Ed 302 Foundations of Education

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Ed 302 Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Ed 302 Foundations of Education

1. Teacher Behavior- Teachers have the power to set standards for students and influence student self-esteem and sense of efficacy. Teachers have the ability to make students feel good about themselves when they are praised for good work, and they can be an inspiration to their students to go above and beyond.

2. History of Education

2.1. The Movement for Education for Women and African-Americans

2.1.1. In 1821, Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York that sought to deliver education to female similar to that of their male counterparts.

2.1.2. In 1833, Oberlin Collegiate Institute opened its doors to women as well as African-Americans.

2.1.3. In 1856, the University of Iowa became the first state university to admit women.

2.2. The Conservative Historical Interpretation of U.S. Education

2.2.1. In 1868, the Freedman's Bureau helped to establish historically Black Colleges.

2.2.2. Diane Ravitch (1977) argued that the preoccupation with using education to solve social problems has not solved these problems and, simultaneously, had led to the erosion of educational excellence.

2.2.3. Conservative critics all pointed to the failure of so-called progressive education to fulfill its lofty social goals without sacrificing academic quality.

2.3. H

3. Schools as Organizations

3.1. Major Stakeholders in my District

3.1.1. state senators- Richard Shelby and Jefferson Sessions

3.1.2. House of Representatives- Mo Brooks

3.1.3. state superintendent- Michael Sentance

3.1.4. representative on state school board-Michael Sentance

3.1.5. local superintendent- Tom Sisk

3.1.6. local school board- Brett McGill, Ed Winter, Charles Shoulders, Marty Adams, Bradley Young, Earl Glaze, Anthony Hilliard

3.2. Elements of Change Within School Processes and School Cultures

3.2.1. Establishing bureaucracies that focus on creating efficient behavior and processes to achieve new goals.

3.2.2. Political compromises that result from social reality

3.2.3. Creating school that are more centered on learner's needs for active, experiential, cooperative, and culturally-connected learning.

4. Curriculum & Pedagogy

4.1. Developmentalist Curriculum Theory

4.1.1. This theory focuses heavily on the child, rather than the society.

4.1.2. Developmentalist curriculum centers around the student's needs and capabilities. How and what is taught is ultimately determined by the students. The child's developmental needs are carefully considered.

4.1.3. The emphasis is put on ensuring that children can connect what they are learning in the classroom to the world around them. Education is considered lively and meaningful.

4.2. Dominant Traditions In Teaching

4.2.1. Mimetic: The mimetic method is a teacher-centered approach to teaching in which the purpose of education focuses on transmitting specific knowledge to students. There is a heavy emphasis on a strict agenda. Goals and objectives are set to ensure a "science of teaching" can be created. The lessons are presented primarily through lectures.

4.2.2. Transformative:  The transformative method believes strongly in using education to change the students in some intellectual, creative, spiritual, or emotional manner. This view rejects the mimetic's view of the teacher being an authoritarian figure, and rather view the relationship as one that is inextricably linked. The promotion of growth is the main focus.

5. Sociology of Education

5.1. Theoretical Perspectives

5.1.1. Functionalism- Emile Durkheim, the earliest sociologist to embrace a functional point of view about the relation of school and society, believed education, in all societies, was of critical importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony.

5.1.2. Conflict Theory-  This point of view  believes that schools are similar to social battlefields, where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators, and so on.

5.1.3. Interactionalism- This point of view consist of critiques and extensions of the previous perspectives. For example, Basil Bernstein argued that the structural aspects of the educational system and the interactional  aspects of the system reflect each other and must be viewed wholistically.

5.2. 5 Effects of Schooling

5.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes- more years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation

5.2.2. Employment- Graduating from college gives greater employment opportunities, but it does not always reflect the level of income one may have.

5.2.3. Inside the Schools- The curriculum taught in the classroom is important to cultural transmission and selective channeling of opportunity.

5.2.4. Inadequate Schools- Children that attend better school systems tend to receive better instruction and get a better academic experience that children who attend lower quality schools.

6. Philosophy of Education

6.1. Existentialism

6.1.1. Generic Notions- Existentialists pose questions as to how their concerns impact on the live of individuals,  and they believe individuals are places on this earth alone and must makes some sense out of the chaos they encounter.

6.1.2. Key Researchers- Key Researchers include Soren Kierkegaard, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Jean Paul Sartre, and Maxine Greene.

6.1.3. Goals of Education- Existentialists believe in stressing individuality and view education as the focus of  cognitive and effective needs of individuals.  It is believed that there should be discussions of the non-rational as well as the rational world. Furthermore, it is viewed that tensions of the living world- in particular, anxiety generated through conflict- should be addressed.

6.1.4. Role of Teacher-Existentialists believe that teachers should understand their own "lived worlds" as well as that of their students in order to help their students achieve the best "lived worlds" they can.  The notion that teacher must be risk-takers and expose themselves to resistant students is also considered. Teachers should also work constantly to enable their students to become "wide awake". The role of the teacher is a personal relationship that is centered around responsibility.

6.1.5. Method of Instruction- Learning is viewed as intensely personal, and it is the responsibility of the teacher to discover what learning style works for each child. Existentialists believe that the students and teacher should work together to understand the possibilities of the past, present, and future. Instruction should include posing questions, generating activities, and working together.

6.1.6. Curriculum- Existentialists consider curriculum that is heavily biased toward the humanities to be most effective. It is believed that exposing students at early ages to problems as well as possibilities, and to the horrors as well as accomplishments humankind is capable of producing is beneficial.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Impact on Educational Outcomes

7.1.1. Class- Due to the cost of higher education, upper and middle class families expect more out of their children's' completion of educational programs, and working-class and underclass families tend to expect less. Families from upper and middle class families are more likely to have a variety of books in their home, speak more proficient English, and teachers seem to favor children from this demographic. Working-class and underclass students are often victims of labeling. Parental income is a plays a direct role in student achievement.

7.1.2. Race- Studies have found that African-American and Hispanic students are substantially more likely to drop out of school than white students. White students also have a higher reading proficiency level than African-American and Hispanic students. Minorities are not provided with the same opportunities to succeed as white students.

7.1.3. Gender- Although women are often rated as better students than men, they are less likely to receive the same level of education as their male peers. Females are more likely to have higher levels of reading proficiency than males, but they are also more likely to drop out of school. Males are typically more proficient in mathematics and tend to score higher than women on SAT tests. However, there are currently more women than men attending postsecondary schools.

7.2. Coleman Study from 1982

7.2.1. The Coleman Study sparked much outrage and controversy over the applications that should be made based on the findings. Jencks (1985), used the results to conclude that there was no significant difference in the level of achievement between public and Catholic schools, when in fact the results are statistically significant.

7.2.2. Geoffrey Borman and Martiza Dowling applied the findings to create a correlation between class, race, and gender and academic achievement. They found that where a child attends school often reflects their socioeconomic status. Borman and Dowling determined that it is essential that education focus on desegregation in schools for student success.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. Intellectual Development- cultural deprivation theorists claim that students from work-class and underclass families do not provides books and other tools that will allow for student success upon beginning school. Therefore, they are at a disadvantage. These students lack key intellectual skills needed to perform in a classroom setting.

8.2. Values- cultural deprivation theorists claim that working-class and underclass parents do not put a strong emphasis on education. This lack of initiative and interest, in turn, puts students at a disadvantage for success.

8.3. Explanations for Educational Inequality

8.3.1. School Financing- Schools in more affluent neighborhoods tend to receive more funding because of the taxes that is paid in that area. Therefore, schools in areas that pay less taxes tend to struggle to find the financial backing needed to effectively manage a community of learners.

8.3.2. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices- Pedagogic practices tend to vary depending on socioeconomic status  and type of school. For example, working-class and upper-class students typically attend more authoritarian and teacher-directed schools, and middle class students are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student-centered classrooms.

8.3.3. Curriculum and Ability Group- The difference in student success within schools points to the suggestion that success is also based on ability. Students are often placed in different learning groups based on their gained knowledge of certain topics and ability to achieve their goals.

8.3.4. Gender- Because males and females view education differently, the outlook of the school and success can vary depending on the gender of high ranking officials.

9. Politics of Education

9.1. Purposes of Education

9.1.1. Intellectual- teach basic cognitive skills; transmit specific knowledge; help students acquire higher-order thinking skills

9.1.2. Political- inculcate allegiance to the existing political order; prepare citizens who will participate in this political order; assimilate diverse cultural groups; teach children the basic laws of society

9.1.3. Social- help solve social problems; work as one of many institutions to ensure social cohesion; socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of  society

9.1.4. Economic- prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train,  and allocate individuals into the division of labor

9.2. Conservative Perspective

9.2.1. The Role of the School- the role of the school is essential to both economic productivity and social stability dfa

9.2.2. Explanation of Unequal Performance- groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative, and that achievement is based on hard work and sacrifice

9.2.3. Definition of Educational Problems- decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values or of civilization, decline of authority

10. Educational Reform

10.1. School-Based Reforms

10.1.1. School-to-work programs were incorporated into school systems during the 1990s in order to give non-college-bound students an outlet in which to nurture their skills before entering the workforce. The School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994 provided schools with the funding needed to establish school-to-work systems. These programs provided students with school-based learning, work-based learning, and a connection between the two. Teacher quality is a vital component to a flourishing classroom and school environment. Therefore, the NCLB requires that schools recruit only the best and most qualified teachers to lead and instruct America's future.

10.2. Community Reforms- Dryfoo's model of full service schools and Canada's Harlem Children's Zone are two examples of community-based reform in which an effort is made to educate the whole community, rather than just the child, to fight against education inequity. This model accommodates to the needs of the whole community working to improve adult education, health clinics, recreation facilities, after school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, job placement, and training programs.