Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Educational Reform

1.1. Reform in education 1980’s to 2012 Two Waves of Attack; The first was concerned with accountability and achievement. The second was concerned with the processes of the school. Top down management from the federal government.

1.1.1. Federal Involvement America 2000 Goals 2000 No Child Left Behind Race To The Top Do the best with what you have that is within your control.

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Intellectual – cognitive skills in math, reading, science ,    history, language Political – to indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism Social – to help people be socialable, productive members of society   Economic – prepare students for their occupation

2.2. Pg.22

2.3. Purpose of Schooling- Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, values. What type of society do we wish to have? What constitutes the “good life” and a “good person”?

2.4. Competition is good. Every person determines their outcome. Every person is responsible for their outcome. Economically free markets best serve people. Individuals make their own future and determine their own success. Individuals make society.

2.5. FAPE-Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) is an educational right of children with disabilities in the United States that is guaranteed by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA).

3. History of U.S. Education

3.1. Brown v. Board of Education-Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.

3.2. Plessy v. Ferguson-  (1896) US Supreme Court. It upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal".

3.3. Ben Franklin-Not everyone need to go to college. (education should be paid for) for rich families!

3.4. Girls stayed at home when boys went to school to study the word.

3.5. College was created for teachers in Mass 1839

3.6. Schools became the focus of social problems such as hygiene, health and social skills.p.70

3.6.1. Curriculum supports the needs of the child and thus gives knowledge/insight to human history and promotes impetus for change and betterment of society. P.71 John Dewey-Progressivism Embryonic Society – miniature community Dewey’s philosophy is the reason we have vocational schools. The Committee of Ten 1893-The committee's recommendation for high school in 1918 was; Health Command of fundamental processes Worthy home membership Vocation Citizenship Worthy use of leisure Ethical character They also est. Carnegie units for graduation and college entrance curriculum.

3.7. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students.

3.8. IDEA was originally enacted by Congress in 1975 to ensure that children with disabilities have the opportunity to receive a free appropriate public education, just like other children. The law has been revised many times over the years.

4. Sociological Perspectives

4.1. Does sociology help educators to create more effective schools which include; strong leadership, a safe and orderly environment, high expectations that all can learn, continual review of student progress, and a clear mission?

4.2. Theoretical Perspectives include; Functional Theories, Conflict Theories, Interactional Theories.

4.2.1. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth. The top 2% of the world possess 90% of the wealth.

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. A philosophical approach aids teachers in :selecting knowledge for the class, ordering their classroom, interacting, selecting values for their classroom.

5.1.1. a philosophy aids teachers in understanding- who they are, and why they do what they do

5.1.2. Role of the teacher-a role model in the classroom/ to provoke thought/ to bring out what is already in their mind

5.1.3. PRAGMATISM- John Dewey, George Sanders Pierce

5.2. REALISM-The material world is real It exist without anyone perceiving The real world exist before ideas exist. Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking Syllogism or a system of logical thinking A major premise A minor premise Conclusion Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions.                                                      *Notable Realists                                       Thomas Aquinas, Francis Bacon, John Locke    BLANK SLATE OR TABULA RASA                     Goal of Education Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. The Structure of U.S. Schools

6.1.1. Centralization

6.1.2. 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion.

6.1.3. 1930's there were 128,000 public school districts.

6.1.4. 1980's there were slightly under 16,000 districts in the U.S.

6.1.5. The average elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856.

6.1.6. Students composition in Public Schools 53.5% white

6.1.7. Private Schools There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students. In 1930’s there were less than 10,000 private schools In 2009 there were 21,780 private elementary and secondary schools. John Goodlad says the teachers must have a major part in reform. In 2008, 75% of all teachers are women. Thirty-seven percent have B.S. Sixty percent have Master’s degrees. One percent had doctorates. Average age is 46. A shortage of teachers exists.

6.1.8. Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts. Connecticut has the most and Wyoming has the least.

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Social Influences Political influences Societies’ influences Cultural influences Special interests

7.1.1. Idealists say we should teach the great works of mankind Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages and emphasize the influence of western civilization. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism Conservatist say that social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture. Should the curriculum be flexible to meet all needs or should it be meeting the needs of a diverse population?

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Chapter 8 Equality of Opportunity-Do you have the following beliefs? I believe that hard work can get you anywhere.

8.2. Social stratification-three systems

8.2.1. Caste-social level is determined by race or religion. Estate systems- social level is determined by family value and worth. Class systems-worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement.

8.3. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. Race Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans.

8.4. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975. IDEA 1996 IDEA was originally enacted by Congress in 1975 to ensure that children with disabilities have the opportunity to receive a free appropriate public education, just like other children.   REI – Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming. P. 364

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. Statistics shows that educational inequality is attributed to economic disparities. More often than not this despair effects certain cultures more than others. Education inequality takes place in certain locations and more recently, effecting students who speak different languages. Unfortunately, educational inequality will continue to take place where minorities attend school because of the poverty in the community

9.1.1. There are many factors as to why education is unequal. Just a few of the several variables include family of origin, gender and social class. Studies show that family background is the most influential factor in a students achievement. With this being said, it is extremely difficult for a child that lives in a poor community to receive the same education as a student who lives in an elite community. Throughout this presentation we will learn that there is more than hard work, thrift and a little bit of luck that goes into educational inequality. Educational inequalities can effect the overall educational success of an individual. Those who struggle with educational inequality are less likely to achieve educational success than a student who does not. For example, a child from a poverty stricken home is not as likely to continue on to college as a child from a high income household would be. There are rare occasions of success stories from children suffering from educational inequalities. However, the majority never continue to college or achieve educational success.

10. Limits and Promises

10.1. The Achievement Gaps-What students know and what they should know.

10.2. Achievement Gap-Causes are due to funding, environment, teacher quality, parents.

10.3. Needs assessment-A needs assessment is a systematic process for determining and addressing needs, or "gaps" between current conditions and desired conditions or "wants".