Foundation of  Education

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Foundation of  Education by Mind Map: Foundation of  Education

1. Chapter 2 -Politics of Education

1.1. Identify and describe the four purposes of education.

1.1.1. Intelligence: mental skills such as reading, writing, and math

1.1.2. Social: solve social issues and teach students the values of our society

1.1.3. Economics: prepare students to work in the adult world

1.1.4. Political: educate students on our government and how it works

1.2. Choose and describe a perspective for the following: 1) the role of the school; 2) explanations of unequal performance; and 3) definition of educational problems.

1.2.1. Radical Perspective

1.2.1.1. Role of the School

1.2.1.1.1. The role of the school is to minimize inequality and to produce upward social mobility.

1.2.1.2. Unequal Performance

1.2.1.2.1. Because of the different socioeconomic backgrounds, some students begin with more advantages and opportunities.

1.2.1.3. Educational Problems

1.2.1.3.1. The education system does not have a voice for minorities. It disregards culture and equal opportunities.

2. Chapter 3 -History of Education

2.1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence on education.

2.1.1. One very important historical event that caused reform was Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. While it took a few years to free all African Americans, it led to founding historical Black Colleges. In addition, the Fourteenth Amendment that followed the emancipation proclamation has been used in education to protect the well-being of individuals. It was only the start of racial unity in education.

2.2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. Education.

2.2.1. One of the earliest interpretations of U.S. Education came from the Puritans in New England. It was very important to them that their children learn to read so that they could study the Bible. Thus, the Puritans enacted school laws called the Old Deluder Laws. For a town of 50 households, one teacher would be appointed and paid to teach reading and writing. In a town of 100 households, a grammar school must be set up, which is similar to the concept of a high school. Because of these laws the Puritans founded, a large number of students could read.

3. Chapter 4 - Sociology of Education

3.1. Define the theoretical perspective concerning the relationship between school and society: functionalism, conflict theory, and interactionalism.

3.1.1. Functionalism

3.1.1.1. This theory focuses values and morals. Schools help educate students on the moral values of society thus causing unity. It also looks at the interdependence society experiences, but disregards conflict.

3.1.2. Conflict Theory

3.1.2.1. There will be problems in the relationship between the school and society. A constant battle for power between dominant and subordinate groups of people.

3.1.3. Interactionalism

3.1.3.1. This theory focuses on individuals and the interactions teachers and students experience daily.

3.2. Identify and describe 5 effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students as explained in the book.

3.2.1. Education & Mobility

3.2.1.1. The belief that higher education leads to social mobility. However, many factors are contributed, and this belief is not always true.

3.2.2. Inside the Schools

3.2.2.1. The size of the school determines the amount of freedom and resources that are given to teachers. Culture also plays a role within the school.

3.2.3. Teacher Behavior

3.2.3.1. Teachers are busy and have great responsibilities, which can lead to burnout. Teachers who have high expectations for their students see their students rise to reach those expectations.

3.2.4. De Facto Segregation

3.2.4.1. Improved performance has been seen in racially mixed schools. There is still much room for improvement on this topic.

3.2.5. Gender

3.2.5.1. Students are expected to play towards gender roles. Boys can be rough and loud, but girls are expected to be lady-like. Women are sometimes paid less than men for the same amount of labor. Boys are perceived to be smarter than girls, giving girls slower self-esteem.

4. Chapter 5 -Philosophy of Education

4.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1. Individuals are encouraged to ask question about how their actions affect others and to find their way through a world of turmoil.

4.2. Key Researchers

4.2.1. Soren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Sartre, and Maxine Greene are all key researchers in the existentialist philosophy.

4.3. Goal of Education

4.3.1. The needs of individuals are met and individuality is encouraged. Students are taught how to cope with conflict and anxiety.

4.4. Role of Teacher

4.4.1. Teachers take great measures to get to know their students on a personal level even with hard-to-reach students. The teacher has much responsibility and works relentlessly.

4.5. Method of Instruction

4.5.1. They value humanities, literature, art, drama, and music.  They believe in educating children about the bad in the world as well as the good.

5. Chapter 7 -Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Explain a curriculum theory which you advocate (humanist, social efficiency, developmentalist, or social meliorist).

5.1.1. Developmentalist curriculum

5.1.1.1. This view aligns with some of ideas of Dewey and Piaget. It focuses on the needs and interests of the student. Curriculum is flexible and relate's to the student's life. The teacher is viewed as a facilitator.

5.2. Identify and describe the two dominant traditions of teaching.

5.2.1. mimetic tradition

5.2.1.1. This tradition focuses on transmitting clearly communicated ideas and knowledge from the teacher to the student usually through a lecture or presentation.

5.2.2. transformative tradition

5.2.2.1. This tradition see education as a mode to change the student intellectually, creatively, spiritually, or emotionally.  Teachers are not authoritarian, and may not even see the transmission of knowledge take place. Teachers instruct using student participation and inquiry.

6. Chapter 6 -Schools as Organizations

6.1. Identify major stakeholders in YOUR district by name

6.1.1. State senators: Richard Shelby and Jefferson Sessions

6.1.2. House of Representatives: Mo Brooks

6.1.3. State superintendent: Michael Sentance

6.1.4. Representative on state school board: Mary Scott Hunter

6.1.5. Local superintendent: Dr. Dee O. Fowler

6.1.6. Local school board: Dr. Terri Johnson, Ms. Ranae Bartlett, Mrs. Connie Cox Spears, Mr. David Hergenroder, Mr. Tim Holtcamp

6.2. Identify and describe the elements of change within school processes and school cultures

6.2.1. Conflict is necessary

6.2.1.1. In a democratized school, conflict will occur, and the staff needs to be prepared to encounter controversy.

6.2.2. New learned behaviors

6.2.2.1. This pertains to relationships between people such as learning to communicate, lead, work together, and compromise.

6.2.3. Team building

6.2.3.1. All of the staff must work together as a team to make decisions to avoid elitism and opposition to change.

6.2.4. Interrelationship of process and content

6.2.4.1. The process of accomplishing work is just as vital as the content of changing education. This instills trust within the school.

7. Chapter 8 -Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Describe how class, race, and gender each impact educational outcomes.

7.1.1. Class

7.1.1.1. Education can be expensive, so it is not surprising that often parents of working-class and underclass families do not have high expectations of their children to finish their education as might parents of middle-class or upper middle-class. Additionally, middle-class students are more likely to have an abundance of books in their home improving their speech. Teachers think more highly of these students and their "standard English," thus labeling other children from working-class families.

7.1.2. Race

7.1.2.1. Research shows that Hispanic-American students are most likely to drop out of school, followed by African American students. In addition, more Hispanic-American and African American students struggle with reading comprehension than do white students. Unfortunately, minorities are not given the same educational opportunities as white students.

7.1.3. Gender

7.1.3.1. Women overall are rated as better students than men and more likely to perform better than men in reading proficiency and writing. In addition, they are less likely to drop out of school than men. However, men perform better than women in math and on the SATs. Women are still discriminated against in today's world, but interestingly more women are pursing post-secondary institutions than men.

7.2. What were the two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982?

7.2.1. Jencks estimated the average achievement gain in Catholic school students. There were not significant differences between the Catholic instruction and public school although there were differences. There is much debate if public schools or private schools are better. However, more tend to believe that private schools are more academically achieving and organized.

7.2.2. Geoffrey Borman and Maritza Dowling found that the school students attend is usually related on race and socioeconomic status. However, the the racial and socioeconomic make-up of the school have a larger effect on student success than their race or their class do.  It is concluded that segregation is blamed for the gaps in students' achievements.

8. Chapter 9 -Educational Inequality

8.1. Explain the two types of cultural deprivation theory.

8.1.1. Contrary to the middle-class culture, the working class families and nonwhite families do not have the resources necessary (books) to educated their children. Although controversial, Project Head Start provides preschool education to disadvantaged children.

8.1.2. Some argue that Project Head Start places too much responsibility on families. They say it blames families in poverty, instead of placing the responsibility of education in the school's hands. These views almost disregard the culture of families.

8.2. Describe at least four school-centered explanations for educational inequality.

8.2.1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. Schools in locations with higher property values and higher taxes in prospering communities receive more funding per student than do poorer communities. Many deem this unfair, but it can be found in the Fourteenth Amendment, so many courts have ruled fixing the problem unconstitutional.

8.2.2. Effective School Reasearch

8.2.2.1. Researchers have found that the following characteristics can be found in effect schools. An effective school sets high expectations for their students and administrators and is impacted by a strong leader such as their principal or school head. Additionally, the school holds teachers and students accountable. Teachers spend much time instructing while students learn. Teachers are given the freedom to adapt their classroom to improve learning or fix problems.

8.2.3. Between School Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

8.2.3.1. Looking at curriculum and pedagogic practices,  the textbook informs that working-class schools are less likely to have liberal arts or social efficiency curriculum. Additionally, they are more likely to have an authoritarian teacher and less likely to have a student-centered pedagogy.

8.2.4. Within-School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.2.4.1. Following the functionalist perspective, tracking students and separating them by ability helps identify those students with intelligence and potential. On the contrary, the conflict perspective suggests that tracking students is a form of inequality.

9. Chapter 10 -Educational Reform

9.1. Describe two school-based reforms (school-based, school-business partnerships, privatization, school-to-work programs, teacher education or teacher quality)

9.1.1. School-Business Partnerships

9.1.1.1. During the 1980's, business leaders were not impressed with the graduates that were entering the economic world. Thus, partnerships were formed between schools and businesses to prepare students for the business world.

9.1.2. Privatization

9.1.2.1. Starting around the 1990's, private schools and public schools started to be blurred together. Private education companies became involved in public schools. Some companies would take over failing schools and districts. Other companies had contracts for tutoring under NCLB.

9.2. Describe at two societal, economic, community, or political reforms.

9.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools

9.2.1.1. This reform focuses on community. Not only do they focus on students' needs, but also their families' educational, physical, psychological, and social needs. The school is opened extended hours and offers families adult education, health clinics, recreation facilities, after-school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, job placement, and tutoring services. It is designed to help at-risk neighborhoods and improve their community.

9.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone

9.2.2.1. This is a program for parents in Canada to sent their preschoolers to. It provides early childhood education to minority and low-income students who may not have the same opportunities to learn as their middle-class counterparts.