My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 9

1.1. Equality of Opportunity

1.1.1. Cultural Deprivation 1. suggests that working-class and nonwhite families often lack cultural resources they lack books and other educational stimuli and arrive at school at a significant disadvantage middle-class culture values hard work and initiative, the delay of immediate gratification for future reward, and the importance of schooling as a means to future success poor have a deprived culture that lacks the value system of middle class culture. The culture of poverty eschews delayed gratification for immediate reward, rejects hard work and initiative as a means to success, and does not view schooling as the means to social mobility. According to theorists such as Deutsch, this deprivation results in educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for satisfactory academic achievement. 2. Policy makers sought to develop programs aimed not at the schools but rather at the family environment of working class and non-white studetns programs such as Project Head Start are based on the assumptions that because of the cultural and familial deprivation faced by poor students, the schools must provide an environment that makes up for lost time. The theory was attacked by social scientist who believed it to be paternalistic at best and racists at worst. Critics argued that it removes the responsibility for school success and failure from schools and teachers, and place it on families They suggest that it blames the victims of poverty for the effects of poverty rather than placing the blame squarely where it belongs: on social and economic processes  that produce poverty.

1.1.2. School-Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality. 1. School Financing Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources More affluent communities are able to provide more per-pupil spending than poorer districts, often at a proportionately less burdensome rate than in poorer communities Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds do not receive equality of opportunity, at least in terms of funding Critics of school financing believe equalization is moral imperative, but there is not widespread agreement on this matter. 2. Effective School Research Edmonds and other effective school researchers examined schools that produced unusually positive academic results given what would be expected, based on the socioeconomic composition of the school(s) that are usually effective in general. The effective school literature Points to how differences in what is often termed school climates affect academic performance. 3. Between-School Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices Bernstein (1990) suggested that schools in working-class neighborhoods are far more likely to have authoritarian and teacher-directed pedagogic practices, and to have vocationally or social efficiency curriculum at the secondary level. Schools in middle-class communities are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student-centered pedagogic practices and to have a humanistic liberal arts college preparatory curriculum at the secondary level. Upper-class students are more likely to attend elite private schools, with authoritarian pedagogic practices and a classical-humanistic college preparatory curriculum at the secondary level. the type of schooling corresponds to the social class of students in a particular school, with such differences a vehicle for socializing students from different social class backgrounds to their different places in society. 4.Within-School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping At the elementary school level, students are divided into reading groups and separate classes based on teacher recommendations, standardized test scores, and sometimes ascriptive characteristics such as race, class, or gender. At the secondary level, students are divided both by ability and curriculum, with different groups of students often receiving considerably different types of education within the same school Many teachers and administration argue that heterogeneous groups are far more difficult to teach and result in teaching in the middle This results in losing those with lower abilities and boring those with higher abilities

2. Chapter 8

2.1. Educational Reform

2.1.1. Educational Outcomes Impacted by: Class Class is directly related to achievement and to educational attainment Students in different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences Labeling children according to their abilities, but covertly to their social class background takes place in some school systems. Upper-class and middle -class Working-class and underclass Race An individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to recieve. minority students receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities. minorities educational attainment are significantly less Gender Historically, an individual;s gender was directly related to his or her educational attainment. Even though women are often rated as being better students than men, in the past they were less likely to attain the same level of education. Males Females In the last 20 years, gender differences in terms of educational attainment have been reduced

2.1.2. Coleman Study 1982 1. Private schools seems to "do it better" for low-income studetns Catholic schools seemd to advantage low-income monoirty studetns, especially in urban areas The differences that do exist between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant, but in term of significant differences in learning, the results are negligible There is evidence to support parts of both views 2. where an individual goes to school is often related to his/her race and socioeconomic background The racial and socioeconomic composition fo a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and color. Borman and Dowling, similar to Coleman, argue that race and class are predictors or academic success. They conclude that education reform must focus on eliminating the high level of segregation that remains in the United States' education system and that schools must being an end to tracking systems and biases that favor white and middle-class students

3. Chapter 6

3.1. Schools as Organizations

3.1.1. Major Stakes Holders State Senator Sen. Steve Livingston House of Represntative Nathaniel Ledbetter State Superintendent Michael Sentance Representative of State School Board Mary Scott Hunter Local Superintendent Hugh Taylor Local School Board Charimen Vice Charimen Member Member Member

3.1.2. Elements of Change New Behaviors New behaviors must be learned because change requires new relationships and behaviors. The change process must include building communications and trust, enabling leadership and initiative to emerge, and learning techniques of communication. collaboration, and conflict resolution. Team Building Team building must extend to the entire school. Shared decision making must consciously work out and give on-going attention to relationships withing the rest of the school's staff. Otherwise, issues of exclusiveness and imagined elitism may surface, and perceived "resistance to change" will persist. Changing the culture of school in order to make the school more learner centered requires time, effort, intelligence, and good will.

4. Chapter 2

4.1. Politics of Education

4.1.1. Four Purposes of Education 1.) Intellectual transmit specific knowledge (in literature, history, the sciences, etc.) to teach basic cognitive skills (reading, writing, and mathematics) to help students acquire a higher order of thinking (evaluation. analysis, and synthesis) 2). Political inculcate allegiance (patriotism) prepare citizens who will participate in the political order help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order teach the basic laws of society 3.) Social help solve social problems ensure social cohesion socialization- socialize children into various roles, behaviors, and values of the society 4.) Economic prepare students for later occupational roles to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor

4.1.2. Perspective 1.) The Role of School The Conservative Perspective 2.) Explanations of Unequal Performances The Liberal Perspective 3.) Definition of Educational Problems The Radical Perspecitive

5. Chapter 3

5.1. History of U.S. Education

5.1.1. Reform Movement The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School the period from 1820 to 1860 extended primary school to all through compulsory education laws the struggle for free public education was led by Horace Mann of Massachusetts Mann's belief that school can change the social order and that education can foster social mobility are beliefs responsible for the faith and support many people give to U.S. public schools

5.1.2. Historical Interpretation The Democratic-Liberal School Ellwood Cubberly, Merle Curti, and Lawrance A. Cremin are representative of this view. believe that the history of the U.S. education involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all believe that the U.S. educational system must continue to move closer to equity and excellence without sacrificing one or the other to dramatically tend to interpret U.S. educational history optimistically

6. Chapter 4

6.1. Sociological Perspectives

6.1.1. Theoretical Perspectives Functionalism Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) virtually invented the sociology of education in the late  and early 20th centuries. stresses the interdependence of the social system view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required to make society work tend to assume the consensus is the normal state in society and that conflict represents a breakdown of shared values schools socialize students into the appropriate values, and sort and select students according to their abilities. educational reform is suppose to create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourages social unity Conflict Theory believe that social order is based on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation Karl Marx (1818-1883) is the intellectual founder Max Weber (1864-1920) Willard Waller wrote The Sociology of Teaching (1965) Randall Collins (1971-1979) the glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power emphasize struggle in explaining social order Interactionalism primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives about the relation of school and society functional and conflict theories are very abstract, and emphasize structure and process at a very general (macrosociological) level of analysis. tend to make the commonplace strange by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and students, and between students and teachers. Basil Bernstein (1990)

6.1.2. Five Effects of Schooling 1.) Teacher Behavior a study conducted by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) teacher's expectations of students were found to directly influence student achievement the labels that teachers apply to children can influence actual performance teachers are models for students, set standards for students, and influence self-esteem and sense of efficacy 2.) Knowledge and Attitudes the differences between schools in terms of their academic program and policies make a difference in student learning Ron Edmonds was one of the first researchers to show that differences in schools are directly related to differences in student outcomes the effective schools research demonstrates that academically oriented schools do produces higher rates of learning the actual amount of time students spend in school is directly related to how much they learn 3.) Inside the Schools Large schools can offer students more in the way of facilities, but are more bureaucratic and may restrain initiative Small schools may allow more student and teacher freedom, but often lack resources Content of what is being taught is a topic of important study Curriculum expresses culture Research has shown that curricular placement is the single biggest  determinant of college attendance 4.) Tracking refers to the placement students in curricular programs based on students' abilities and inclinaitions "high-ability" tracks "lower-ability" tracks track placement directly affects cognitive development 5.) Inadequate Schools Urban education has failed to educate minority and poor children differences between schools and school systems reinforce existing inequalities suburban schools and private schools allow students to receive a better educational experience than other children students who attend the most elite private schools obtain substantial educational benefits, both in terms of the educational experience and the social value of their diplomas.

7. Chapter 5

7.1. Philosophy of Education

7.1.1. Extentialism Generic Notations Pose questions as to how their concerns impact on their lives of individuals Believe that individuals are placed on this earth alone and must make some sense out of the chaos they encounter. People must create themselves, and they must create their own meaning though the choices they make in their lives Goals of Education Believe that education should focus on the needs of individuals, both cognitively and affecively Education should stress individualality Emphasize the notation of possibility, since the individual changes in a constant state of becoming See education as activity liberating the individual from a chaotic, absurd world Role of the Teacher must understand their own "lived worlds" as well of that of their students in order to help their students achieve the best "lived worlds" they can must take risks; expose themselves to resistant students; and work constantly to enable their students to become "wide awake". intensely personal that carries with it a tremendous responsibility to help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities, and working together Methods of Instruction view learning as intensely personal believe each child has a different learning style and it is up to the teacher to discover what works for each child teacher constantly rediscovers knowledge, the student discovers knowledge, and together they come to an understanding of past, present, and future, particularly a future ripe with possibilities. Curriculum choose curriculum heavily biased toward the humanities Literature has a lot of meaning since it is able to evoke responses in readers that might move them to new levels of awareness believe in exposing students at a young age to problems as well as possibilities, and to the horrors as well as accomplishments humankind is capable of producing Art, Music , and Drama also encourage personal interaction Key Researchers The founder is Soren Kierkergaard ( 1813-1855) Martin Buber (1878-1965) Karl Jaspers (1883-1969) Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1986) Contemporary Philosopher Maxine Greene

8. Chapter 7

8.1. Curriculum and Pedagogy

8.1.1. Curriculum Thoery Developmentalist curriculum emanated form the aspects of Dewey's writings related to the relationship between the child and the curriculum philosophically progressive approach to teaching related to the needs and interests of the students/student centerd concerned with relating the curriculum needs to the needs and interests of each child at particular developmental stages stressed flexibility in both what was taught and how it was taught, with emphasis on the development of each student's individual capabilities stressed the importance of relating schooling to life experiences of each child in a way that would make education come alive in a meaningful manner the teacher was not a transmitter of knowledge but rather a facilitator of student growth

8.1.2. Dominate Traditions of Teaching 1. The Mimic Tradition loosely coincides with the traditional (conservative model) based on the viewpoint that the purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students the best method of transmitting specific knowledge is done through the dialect method that commonly relies on lecture or presentation as the main form of communication. the belief that the student does not possess what the teacher has stresses the importance of rational sequence in the teaching process and assessment of the learning process (a clear statement of learning goals and a clear means to assess whether students have acquired them) 2. The Transformative Tradition coincides with the progressive model believes that the purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. do not see the transmission of knowledge as the only component of education provide a more multi-dimensional theory of teaching reject authoritarian relationships between teacher and students argue that teaching and learning are inextricably linked process of teaching involves not just the didactic transfer of information but the conversation between teacher and student in such a way that the student becomes part of an integral part of the learning process although lectures may be used, the dialectical method, which involves the use of questioning, is at its core educators believe that all teaching begins with the active participation of the student and results in some form of growth broader spectrum of goals outlined is harder to assess and measure educational outcomes tends to reject the scientific model of teaching and instead views teaching as an artistic endeavor

9. Chapter 10

9.1. Educational Inequality

9.1.1. School Based Reforms 1.Teacher Education was a response to the initial debates concerning the failure of the schools teacher organizations such as the National Education Association (NEA) and the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), fearing the scapegoating of their members , took an active role in raising the debate as the opportunity to both recognize and improve the problematic conditions under which, from their perspective, most of their members work. teacher education, and schools and colleges of education became the subject of intensive national investigation by 1986 at least five major reports outlined major problems in teacher education and the professional lives of teachers. There were three major points the debate revolved around. Since the 1990s, a number of alternative to traditional university-based teacher education emerged, such as Teach for American (TFA) and the New Teacher Project (NTP). TFA founded in the 1990s by Wendy Kopp, based on her Princeton senior thesis, has become the largest alternative teacher education program in the U.S. 2. Teacher Quality How to recruit and retain high quality teachers is among the most important problems in American education. a practice called out-of-field teaching occurs when teachers are assigned to teach subjects that do no match their training or education. Principals often find it easier to hire unqualified teachers than qualified ones, and the absence of status and professionalism, and poor working conditions in teaching leads to higher dropout rates in the first five years of teaching. Recently, school improvement reformers hae stressed the existence of teacher tenure and seniority based transfers and layoff provisions in union contracts as a primary factor in preventing an improvement of teacher quality. A number of provisions in the Race to the Top funding and new contracts like the one in Washington, D.C. have addressed some if these issues.

9.1.2. Societal, Community, Econoomic, and Political Reforms 1. School Finance Reforms Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Rodriguez v. San Antonio, which declared there is no constitutional right to an equal education, school finance equity and adequacy advocates litigated at the state level Although the State enacted an income tax in accordance with the ruling of this case in 1973, the program was never fully funded. By 1980, more evidence had been accumulated regarding the inequality of education in urban areas and the Education Law Center filed Abbott v. Burke, on behalf of several urban school districts also due to a violation of the "thorough and efficient" clause. The court ruled in 1990, stating that more funding was needed to serve the children int eh poorer schools districts. Rothstein, a liberal and Anyon, a radical, both conclude that school reform in necessary but insufficient to reduce the achievement gaps without broader social and economic policies aimed at addressing the pernicious effect of poverty 2. Connecting School, Community, and Societal Reforms Research conducted over a 20-year period by the Consortium for Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago demonstrates that a combination of school, community, and societal level reforms are necessary to reduce the achievement gap (BRYK et al., 2010). Their research arugues that successful school reform must be based on a number of essential supports, including: They demonstrate that these supports are most needed and difficult to implement in the highest poverty schools and that educational reforms must include policies aimed at the amelioration of the effects of poverty. The real problem in the U.S. education has been, and continues to be, that it works exceptionally well for children from higher socioeconomic backgrounds and exceptionally poor for those from lower socioeconomic backgrounds. Darling-Hammond's five elements: Darling-Hammond notes that our society must provide for the basic needs of all children so that they are able to focus their attention on academic work instead of survival. Darling-Hammond concludes that the U.S. education system will continue to fail many of its students at great cost to society as a whole if it does not equalize access to educational opportunity and support meaningful learning (Darling-Hammond, 2010).