Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Brown vs. Board of Edu

1.2. Plessy vs. Ferguson

1.3. The Purposes of Schooling (pg.22)- what is the purpose of schooling? Society's ability to transmit knowledge, skills, values. Good life? Good person?

1.3.1. Intellectual-

1.3.1.1. Political- where do you stand? (pg.23) do you determine your outcome? Yes. Every person is responsible for their outcome. -Free enterprise serve people.- Individuals make their own future and determine their own success. -Individuals make society. -Government should be able to provide all citizens with a minimally acceptable standard of living. -Problems in education & economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation. -Issues addressed at social class level.

1.3.1.1.1. Social-

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Freedom of worship

2.1.1. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647- students learn to read the Bible

2.1.1.1. Massachusetts School Law of 1647

2.1.1.1.1. Society-stratified

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Can schools create a more functional and equitable society?

3.2. What is the relationship between schools and society?

3.3. Effective Schools: -Strong leadership -safe & orderly environment -high expectations (all can learn) -continual review of student progress -clear mission

3.4. Student success? Teacher interaction? -Schools are agents of cultural social transmission

3.5. Students taught to act like society-cookie cutter

3.6. Theoretical Perspectives. Functional Theories, Conflict Theories, Interactional Theories -Influential imposed on groups

3.6.1. Cultural transmission, selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum

3.6.2. Student Peer Groups & Alienation p.125

3.6.3. Education & Inequality p.125 American Society=triangle. Top 20% in U.S.=75%wealth Top 2%in world=80%wealth -Are social classes perpetuated by society & schools?

3.6.4. Inadequate Schools p.126 Defacto Segregation -minorities more than majority

3.6.5. Gender Biases-battle of Sexes

3.6.6. Current Educational Crisis p.128 1/3 children at risk failing 1/4 preschool children live in poverty 15 million reared by single mothers -How can schools help students become successful members of society when they start disadvantaged?

3.7. Sociology (p.114) understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture they live in.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Philosophical approach- 1. Selecting knowledge for the classroom 2. Ordering their classroom 3. Interacting with students, peers, parents and administrators 4. Selecting values for their classroom

4.1.1. Philosophy: 1. who they are 2. why they do what they do

4.1.2. Idealism- Socrates and Plato.

4.1.3. Idealists encourage students to search for truth.

4.1.4. Education is a transformation.

4.1.5. Role of teacher: 1. role model to class 2. provoke thought 3. bring out what is already in their mind

4.1.6. Idealism- methods of instruction: 1. Discussion 2. Questioning 3. Lecture on material not presented in text

4.1.7. Curriculum- 1. study the great works 2. all new problems have their roots in the past 3. study history 4. great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy 5. a basic core foundation

4.1.7.1. Realism-1-the material world is real -it exist without anyone perceiving 3-real world before ideas exist 4-Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking 5-Syllogism or a system of logical thinking

4.1.7.2. A major premise + a minor premise+conclusion+understanding the facts that then make assumptions and conclusions

4.1.7.3. Realists- Thomas Aquinas -Francis Bacon -John Locke (Blank slate or tabula rasa)

4.1.7.4. Goal of Education 1. Understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

4.1.7.5. Role of Teacher: present ideas in a clear and consistent manner -enable students to examine from an objective approach ...Methods of Instruction: 1-lecture 2- question & answer 3-discussion ...Curriculum: consist of a basic body of knowledge

4.1.7.5.1. Pragmatism: John Dewey, George Sanders Pierce, William James, John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.1.7.5.2. Learning through experience. ex. problem+thought+action=results.

4.1.7.5.3. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome.

4.1.7.5.4. Pragmatism Philosophies: Progressivism (John Dewey) -Social Reconstructionism (George Counts)

4.1.7.5.5. Goal of Education- provide students with the knowledge to improve society

4.1.7.5.6. Role of Teacher: facilitator of learning activities Methods of Instruction: learn individually as well as in groups -Curriculum: integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum

5. Schools as Organizations

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. what is taught and how do we teach it?

6.2. Influences- Social, political, societies', cultural, special interests

6.3. Idealists -teach the great works of mankind

6.4. Conservatist- return to humanist foundation

6.5. Conservatists 1980's & 1990's- should teach what is fundamentally basic to common culture

6.6. Social Efficiency Curriculum- advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive.

6.7. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum.

6.8. Social Efficiency- cornerstone of Progressivism

6.9. Conservatist- social efficiency has diluted the curriculum to the pont that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture.

6.10. Social meliorists- reform society through schools also known as social reconstruction.

6.11. Communities reflect what is important to them as a society.

6.12. Political influences- determined & set battle lines for domination of what should be taught

6.13. Who shapes the curriculum & what is taught?

6.14. private schools- gaining popularity because parents choose

6.15. Sociolo9gy of the curriculum.

6.16. Society influences the curriculum

6.17. Formal curriculum- what is cognitively taught (subjects).

6.18. Informal or Hidden curriculum- taught but not obvious to sight

6.19. Null Curriculum- not taught, but learned (values of community)

6.20. Social order determines the curriculum p. 292

6.21. A capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order p. 293

6.22. Multiculturalists influence on curriculum has promoted a diverse needs classroom p. 294

6.23. Conservatists argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted western civilizational values. They say we have melted and lost our western cultural identity.

6.24. Mimetic- conservative and says that students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum. p. 296

6.25. Transformative- students needs should be the main focus of the curriculum.

6.26. Effects of curriculum- needs assessment (what students know/taught)-how big is the gap?

6.27. What will you teach? What determines what you teach?

6.28. MAturity- includes chronological maturity, culturaly-valued maturity, political maturity, and...

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Social stratification is a structural chacteristics of  societies.

7.2. Human differences do not cause social stratification

7.3. Social stratification- three systems

7.4. Caste- a persons' social level is determined by race or religion.

7.5. Estate systems- a persons' social level is determined by family value and worth.

7.6. Class systems- a persons' worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement. p.340

7.7. Because of inflation, lower classes in America have had their ability to overcome decreased.

7.8. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

7.9. Educational achievement is directly related to financial success. p. 340

7.10. Race has a direct impact on how much educational attainment a person achieves.

7.11. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

7.12. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries. p.343

7.13. Students with special needs have experienced tremendous gains in educational opportunities due to PL 94-142 (Public Law)- Free Public Education for each child with a disability or EHA. Education of Handicapped 1975

7.14. IDEA 1996

7.15. REI- Regular Educational Initiative or mainstreaming. p. 364

7.16. Coleman Study 1966

7.16.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body composition between schools. p. 367

7.16.1.1. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success. p. 367

7.16.1.1.1. Schools do make a difference.

7.17. School Segregation

7.17.1. Despite decreases in segregation, racial and ethnic segregation is increasing.

7.18. Education provides social and economic mobility but for the most part perpetuates the social classes.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Sociological explanations of inequality

8.2. *Functionalist theorists (hard work), conflict theorists (environment), and interactions theorists (student success=family+social class+environment)

8.3. Unequal educational achievement- genetic differences: pg.422 of text

8.4. Cultural Deprivation Theory pg. 423

8.5. pg.432 of text

9. Educational Reform

9.1. Reform in Education 1980s to 2012 p. 512

9.2. Two Waves of Attack

9.2.1. First concerned with accountability and achievement

9.2.1.1. Second concerned with process of the school

9.3. Federal Involvement

9.3.1. America 2000

9.3.1.1. Goals 2000

9.3.1.1.1. No Child Left BEhind

9.4. Approaches to Reform

9.4.1. Neo Liberal Approach

9.4.1.1. Societal and Community Approach

9.5. School Based Reforms

9.5.1. School Choice

9.5.1.1. Charter Schools

9.5.1.1.1. Tuition Vouchers

9.6. TEP Programs- 3 major points

9.7. More intellectual demands in education programs

9.7.1. attract and retain competent teachers

9.7.1.1. Reorganize educational academic and professional development plan

9.8. Teacher quality- Effective School Movement Plan

9.8.1. Highly Effective School Characteristics

9.9. School Finance Reforms

9.9.1. Where you are born or live determines your advantage for a good education

10. Limits and Promises

10.1. Achievement Gap-what they know/what they should know

10.2. Accountability of students?-parents

10.2.1. Needs Assessment: before starting a class give assessment. Find out what students know. Determine where they are.

10.2.2. Create/establish lesson plans.

10.2.3. Critical Literacy-being able to talk about what is learned. Comprehension.

10.2.4. Assessment Issues: teachers teaching just so students can pass a test

10.2.5. Four Elements of Foundations of Education:

10.2.6. 1.