate Schools

2.2.9. Tracking

2.2.10. De Facto Segregation

2.2.11. Gender

2.2.12. Sociology and Current Educational Crisis

2.3. Theoretical Perspectives

2.3.1. Functional Theories

2.3.2. Conflict Theories

2.3.3. Interactional Theories

2.4. Effective Schools possess:

2.4.1. Strong Leadership

2.4.2. Safe and Orderly Environment

2.4.3. High Expectations for All

2.4.4. Continual View of Student Progress

2.4.5. Mission Statement

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Idealism

3.1.1. Role of the teacher

3.1.1.1. To bring out what is already in their mind

3.1.1.2. To provoke thought

3.1.1.3. a role model in the classroom

3.1.2. Idealist in education encourage students to search for truth and with truth comes responsibility. Education is a transformation.

3.1.3. Methods of Instruction

3.1.3.1. Discussion

3.1.3.2. Lecture on material not presented in text

3.1.3.3. Questioning

3.1.4. Notable Realists

3.1.4.1. Socrates

3.1.4.2. Plato

3.2. Realism

3.2.1. The material world is real, it exist without anyone perceiving, and the real world exist before ideas exist.

3.2.2. Notable Realists

3.2.2.1. John Locke

3.2.2.1.1. Tabula Rasa- Blank Slate

3.2.2.2. Francis Bacon

3.2.2.3. Thomas Aquinas

3.2.3. Role of the teacher

3.2.3.1. Present ideas in a clear and consistent manner

3.2.3.2. enable students to examine from an objective approach

3.2.4. Methods of Instruction

3.2.4.1. Lecture

3.2.4.2. Question and Answer

3.2.4.3. Discussion

3.3. Pragmatism

3.3.1. Notable Pragmatics

3.3.1.1. John Dewey

3.3.1.2. George Sanders Pierce

3.3.1.3. William James

3.3.1.4. John Locke

3.3.1.5. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

3.3.2. Goal of Education

3.3.2.1. Provide students with the knowledge to improve society

3.3.3. Role of the teacher

3.3.3.1. facilitator of learning activities

3.3.4. Methods of Instruction

3.3.4.1. Students learn individually as well as in groups

3.3.5. Curriculum

3.3.5.1. Integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum

3.4. Existentialism & Phenomenology

3.4.1. We are who we are as a result of our decisions

3.4.2. Perception of the world is based on one’s ability to make sense of it

3.5. Neo-Marxism

3.5.1. The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class.

3.5.2. A capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives.

3.5.3. Role of the Teacher

3.5.3.1. Engage students to critically examine the world which is similar to “wide wakeness”

3.5.4. Goal of Education

3.5.4.1. schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Governance- each state is responsible for education. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970, and it has very little power.

4.2. There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S.

4.3. Great Britain's Educational System

4.3.1. In 19th Century England the rich had education in privates schools. The poor did not get educated.

4.3.2. Margaret Thatcher and conservatives tried to privatize public education by created parental choice and reorganizing the administrative structure, but with very limited success.

4.3.3. The 1988 Education Reform Act created a more centralized curriculum and system of national assessments.

4.4. France's Educational System

4.4.1. France has a very elitists educational system.

4.4.2. They have schools for the poor and schools for the elite.

4.4.3. The government controls everything down to the classroom, and is it very competitive.

4.5. Japan's Educational System

4.5.1. After WWII, Japan focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes.

4.5.2. Education is highly competitive. Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams.

4.5.3. A double system of education exist: students are educated publicly and then pursue the non-formal school or jukus.

4.6. Germany's Educational System

4.6.1. German students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers.

4.6.1.1. Hauptschule for lower level blue collar work

4.6.1.2. Realschule is for lower level white collar and technical positions.

4.6.1.3. Gymnasium is for the intellectual and high level management positions.

4.7. Finland's Educational System

4.7.1. Finland had historically had the highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams.

4.7.2. The one standardized test is for college entrance.

4.7.3. Finland has a high regard for teachers and has competitive salaries. They have a large amount of autonomy or freedom to teach what they feel is needed.

4.8. School Processes and Culture

4.8.1. Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will.

4.8.2. Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students.

4.8.3. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching.

4.8.4. Communities are in conflict with administration.

4.9. Teachers, Teaching, and Professionalism

4.9.1. In 2008, 75% of all teachers are women.

4.9.2. John Goodland- teachers should have a major part in reform.

4.9.3. Thirty-seven percent have B.S.

4.9.4. Sixty percent have Master’s degrees.

4.9.5. One percent had doctorates.

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Alabama Learning Exchange website: www.alex.state.al.us

5.2. Currently. white Americans are the dominant group in society,

5.3. Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching

5.3.1. Mimetic is conservative and says that there is a basic core of knowledge to be learned by all.

5.3.2. Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum.

5.4. Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization.

5.5. Social meliorists – reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction

5.6. 3 Types of Curriculum

5.6.1. Formal curriculum – what is cognitively taught (subjects)

5.6.2. Informal or Hidden curriculum – taught but not obvious to sight

5.6.3. Null curriculum – what is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

5.7. Curriculum

5.7.1. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum.

5.7.2. Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

5.7.3. Social order determines the curriculum.

5.8. Tracking begins in elementary and continues through secondary by means of testing.

5.9. Political Influences

5.9.1. Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind

5.9.2. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead.

6.2. Americans believe that hard work, thrift and a bit of luck should determine who gets ahead.

6.3. "Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences." 3 TYPES OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION:

6.3.1. Caste- a persons’ social level is  determined by race or religion.

6.3.2. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth.

6.3.3. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement.

6.4. Race

6.4.1. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

6.4.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans.

6.5. Class

6.5.1. Parental income is directly related to educational achievement and test performance.

6.5.2. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success.

6.6. Gender

6.6.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

6.6.2. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries.

6.7. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success.

6.8. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975.

6.9. The Coleman Study 1966

6.9.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. P. 367

6.9.2. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success.

6.10. The Coleman Study 1982

6.10.1. Private school students outperform public school students.

6.10.2. Differences in schools do make a difference.

6.10.3. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students.

6.11. The Coleman Study 2010

6.11.1. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status. P. 369

6.11.2. Therefore, schools do make a difference.

6.12. School Segregation

6.12.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing.

6.12.2. Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools.

6.13. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement

6.13.1. College graduates have higher salaries. P.375

6.13.2. The amount of education is directly related to life chances.

6.13.3. Life chances are directly related to social level and race; however, schools do have a slight impact. P. 377

6.14. Education provides social and economic mobility but for the most part perpetuates the social classes.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

7.1.1. Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

7.1.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

7.1.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

7.2. Factors that influence student success:

7.2.1. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student.

7.2.2. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations.

7.3. Characteristics of effective schools:

7.3.1. A climate of high expectations for students by teachers and administrators.

7.3.2. Strong and effective leaderships by a principal or school head.

7.3.3. Accountability processes for students and teachers.

7.3.4. The monitoring of student learning.

7.3.5. A high degree of instructional time on task, where teachers spend a great deal of their time teaching and students spend a great deal of their time learning.

7.3.6. Flexibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems.

7.4. Multidimensional factors include everything that affects student success.

7.5. Do schools reproduce inequality?

8. School Reform

8.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

8.1.1. A ‘Calling’ for the profession

8.1.2. Professional knowledge

8.1.3. Personal qualities

8.1.4. With-it-ness

8.1.5. Instructional Effectiveness

8.1.6. Good communicator

8.1.7. Street smart

8.1.8. Willing to go the extra mile

8.1.9. Lifelong learner

8.2. Reform in education 1980s to 2012 Two Waves of Attach

8.2.1. The first was concerned with accountability and achievement.

8.2.2. The second was concerned with the processes of the school.

8.2.3. Top down management from the federal government. P.513

8.3. Federal Involvement

8.3.1. America 2000 p. 514

8.3.2. Goals 2000 p. 515

8.3.3. No Child Left Behind p. 517

8.3.4. Race To The Top p. 518

8.4. Neo-Liberal Approach

8.5. Societal and Community Approach

8.6. Teacher Education Programs

8.6.1. More intellectual demands in education programs

8.6.2. Attract and retain competent teachers

8.6.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development

8.6.4. Plan p. 5320

8.7. Do the best with what you have that is within your control.

9. Politics of Education

9.1. The Purposes of School- page 22

9.1.1. Intellectual- cognitive skills in math, reading, science, history, and language

9.1.2. Political- to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism

9.1.3. Social- to help people be sociable, productive members to society

9.1.4. Economic- prepare students for their occupation

9.1.5. Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, and values.

9.1.6. Problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation.

9.1.7. Educational opportunities must be equal across the nation, states and communities.

9.2. FAPE- Free and Appropriate Public Education

9.3. Three main political perspectives concerning education

9.3.1. Conservative

9.3.2. Liberal

9.3.3. Radical

10. Limits and Promises

10.1. The Effects of the Curriculum

10.1.1. The Achievement Gap- difference between what students know and what they should know.

10.1.1.1. Needs Assessment