Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Evidence shows that highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools and minorities do better in integrated schools. P. 372-373

2. Politics of Education

2.1. Purpose of schooling

2.1.1. Intellectual- cognitive skill on math, reading, science,history,language.

2.1.2. Political-To indoctrinate people into a particular order of patriotism.

2.1.3. Social-to help people sociable, productive members of society.

2.1.4. Economic- prepare students for their occupation.

2.1.5. Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills values.

2.1.5.1. What type of society do we wish to have?

2.1.5.2. What constitutes the "good life" and a "good person"?

2.2. Political Perspective

2.2.1. Capitalism and free economies must be kept in check.

2.2.2. Governments must intervene to insure equality in education and economies.

2.2.3. Governments must address societal issues.

2.2.4. Economies unregulated cause unfair distribution of wealth and opportunities.

2.2.5. Educational opportunities must be equal across the nation, states and communities.

2.2.6. Individuals make society

2.2.6.1. Every person determines their outcome.

2.2.6.2. Every person is responsible for their outcome.

2.2.6.3. Individuals make their own future and determine their own success.

2.2.7. Capitalism and free economy is the root of the educational problems.

2.2.8. Problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation

2.3. Conservative-from this point of view, individuals and groups must complete in social environment in order to survive, and human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive. A second feature of conservative viewpoint is the belief that the free market or market economy of capitalism is both the most economically productive economically productive economic system and the system that is most respectful of human needs.

2.4. Liberal - The liberal perspective, then is concerned primary with balancing the economic productivity of capitalism with the social and economic needs of the majority of the people in the United States.

2.5. Radical- Radicals believe that the capitalist system is central to U.S. social problems.

3. History of U.S. Education

3.1. Brown V. Education

3.1.1. In 1954 U.S Supreme Court ruled that separate but equal schools for black and white children is unconstitutional.

3.2. Plessy V. Ferguson

3.2.1. In 1896  U.S Supreme Court rules that separate but equal facilities are constitutional

3.3. Old Deluder Laws

3.3.1. It remains a landmark in the history of U.S education,for it established a precedent for public responsibility for education.

3.4. Meritocracy

3.4.1. Provided higher education

3.5. Massachusetts School Law of 1647

3.5.1. Had to teach the students how to interpret the bible for their salvation. Still a law for Massachusetts.

3.6. Urbanization and the  Progressive Impetus

3.6.1. John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society

3.7. The Committee of Ten, 1893

3.7.1. Health

3.7.2. Command of fundamental processes

3.7.3. Worthy home membership

3.7.4. Vocation

3.7.5. Citizenship

3.7.6. Worthy use of leisure

3.7.7. Ethical character

3.8. Reforms of the Standards Era  1980’s to present day Cycles of Reform

3.8.1. Elementary/Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students.

3.8.2. 1993 IDEA

3.8.3. Lee V Macon

3.8.4. NCLB (Bush)

3.8.4.1. No child left behind

4. Sociological Perspectives

4.1. Persell’s Model

4.1.1. The societal level

4.1.1.1. includes the most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, level of development, and system of social stratification.

4.1.2. The institutional level

4.1.2.1. includes family, schools, churches, business, government and media.

4.1.3. The Interpersonal

4.1.3.1. includes all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures and rituals.

4.1.4. The Intrapsychic

4.1.4.1. which includes the individual thoughts, beliefs, values and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

4.2. Uses of Sociology for teachers

4.2.1. Sociology help educators to create more effective schools which include

4.2.1.1. strong leadership

4.2.1.2. a safe and orderly environment

4.2.1.3. high expectations that all can learn

4.2.1.4. continual review of student progress

4.2.1.5. clear mission

4.3. The Relation between  Schools and Society

4.3.1. Theoretical Perspectives include

4.3.1.1. Functional Theories

4.3.1.1.1. Functional poses that society is best when a consensus rules.

4.3.1.2. Conflict Theories

4.3.1.2.1. Conflict poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups.

4.3.1.2.2. Conflict- schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend.

4.3.1.3. Interactional Theories

4.3.1.3.1. Interactional poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers

4.3.1.3.2. Interactional theorist suggest that schools are middle class organizations and lower social classes are at a disadvantage.

4.4. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

4.4.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

4.4.1.1. The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement.

4.4.1.2. Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement.

4.4.2. Employment

4.4.2.1. More education results in better jobs and opportunities

4.4.3. Education and Mobility

4.4.3.1. Education is the great equalizer in the status race.

4.4.3.2. Where you attend has great impetus

4.4.3.3. Poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education attainment.

4.4.3.4. Competition is not fair. Winners win with exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition.

4.4.3.5. Rules are not always fair

4.4.4. Inside the Schools

4.4.4.1. Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs.

4.4.4.2. Not all students study the same curriculum

4.4.4.3. Curriculum determines who goes to college

4.4.4.4. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum.

4.4.5. Teacher Behavior

4.4.5.1. Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis.

4.4.5.2. Teacher expectations directly influence student achievement

4.4.5.3. Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success.

4.4.5.4. The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher student self esteem and success.

4.4.6. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

4.4.6.1. Rebellious students and violence in schools

4.4.6.2. Nerds, coolness and athletes

4.4.6.3. Four major types of college students includes

4.4.6.3.1. Careerists which are middle and upper middle class and do not have a good college experience.

4.4.6.3.2. Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politically motivated.

4.4.6.3.3. Strivers come from middle and lower class hard workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree.

4.4.6.3.4. The Unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied.

4.4.7. Education and Inequality

4.4.7.1. American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base

4.4.7.2. The top 20% in the U.S. possess 75% of the wealth

4.4.7.3. The top 2% of the world possess 90% of the wealth

4.4.8. Inadequate Schools

4.4.8.1. Affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer schools.

4.4.9. Tracking

4.4.9.1. Tracking has a direct effect on student expectations and success.

4.4.10. The Current Educational Crisis

4.4.10.1. One third of children are at-risk of failing

4.4.10.2. One fourth of preschool children live in poverty

5. Philosophy of Education

5.1. Idealism (Socrates and Plato)                 Dialectic and " dialectical approach” “doctrine of reminiscence” Idealist in education encourage students to search for truth. With truth comes responsibility.

5.1.1. Role of the Teacher;

5.1.1.1. a role model in the classroom

5.1.1.1.1. To provoke thought

5.1.1.2. To bring out what is already in their mind

5.1.2. Methods of Instruction

5.1.2.1. Discussion

5.1.2.2. Questioning

5.1.2.3. Lecture on material not present in text

5.1.3. Curriculum

5.1.3.1. Study the great works

5.1.3.2. All new problems have their roots in the past

5.1.3.3. Study History

5.1.3.4. Great literature, sciences, math, history, philosphy

5.1.3.5. A basic core foundation

5.2. Realism                                                                 *The material world is real *It exist without anyone perceiving *The real world exist before ideas exist. *Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking *Syllogism or a system of logical thinking 1) A major premise 2) A minor premise 3) Conclusion 4) Understand the facts then make assumptions and conclusions.

5.2.1. Goal of Education

5.2.1.1. Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

5.2.2. Role of Teacher

5.2.2.1. Presents ideas in a clear and consistent manner

5.2.2.2. Enable students to examine from an objective approach

5.2.3. Methods of Instruction

5.2.3.1. Lecture

5.2.3.2. Questions and Answer

5.2.3.3. Discussion

5.2.4. Curriculum

5.2.4.1. Consist of a basic body of knowledge

5.3. Pragmatism                                                          Learning through experience (experiential learning “What is practical has meaning and value” The approach to learning is by scientific inquiry. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome. Ex. Problem – speculative thought – action - results

5.3.1. Goal of Education

5.3.1.1. Provide students with the knowledge to improve society

5.3.2. Role of the Teacher

5.3.2.1. Facilitator of learning activities

5.3.3. Methods of Instuction

5.3.3.1. Learn individually as well as in groups

5.3.4. Curriculum

5.3.4.1. Integrated core subjects, teaching across the curiculum

5.4. Philosophies that were born from Pragmatism Progressivism – John Dewey Social Reconstructionism – George Counts

5.4.1. * John Dewey- * George Sanders Pierce *William James *John Locke *Jean-Jacques Rousseau

5.5. Existentialism & Phenomenology                       * Existence precedes essence                           *We are who we are as a result of our decisions *Perception of the world is based on one’s  ability to make sense of it.

5.5.1. Goal of Education

5.5.1.1. The focus is on the individual, cognitively and effectively. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world.

5.5.2. Role of the Teacher

5.5.2.1. The reflective teacher enables students to be reflective students. It is a very personal teacher/student relationship. Students must become “wide awake”

5.5.3. Methods of Instruction

5.5.3.1. – Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together.

5.5.4. Curriculm

5.5.4.1. Humanities are heavily emphasized Students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world.

5.6. Neo-Marxism                                                      * The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class.                                                   * Neo-Marxist – a capitalist society should be economically proficient to allow its citizens to live productive and decent lives.

5.6.1. Goal of Education

5.6.1.1. schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups. Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives.

5.6.2. Role of Teacher

5.6.2.1. engage student s to critically examine the world which is similar to “wide wakeness”.

5.6.3. Curriculm

5.6.3.1. socially constructed Teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated.

5.7. Post Modernists and Critical Theory

5.7.1. Goal of Education

5.7.1.1. *is to explore differences  and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible.                                 * Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation.

5.7.2. Curriculum and Instruction

5.7.2.1. *Democratic processes                       *Teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education. *Schools and curriculum are agents of change.

5.7.3. Role of the Teacher

5.7.3.1. an agent of change

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. The Structure of U.S. Schools

6.1.1. Centralization *55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion. *1930’s there were 128,000 public school districts. *!980’s there were slightly under 16,000 districts in the U.S. *The average elementary school has 450 students. High schools have 856.

6.1.1.1. Governance;                                                          Those powers not mentioned in the constitution are explicitly delegated to the states. Each state is responsible for education. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970. The U.S. Dept. of Education has very little power.

6.1.1.2. Student Composition in Public Schools *53.5 % are white *Of the states, 16 have less than 50% white *Ten states have no minorities *Large states are heavily multiracial. *New York City is 85.6% minority. *Los Angeles is 91.3% minority *Detroit is 97.4% minority.

6.1.2. Degree of Openness *Very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments exist. *Very democratic process of education. Open to all and very inclusive.

6.1.2.1. In other countries individuals go through rigorous academic rites of passage. This design separates those that can and those that cannot as well as those that have and those that have not.

6.1.3. Private Schools *There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S. *Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students. *In 1930’s there were less than 10,000 private schools *In 2009 there were 21,780 private elementary and secondary schools.

6.1.3.1. Private Schools *Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts. *Connecticut has the most and Wyoming has the least. *In 1980’s and 1990’s studies indicate private schools were better learning environments. *Thus, school choice has a significant credibilty.

6.2. International Comparisons

6.2.1. Great Britain

6.2.1.1. *In 19th Century England the rich had education in privates schools. The poor did not get educated. *The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. *The 1944 Education created free elem. And sec. education for all. *England decentralized the education system which had been fundamentally elitists.                 * Margaret Thatcher and conservatives tried to privatize public education by created parental choice and reorganizing the administrative structure, but with very limited success.  *The 1988 Education Reform Act created a more centralized curriculum and system of national assessments.                                            *Schools are still very stratified socially and economically. *Comprehensive high schools which prepared students for the workforce have been eliminated.

6.2.2. France

6.2.2.1. *France has a very elitists educational system.  *Only the very elite have the opportunity to move up educationally.                                *They have schools for the poor and schools for the elite                                                    *The top students go to the grandes e’coles.   *The government controls everything down to the classroom.   *The France system is very competitive

6.2.3. Former Soviet Union

6.2.3.1. *Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need.  *Being a member of the elite Communist Party had benefits for those children.  *This special interest created a stratified system.  *The downfall of the Soviet Union was a result of the inequality that was created.  *Due to so many nationalities there is very little consensus among the former USSR states.

6.2.4. Japan

6.2.4.1. *In the 1880’s Japan centralized its educational system.  *After WWII, Japan focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes.  *Education is highly competitive.  *Very demanding and rigorous college entrance exams.  *A double system of education exist.  *Students are educated publicly and then pursue the non-formal school or jukus.   *There are 10,000 jukus in Japan.

6.2.5. Germany

6.2.5.1. *German students are sorted at an early age to be tracked into their appropriate careers.  *Hauptschule for lower level blue collar work  *Reschedule is for lower level white collar and technical positions.  *Gymnasium is for the intellectual and high level management positions.  *The system is therefore highly stratified and competitive.                                                          *The German system is opposite of the U.S. system which is open to all. *Academic achievement is very closely associated with social class.

6.2.6. Finland

6.2.6.1. *Finland had historically had the highest scores on math, science, and literacy exams.  *Racial and social classes have very few discrepancies across test scores in all areas.  *All tracking is eliminated.  *Almost no standardized testing.  *Emphasis is on formative evaluations.  *The one standardized test is for college entrance.                                                              * Finland has a high regard for teachers and has competitive salaries.  *They have a large amount of autonomy.  *Teachers have a high degree of job satisfaction.                                             *Teacher retention and shortages are not  issues.

6.3. School Processes and Cultures

6.3.1. *Teachers are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students    *Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching.  *Communities are in conflict with administration.   *Studies show that the principal establishes the goals levels of academic and social expectations and the effectiveness of disicipline.

6.3.1.1. *Effecting change in schools is difficult at its minimum.  *Bureaucracies control everything focusing on rules, regulations and conformity. *Bureaucratic rationality suppress creativity.  *Changing a school culture requires patience, skill and good will. “*Schools of Tomorrow…Today Project” in New York City Schools focuses on child-centered teaching.

6.3.1.2. *Schools are separate social organizations because;                                                            *They have definitive populations                     *They have political structures.  * They represent a multitude of social groups.  *They are prevailed by the “we feeling”.   *They have their own special culture.

6.3.2. *Changing a school;  *Conflict is a necessary part of change       *New behaviors must be learned.   *Team building must extend to all parts.   *Process and content are interrelated

6.4. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

6.4.1. *John Goodlad says that teachers must have a major part in reform.  *In 2008, 75% of all teachers are women.  *Thirty-seven percent have B.S.  *Sixty percent have Master’s degrees.       *One percent had doctorates. *Average age is 46. *A shortage of teachers exists.

6.4.2. *High school seniors indicate that less than 10% will be a teacher.  *Requirements according to NCLB  *A college degree  *Full certification.  *Demonstrable content knowledge in the subject area.  *Praxis tests are require in most states.  *Each state has a different test score acceptance level for certification.

6.4.3. *The nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result.  *This  multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burn-out.  *Teachers have had to develop all kinds of interpersonal skills. More of an artist than a technical teacher.  *Most effective feedback is from students.  *Key to teaching is exercising control.  *Control precedes teaching. A classroom must have control to be an effective learning environment.  *Turn each day into a special event

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Political influences

7.2. Societies’ influences

7.3. Social Influences

7.4. Cultural influences

7.5. Special interests

7.6. Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

7.6.1. Conservatist say we should return to a humanist foundation

7.6.1.1. Conservatist of the 1980’s and 1990’s say we should teach what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. P282

7.6.2. Social Efficiency became the cornerstone of Progressivism

7.6.2.1. The social class composition of the school and community have determined what is of value in the curriculum. P.285

7.6.3. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society

7.6.4. Social order determines the curriculum p. 292

7.7. Pedagogic Influences

7.7.1. Transformative says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum. P. 296

7.7.2. Student centered or teacher centered. P. 298

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead.

8.2. Calculating Educational and Life Outcomes

8.2.1. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies.

8.2.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences. P. 339

8.2.3. Social stratification – three systems

8.2.3.1. Caste- a persons’ social level is determined by race or religion. Estate systems – a persons’ social level is determined by family value and worth. Class systems – a persons’ worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. P. 340

8.2.4. The lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased because of inflation.

8.2.5. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

8.2.6. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. P. 340

8.2.7. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries. P. 343

8.2.8. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational success.

8.3. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975.

8.3.1. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 or the EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975.

8.3.2. REI – Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming. P. 364

8.4. School Differences and Educational Outcomes

8.4.1. The Coleman Study 1966

8.4.1.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. P. 367

8.4.1.2. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success. P. 367

8.4.2. The Coleman Study 1982

8.4.2.1. Private school students outperform public school students.

8.4.2.2. The difference is in how much more demanding private schools are of their students. P. 368

8.4.3. Coleman Study 2010 Challenges

8.4.3.1. Where a student attends school is often related to race and socioeconomic background. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater impact on student outcomes than an individual's race or socioeconomic status. P. 369

8.5. School Segregation

8.5.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing.

8.6. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement

8.6.1. College graduates have higher salaries. P.375

8.6.2. Education provides social and economic mobility but for the most part perpetuates the social classes. P. 377

9. Limits and Promises

9.1. Achievement Gap, Difference in what students do know, verse what students should know.

9.1.1. Needs Asssessment

10. Educational Inequality

10.1. Unequal Educational Achievement

10.1.1. Sociological Explanations of Inequality

10.1.1.1. Functionalist Theorists support the idea that each students’ success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed

10.1.1.2. Conflict Theorists support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

10.1.1.3. Interactionists Theorists support that student success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class schools and environment.

10.1.2. Student-centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture and the student

10.1.3. School-centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school climate and teacher expectations

10.1.4. Multidimensional factors include everything that affects student success

10.2. Student Centered Explanations p. 421

10.2.1. Genetic Differences Explanations p. 422

10.2.2. Cultural Deprivation Explanations p. 423

10.2.3. Cultural Differences Explanations p. 423-427

10.2.4. School Financing p. 428

10.2.5. Effective Schools p. 431

10.2.6. Between School Differences p. 433

10.3. Curriculum and Pedagogic

10.3.1. Within School Differences p. 434

10.4. Curriculum and Ability Grouping p. 434-436

10.4.1. Gender and Schooling p. 436-438

11. Educational Reform

11.1. Educational Reform and School Improvement

11.1.1. Characteristics of highly effective teachers

11.1.1.1. 1. A ‘Calling’ for the profession 2. Professional knowledge 3. Personal qualities 4. With-it-ness 5. Instructional Effectiveness 6. Good communicator 7. Street smart 8. Willing to go the extra mile 9. Lifelong learner

11.1.2. Reform in education 1980’s to 2012 p. 512 Two Waves of Attack;

11.1.2.1. The first was concerned with accountability and achievement

11.1.2.2. The second was concerned with the processes of the school.

11.1.2.3. Top down management from the federal government. P.513

11.1.3. Federal Involvement

11.1.3.1. America 2000 p. 514

11.1.3.2. Goals 2000 p. 515

11.1.3.3. No Child Left Behind p. 517

11.1.3.4. Race To The Top p. 518

11.1.4. Approaches to Reform p. 519

11.1.4.1. Neo Liberal Approach

11.1.4.2. Societal And Community Approach

11.1.5. School Based Reforms p. 520

11.1.5.1. School Choice

11.1.5.2. Charter Schools

11.1.5.3. Tuition Vouchers

11.1.5.4. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private)

11.1.5.5. Intersectional Choice Plans (public to private)

11.1.6. School-Business Partnerships p. 526- 527

11.1.6.1. Privatization of Schools

11.1.6.2. School to Work Programs

11.1.7. Teacher Education Programs p. 528

11.1.7.1. Three Major Points;

11.1.7.1.1. More intellectual demands in education programs

11.1.7.1.2. Attract and retain competent teachers

11.1.7.1.3. Reorganize educational academic and professional development

11.1.7.2. Teacher Quality p. 531

11.1.7.3. The Effective School Movement p. 531

11.1.7.4. Plan on p. 532

11.1.7.5. Highly Effective School Characteristics p. 533

11.1.8. Societal, Community, Economic and Political Reforms p. 535

11.1.8.1. State Takeovers Pros and Cons p. 536

11.1.9. School Finance Reforms p. 538

11.1.9.1. Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education.

11.1.10. Full Service Schools p. 539

11.1.10.1. Repair and educate the community

11.1.11. Connecting School Community and Societal Reforms p. 540

11.1.11.1. A Theory of Educational Problems and Reforms p. 541 Solutions and Proposals p. 543 – 545 Integrative Realm p. 542 - basic skills and knowledge is the focus for school improvement and student achievement. Developmental Realm – focus is on developing the whole child by having schools become more humane institutions.

11.1.12. Conclusion: Do the best with what you have that is within your control.