Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Philosophy of Education

1.1. Pragmatism

1.1.1. A philosophy in which finding out what processes work to achieve desired outcome is encouraged. Schema: problem - speculative thought-action-results action oriented

1.1.2. Key Researchers John Dewey (1859-1952) Francis Bacon (1561-1626) John Locke (1632-1704) Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Maxine Greene Howard Gardner

1.1.3. John Dewey (1859-1952) Progressive Education, child-centered Generic Notions Goal of Education Role of a Teacher Method of Instruction Curriculum

2. Equality of Opportunity

2.1. Educational Outcomes

2.1.1. Class Wealthier families are able to afford for their children to stay in school longer. Middle and upper class parents expect their children to finish school. Schools with a middle class students tend to place emphasis on achievement. Direct correlation between parent's income and performance on achievement tests Children from working-class and underclass families tend to drop out, underachieve, and resist curriculum.

2.1.2. Race There is a higher percentage of African-American and Hispanic-American students that drop out There is a higher percentage of white students who can read at the intermediate level when compared to African-American and Hispanic -American students. Minorities tend to have lower SAT scores Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities or rewards for educational attainment as whites.

2.1.3. Gender females are less likely to drop out than males females are more likely to have higher level of reading proficiency than males Males out perform females in mathematics proficiency Males tend to score higher on the SATs than females Women are attending postsecondary institutions than men The institutions that women attend to be less academically and socially prestigious In the last 20 years, gender differences have been reduced

2.2. Coleman Study from 1982

2.2.1. Two responses First Response: Other researchers conducted studies on if differences between schools make a difference Jencks (1985) found that differences between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant, but the results do not support that there are differences in learning Other studies found that private schools seem to "do it better" than public schools Second Response: More research is conducted It is found that where the student goes to school is related to his/her race and socioeconomic status It was also found that the racial and socioeconomic composition of the school has a greater effect on achievement than his or her race or socioeconomic status

3. Educational Inequality

3.1. Cultural Deprivation theories

3.1.1. First, working-class and nonwhite families lack cultural resources; therefore, they start school at a disadvantage.

3.1.2. Second, the poor have a deprived culture. Based upon a thesis by anthropologist, Oscar Lewis Middle class culture values hard work, initiative, delay of gratification, and schooling. Culture of poverty rejects hard work and initiative, and does not view schooling as a means of social mobility.

3.2. explanations for educational inequality

3.2.1. school centered School Financing School funding is based upon a combination of local, state, and federal sources. Curriculum and Pedagogic practices Bernstein (1990) suggested that working- class neighborhood schools are more likely to have authoritarian and teacher directed pedagogy, and to have vocational or social efficiency curriculum at secondary level. Middle class students are more likely to have less authoritarian, more student center pedagogy, and humanistic liberal arts college preparatory curriculum at secondary level. Upper class students are more likely to attend elite private schools. These have authoritarian pedagogy and a classical-humanistic college preparatory curriculum at secondary level. Curriculum and Ability grouping At the elementary level, students from all three groups receive a similar curriculum. Secondary level: students are divided by ability and by curriculum Persell (1977) found that teacher perceptions of students and their abilities impact what is taught, how it is taught, and student performance. Gender and schooling The ways that feminists believe schooling limits educational opportunities and life chances of women gender gap in achievement has diminished greatly "boy problem" - boys are starting to lag behind girls

4. Educational Reform

4.1. School based reforms

4.1.1. School-Business Partnerships Businesses provide scholarships for poor students Businesses "adopt" a school Popular in the 1980s but over time these partnerships decreased "billionaires boys club" a group of foundations and entrepreneurs that have contributed greatly to reform efforts

4.1.2. School-to-Work Programs in the 1990s, creation of school to work programs extend a vocational emphasis to non college bound students and stress importance of work-based learning School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994

4.2. Societal, economic, community or political reforms

4.2.1. Full Service  Schools Dryfoo's model of full service schools Meeting student and family needs including physical, emotional, educational, psychological,  and social

4.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone Leaving children where they are and transforming them and their neighborhood Provides programs for parents before their children are born this combined with extended day school and tutoring for at risk students paid off with higher test results

5. Politics of Education

5.1. Four purposes of Schooling

5.1.1. Intellectual to teach basic cognitive skills to teach knowledge in specific content areas to teach higher-order thinking skills

5.1.2. Political to teach patriotism to prepare students for participation in the political processes to help assimilate people with different cultural backgrounds to teach the basic laws of society.

5.1.3. Social to help solve social problems, such as poverty to ensure social cohesion by working with other institutions socialization

5.1.4. Economic to prepare students for future job to select and train students for various jobs in the workforce

5.2. Role of the School

5.2.1. Liberal perspective the school is to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society Training and socializing is important Teach students to respect cultural diversity Citizenship and Participating in our democratic society is important help students develop their talents, creativity and their sense of self the balancing of the needs of society and the individual that align with the ideals of a democratic and meritocratic society

5.3. Explanations of unequal performance

5.3.1. Liberal perspective Students begin school with different life circumstances (household income, family dynamics, family education, family support, etc.); therefore, some groups of students have more of an advantage than other groups. Schools must equalize the field through policies and programs

5.4. Definition of educational problems

5.4.1. Liberal perspective Schools have often limited the opportunities for poor and minority students Schools do not spend enough time on helping students develop as individuals. Schools spend too much time on discipline and authority. The poor quality and environment of urban and poor schools contribute to the students not learning. The traditional curriculum is not culturally diverse.

5.5. Diane Ravitch

5.5.1. Article "The achievement gap begins before the first day of school. If we mean to provide equality of educational opportunity, we must level the playing field before the start of formal schooling. Otherwise, we'll just be playing an eternal game of catch-up — and that's a game we cannot win." Diane Ravitch


5.6. Video on Save our Schools


5.7. Video

5.7.1. How do schools promote equity in education?

6. History of U.S. Education

6.1. Progressive Movement

6.1.1. John Dewey (1859-1952) U.S. Philosopher Advocated a curriculum that allowed for the student's interests and development level Viewed the result of education as growth Advocated active learning, emphasized the role of experience in education and viewed the teacher as a facilitator of learning

6.1.2. Began around 1900 and 1914

6.1.3. Some misunderstood Dewey's ideas, which led to a form of progressive education that appeared to be too permissive and placed too much emphasis on the child's needs

6.1.4. Psychologists and philosophers became involved in educational reform Two approaches to progressive reforms child-centered pedagogy social efficiency pedagogy

6.1.5. Edward L. Thorndike and Frederick Winslow Taylor encouraged teachers to be "socially efficient" Educate students based on their talents and abilities Franklin Bobbitt

6.1.6. Education for all Compulsory attendance for high school Committee of 10 formed by NEA clarified purpose of high school education five model curricula all students to be taught in the same manner college entrance requirements Carnegie Units Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

6.2. Historical interpretation of U.S. Education

6.2.1. Conservative Perspectives Conservative Critics William Bennett Chester Finn, Jr. Allan Bloom Diane Ravitch E.D. Hirsch, Jr. Believe that the progressive movement failed in its attempt to fulfill social goals without losing academic quality evolution of education has resulted in lowering academic excellence

7. Sociology of Education

7.1. Functionalism

7.1.1. The parts of society are interdependent. Consensus is the normal state of society. Conflict is seen as the breakdown of shared values.

7.1.2. Schools socialize students in the appropriate values and sort students according to their abilities.

7.1.3. Curricula should be technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity.


7.2. Conflict Theory

7.2.1. social order is based on the ability of the dominant group to impose its will on others

7.2.2. schools are seen as "social battlefields" students struggle against other students students against teachers teachers against administrators


7.3. Interactionalism

7.3.1. Focuses on every day behaviors and interactions within a school

7.3.2. are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict theories


7.4. 5 effects of schooling

7.4.1. Knowledge and Attitudes It has been found that the higher the student's social class background, the higher his or her achievement. Academically oriented schools produce higher rates of learning Where students are compelled to take academic subjects and has consistent discipline, student achievement levels increase More education someone receives they are more likely to read and to take part in politics and public affairs

7.4.2. Teacher Behavior Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) found that teachers' expectations of students directly affected students' achievement levels self-fulfilling prophecy Persell (1977) found that when teachers demanded more of their students and praised them, they learned more and felt better about themselves

7.4.3. Inadequate Schools inequality is reproduced through inadequate schools Students who attend suburban and private schools receive a better educational experience than other children (Coleman, Hoffer, & Kilgore, 1982) Students who attend elite private schools not only receive a better educational experience, but their diplomas receive added value as well. (Cookson & Persell, 1985)

7.4.4. Tracking Working class students are usually placed in vocational tracks and middle class students are placed in academic tracks Students placed in "high-ability" tracks spend more time on teaching and learning activities, have access to more interesting materials, receive better teachers, better laboratory facilities, more extracurricular activities (Oakes, 1985; Goodlad, 1984)

7.4.5. Gender Schools can reproduce gender bias found in society Up until recently textbooks ignored accomplishments made by women and gender bias Women tend to pay more for college The gender gap in academic achievement is disappearing. There is still low participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

8. Schools as Organizations

8.1. Elements of Change Within School Processes and School Cultures

8.1.1. Conflict conflicts are not created, but efforts to democratize schools allow for once hidden issues to surface

8.1.2. New behaviors must be learned. change process must include building communication and trust enabling leadership and initiative to emerge learning techniques of communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution

8.1.3. Team building must extend to entire school. shared decision making and giving attention to relationships within staff

8.1.4. Process and content are interrelated. The process that is used to complete project is just as important as the substance of the project.

8.2. Major Stakeholders in My District

8.2.1. State Senator Sen. Tim Melson

8.2.2. State Representative Rep. Phillip Williams

8.2.3. State Superintendent Mr. Michael Sentance

8.2.4. Representative on State School Board Ms. Mary Scott Hunter

8.2.5. Local Superintendent Mr. Matt Massey

8.2.6. Local School Board Mr. David Vess My District Mr. Nathan Curry Ms. Angie Bates Ms. Mary Louise Stowe Mr. Jeff Anderson

9. Curriculum & Pedagogy

9.1. Social Meliorist Curriculum Theory

9.1.1. Philosophically social reconstructionist

9.1.2. Developed out of John Dewey's writings on the role of schools in reforming society and in the dominance of the social efficacy curriculum

9.1.3. The role of the curriculum is to help students become aware of societal problems and become active in changing the world

9.2. Traditions of Teaching

9.2.1. Mimetic education's purpose is to transmit knowledge assumes student does not possess what the teacher knows Didactic method lecture as main form of communication emphasis on measurable goals and objectives

9.2.2. Transformative education's purpose is to change a student in a meaningful way do not see that the transmitting of knowledge is the only part of teaching teaching and learning are linked student becomes a part of the learning process active participation of students and leads to growth