ED 302 Mind Map

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ED 302 Mind Map by Mind Map: ED 302 Mind Map

1. Politics of Education

1.1. The four purposes of education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual- To teach basic cognitive skills (reading, writing, mathematics). To disseminate specific knowledge (literature, history, sciences). To aid in the acquisition of higher-order thinking skills (analysis, evaluation, synthesis).

1.1.2. 2. Political- To foster an allegiance to the country and a sense of patriotism. To aid immigrant cultures in assimilation into the culture of the country. To teach children the aspects of politics and the laws of society so that they may be productive members and participants.

1.1.3. 3. Social- To aid in finding solutions to current social problems. To aid in the socialization of children (a key ingredient to stability). To work with concert with other entities (like communities or religious houses) to ensure that children are well rounded and prepared for life in society.

1.1.4. 4. Economic- To aid in teaching and preparing children to take up roles in the work force. The amount of involvement the school has in this varies.

1.2. A conservative perspective

1.2.1. 1. The role of the school- Origins in Darwinism. Originally developed by William Graham Sumner. Primary emphasis is on the individual. This perspective centers around survival of the fittest, in a sense, because it sees the schools role as one that gives all necessary tools to succeed to only the hardest working and most talented students. This perspective sees schools as essential to teaching children how to be productive members of society and to the continuing success of a society.

1.2.2. 2. Explanations of unequal performance- This perspective states that students make their own successes through hard work, determination and sacrifice. It states that the education system is designed to help those students succeed who are willing and able to and if they don't succeed it is likely due to their own deficiency.

1.2.3. 3. Definition of educational problems- a. The "decline of standards" that many conservatives say happened in the 1960s and 1970s is believed to be because of a demand for more equality. b. The "decline of cultural literacy" is what many conservatives believe happened due to demands for change in education regarding multiculturalism. They feel that the changes diminished the traditional curriculum and the learning of American and Western heritage. c. The "decline of values or of civilization" is what many conservatives believe happened due to demands for cultural relativism, leading to the end of schools teaching moral standards and values. d. The "decline of authority" is what many conservatives describe as the result of demands for individuality and freedom, leading to the end of traditional discipline in schools. e. Conservatives believe that schools are stifled due to being under the control of states and therefore, subject to bureaucracy and inefficiency.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. An influential reform movement

2.1.1. The reform movement that I feel has had the most influence on education is the movement started by Horace Mann of Massachusetts, to provide free public education funded by the government. Mann successfully lobbied for a state board of education, which was created in 1837. He felt that access to schools and education would aid in bringing many Americans out of poverty. He also believed that free publicly funded elementary schools would create stability and order in society as well as social mobility. Many people consider Mann to be the "father of American public schools," and feel that he is one of America's greatest educational reformers.

2.2. A historical interpretation of U.S. education

2.2.1. Democratic-liberal interpretations of the U.S. education system state that the goals of expansions and reforms were to increase access to schooling and opportunities to greater amounts of citizens while maintaining or bettering the level of equality.  Historians who support this view are Ellwood Cubberly (1934), Merle Curti (1959) and Lawrence A. Cremin (1972).  Democratic liberals often believe that the goals of increasing equality and excellence must continuously be reached for while ensuring that neither is sacrificed or diminished too greatly.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical perspective

3.1.1. 1. Functionalism- Is the theory that the social system of the country is like a machine in which each member is a cog or part, contributing to the machine's continued function. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) is considered to be the earliest sociologist to support this theory. He felt that education was essential to the proper functioning of a society. Functionalists believe that the machine is working properly when there is social cohesion and unity and when conflicts arise, it is due to a difference in societal values.

3.1.2. 2. Conflict Theory- Is when societies are not defined by a shared value system and cohesion but by an entity in power imposing their beliefs and values on the citizens of the society, for example, any country governed religiously or militarily. Karl Marx (1818-1883) is considered to be the intellectual founder of this theory. He believed that capitalism would inevitably be overthrown.

3.1.3. 3. Interactional Theory- Is the idea that a closer look needs to be taken at the interactions between student-student and student-teacher, as well as the policies and practices regarding how students are dispersed, for example, the processes that determine gifted and learning disabled students.

3.2. 5 impacting effects on students

3.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes- The general belief is that your social background dictates your level of success or achievement in school and some believe that the school has little to do with how well a student does. However, Ron Edmonds (1979) stated that the school has very much to do with student success. Students in a more affluent community with schools that are given sufficient funding, will have more and better opportunities than students attending schools that are not equipped with the same resources or funding. It is also indicated by research that individuals tend to become more socially and politically active as they become more and more educated.

3.2.2. 2. Employment- Graduation from college does lead to more and better job opportunities as larger employing entities typically require post-secondary education as a prerequisite to employment.

3.2.3. 3. Education and Mobility- "Attainment through education" is the basis for this effect. It is the idea that an individual will succeed or fail based on his or her own merit and education is the vehicle that drives one to success. Turner (1960) named this belief "contest mobility." Hopper (1971) stated that it's not just the amount of education received but also where the education is received that makes a big impact on mobility.

3.2.4. 4. Teacher Behavior- Jackson (1968) stated that teachers interact one-on-one with students up to 1000 times per day. Teachers are required to perform the roles of many different occupations for their students, for example, friend, coach, educator, disciplinarian, etc. Teachers have an enormous role in the lives of their students and as great an impact on them as any other aspect of their lives.

3.2.5. 5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation- Student culture has a major impact on students. Stinchcombe (1964) noted that students who were on the path to low income employment were more likely than others to be rebellious. The belief is that student cultural and economic backgrounds largely impact how a student feels about education and the number of years that they receive an education.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. World view of pragmatism

4.1.1. Student-centered philosophy of education. This is a philosophy that emphasizes the importance of finding and doing what works to obtain a desired outcome.

4.1.2. Generic notions- Dewey's (1859-1952) Pragmatism focused on instrumentalism and experimentalism. This philosophy is similar to that of the flipped classroom, basing learning on the needs and interests of the students so that they may find the ways of learning that work best for them.

4.1.3. Key researchers- Francis Bacon (1561-1626)- Abandon traditional ways and use a new approach. John Locke (1632-1704)- Believed that we began with a blank slate, which we fill through learning through our senses. Jean-Jaques Rousseau (1712-1778)- Believed that individuals were good and only corrupted by society. John Dewey (1859-1952)- Instrumentalism and experimentalism.

4.1.4. Goal of education- School is where ideas are thought up, tested and reexamined in order to give students the knowledge needed to improve society. Education prepares students so that they may be productive, functioning members of a democratic society.

4.1.5. Role of the teacher- In this approach, the teacher is removed from the role of leader and authoritarian and placed in the role of guide, assistant and sounding board for questions.

4.1.6. Methods of instruction- Problem-solving or inquiry method- Field trips, books written in collaboration by teachers and students. Tables and chairs that could be moved. Movement is encouraged. Students are encouraged to work independently or in groups as they choose.

4.1.7. Curriculum- A core curriculum or integrated curriculum where multiple subjects can create lessons from the same topic so that there is a cohesive flow.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Stakeholders

5.1.1. Madison City Schools State Senators Senator Bill Holtzclaw House of Representatives Representative Mac McCutcheon State Superintendent Michael Sentance Dr. Dee Fowler - Deputy Super (Dec 2016) Representative on State School Board Mary Scott Hunter Local Superintendent Dr. Ed Nichols - Acting Superintendent *Formerly Dr. Dee Fowler Robbie Parker - Assistant Superintendent Local School Board Dr. Terri Johnson - President Ms. Ranae Bartlett - Vice President Mrs. Connie Cox Spears - Board Member Mr. David Hergenroeder - Board Member Mr. Tim Holtcamp - Board Member

5.2. Elements of Change

5.2.1. Within School Processes Conflict- A necessary part of change.  Staff involvement must be ready to resolve conflict. The process used for change is important. Trust is essential.

5.2.2. Within School Culture New behaviors must be learned. Build communication and trust. Team building must extend to the entire school.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Developmentalist Curriculum- Related to needs and interests of students. Dewey's beliefs in the relationship between the child and the curriculum. Emphasis on the process of teaching. Progressive approach because it is student centered.

6.2. Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. 1. Mimetic Tradition- Knowledge is presented and passed from person to person. Traditional lecture style. Must have measurable outcomes. 1. Test 2. Present 3. Perform/Evaluate 4. (Correct Performance) Reward/Fix 5. (Incorrect Performance) Enter Remedial Loop 6. Advance

6.2.2. 2. Transformative Tradition- The learner is transformed after learning the content. 1. Personal modeling 2. Soft-suasion 3. Use of Narrative

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Impact on Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class Different social classes have different experiences. Education is expensive. More time in school means more need for financial assistance. Wealthier families more likely expect their children to finish school. Working class and lower income families may have less expectation for their children. Cultural Point of View- schools represent the values of middle and upper class.

7.1.2. Race U.S. society still highly stratified by race. Race has a direct impact on amount of education achieved. Difficult to separate race from class. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities and rewards are significantly less.

7.1.3. Gender Historically, directly related to educational attainment. In the past, females were less likely to attain the same amount of education. Females today are less likely to drop out than in the past. Females are often viewed as being better students than males. Males statistically perform better in mathematics than females. In the last 20 years, educational differences have been reduced. Still significant advantages for males in academic awards.

7.2. Coleman Study Responses

7.2.1. 1. Sociologists examined and reexamined Coleman's data.  The debate produced studies that essentially confirmed Coleman's findings.

7.2.2. 2. Ron Edmonds headed a group of minority scholars which sought to define the effective characteristics of schools.  Edmonds felt strongly that all students could learn and school differences did have a significant impact on learning.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. 1. Working class and non-white families often lack the cultural resources and are at a disadvantage for school.

8.1.2. 2. The poor have a deprived culture that lacks the value system of middle-class culture which values hard work and delayed gratification.

8.2. School-Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality

8.2.1. 1. School Financing- Vast differences in funding for public schools in affluent suburbs and poor inner cities. Local property taxes are a significant resource for school funding.

8.2.2. 2. Effective School Research- If student differences are more important than school differences, then teachers cannot be blamed. If schools' effects are not significant, then teachers and schools make little positive difference. Characteristics of Unusually Effective Schools

8.2.3. 3. Between-School Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices- Schools can make a difference in the community. Schools do affect educational outcomes.

8.2.4. 4. Within-School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping- School characteristics affect outcomes. Ability grouping and curriculum grouping is an important organizational component. Different groups of students often receive considerably different types of education.

8.2.5. 5. Gender and Schooling- "Differences between men and women are cultural, not biological and women deserve equality." (Vivian Gornick, The Next Great Moment in History Is Theirs, 1987) Schooling often limits the educational opportunities and life chances of women.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. 1. School- Business Partnerships- Businesses increasingly concerned that schools were not producing capable graduates. Partnerships were formed to implement management plans, award scholarships and provide assistance and training.

9.1.2. 2. Privatization- Privatized companies became more involved in public education, taking over some failing schools and districts. For-profit companies see education as a lucrative market. The success of these reforms has been mixed.

9.2. Other Reforms

9.2.1. 1. State Intervention and Mayoral Control in Local School Districts- Accountability has been an issue. State accountability systems focus on rewards and sanctions. Some systems include school or district takeover as an ultimate accountability measure.

9.2.2. 2. School Finance Reforms- Equalizing urban and suburban school systems. Providing additional programs in order to eliminate disadvantages. Implementing supplemental programs, including preschool. Renovating urban facilities. Equalizing funding.