Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. History of U.S. Education

1.1. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School

1.1.1. 1820-1860

1.1.2. the Industrial Revolutuion began in England and crossed the Atlantic and brought its factory system and new machinery to the urban areas.

1.1.2.1. Immigrants flocked to the factories for work and by 1850 there was a significant group of Roman Catholic immigrants.

1.1.3. Westward expansion extended to settlements in Oregon and California by 1850

1.1.4. Groups of reformers emerged and articulated their ideas with the Fervor of evangelical Christianity.

1.1.5. Ralph Waldo Emmerson wrote of this age "We are all a little wild here with numberless projects of social reform"

1.1.6. BY 1820 it had become evident that the established schools were not functioning effectively. Towns neglected or evaded their their duties. A vast majority of Americans were illiterate. Charity schools provived the only opportunities for disadvantaged children to obtain an education.

1.1.7. Horace Mann of Massachusetts led the struggle for free education

1.1.7.1. He abandoned his career as a lawyer and lobbied for a state board of education.

1.1.7.2. In 1837 Horace Mann became the first secretary of the Massachusetts board of education where he served for 11 years.

1.1.7.3. Due to Mann's efforts the first teacher training school was established in Lexington, Massachusetts in1839.

1.1.7.4. Manns argument for free publicly funded elementary schools reflects both the concern for stability and order and the concern for social mobility.

1.1.7.5. Mann spoke of school as a preparation for citizenship as well as the "balance wheel"-"the great equalizer of the conditions of men."

1.1.8. Opposition to Public Education

1.1.8.1. Taxation for public education was viewed as "unjust" by nonrecipients.

1.1.8.2. Many Roman Catholics viewed viewed the common school as dominated by a protestant ethos, founded their own schools.

1.1.9. By 1860 public support of elementary schools was becoming prevalent throughout the United States.

1.1.10. 1862 - Congress passed the Morrill Act

1.1.10.1. The Morrill Act authorized the use of public money to establish public land grant universities,resulting in the establishment of large state universities, espcially in the Midwest.

1.1.11. Education for women and african-americans

1.1.11.1. Through the first half of the nineteenth century education opportunities for women were severly limited.

1.1.11.1.1. Education for women was viewed as biologically harmful or too stressful.

1.1.11.2. by the middle of the nineteenth century a significant number of girls attended elementary and secondary school.

1.1.11.3. 1821 - Emma Hart Willard opened the Troy Female Seminary in Troy, New York.

1.1.11.4. 1837 - Mary Lyon founded Mount Holyoke Seminary.

1.1.11.5. 1833-Oberlin Collegiate Institute in Ohio opened its doors to women as well as African-Americans.

1.1.11.6. 1856 - The university of Iowa became the first state university to admit women.

1.1.11.7. 1865 - Vassar College, the first of the Seven Sisters  women's colleges was founded in Poughkeepsie, New York.

1.1.11.8. Before the Civil War educational opportunities for African-Americans was severly limited

1.1.11.8.1. southerners believed that literacy bred both insubordination and revolution and forbade teaching the slave population.

1.1.11.8.2. Education for African-Americans in the North was of inferior quality and seperate form the mainstream public.

1.1.11.9. 1846 - Roberts vs. City of Boston - the court ruled that the local school commitee had the right to establish seperate educational facilities for whites and blacks.

1.1.11.10. 1863 - Emancipation Proclamation announced the end of slavery in all states in rebellion against the union.

1.1.11.11. 1865 - Congress passed the thirteenth ammendment to the constitution which freed 4 million slaves.

1.1.11.12. 1868 - the fourteenth ammendment was ratified giving full citizenship to ex-slaves.

1.1.11.13. 1868 - Freedman's Bureau helped to establish historically black colleges including Howard University in Washington D.C. and Hampton Institute in Virginia.

1.2. The Progressive Movement 1900-1914

1.2.1. Insisted on government regulation and conservation of the nations natural resources

1.2.2. Insisted that goverment at national, state, and local levels be responsive to the welfare of its citizens rather than to the welfare of corporations

1.2.3. Progressive reforms had a sweeping agenda, ranging from secret ballot to schooling.

1.2.4. John Dewey (1859-1952) U.S. philosopher

1.2.4.1. Dewey argued for a restructuring of schools along the lines of "embryonic communities"

1.2.4.2. He advocated the creation of a curriculum that would allow for the childs interest and developmental levelwhile introducing the child to "the point of departure from which the childcan trace and follow the progress of mankind in history, getting an insight also into the materials used and the mechanical principles involved"

1.2.4.3. Dewey created the Laboratory School at the University of Chicago where children studdied basic subjects in an intigrated curriculum.

1.2.4.4. Dewey advocated active learning, starting with the needs and interests of the child; he emphasized the role of experience in education and introduced the notion of teacher as facilitator of learning rather than the font from which all knowledge flows.

1.3. The Democratic-Liberal School

1.3.1. believe that the history of U.S education involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all.

1.3.2. suggest that each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and to reject the conservative view of schools as elite institutuins for the meritorious.

2. Sociological Perspectives

2.1. Theoretical Perspectives

2.1.1. Functional Theories

2.1.1.1. Emile Durkheim (1858-1917)

2.1.1.1.1. virtually invented the sociology of education in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.

2.1.1.1.2. Major works

2.1.1.1.3. He believed that education, in virtually all societies, was of critical importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony.

2.1.1.1.4. Durkheim believed moral values were the foundation of society.

2.1.1.1.5. Durkheim's emphasis on values and cohesion set the tone for how present-day functionalists approach the study of education.

2.1.1.2. Functionalists tend to assume that consensus is the normal state in society and that conflict represents a breakdown of shared values

2.1.1.3. Educational reform is supposed to create structures, programs,and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity

2.1.2. Conflict Theories

2.1.2.1. Some sociologists argue that the social order is not based on some collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation and manipulation.

2.1.2.1.1. the glue of society is economic, political, cultural, and military power.

2.1.2.2. Emphasize struggle

2.1.2.3. from a conflict point of view schools are like battlefields, where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators, and so on.

2.1.2.4. the achievement ideology disguises the real power relations within the schools, which in turn, reflect and correspond to the power relations within the larger society.

2.1.2.5. Karl Marx (1818-1883)

2.1.2.5.1. the intellectual founder of the conflict school in the sociology of education.

2.1.2.5.2. Marx believed that the class system made class struggle inevitable.

2.1.2.6. Max Weber (1864-1920)

2.1.2.6.1. Weber believed that class difference alone could not capture the complex ways human beings form hierarchies and belief systems that make these hierarchies seem just and inevitable.

2.1.2.6.2. He recognized that political and military power could be exercised by the state, without direct reference to the wishes of the dominant classes.

2.1.2.7. Willard Waller

2.1.2.7.1. The Sociology of Teaching (1965)

2.1.2.8. Randall Collins

2.1.2.8.1. believed that educational expansion is best explained by status group struggle.

2.1.2.8.2. He argued that educational credentials, such as college diplomas, are primarily status symbols rather than indicators of actual achievement.

2.1.3. Interactional Theories

2.1.3.1. Primarily critiques and extensionsof the functional and conflict perspectives.

2.1.3.2. The critiques arises from the observation that functional and observation that functional and conflict theories are very abstract, and emphasize structure and process at a very general level of analysis.

2.1.3.3. attempt to make the commonplace strange by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and students, and between students and teachers.

2.1.3.4. Basil Bernstein

2.1.3.4.1. Argued that the structual aspects of the educational system and the interactional aspects of the system reflect each other and must be viewed wholistically.

2.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

2.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

2.2.1.1. Differences between schools in terms of their academic programs and policies do make differences in student learning,

2.2.1.2. The effective school research demonstrates that academically oriented schools do produce higher rates of learning.

2.2.1.3. More years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation.

2.2.2. Employment

2.2.2.1. Graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities.

2.2.2.2. Large organizations, such as corporations, require high levels of education for white-collar, management, or adminstrative jobs.

2.2.3. Teacher Behavior

2.2.3.1. Teachers have as many as 1,000 interpersonal contacts each day with children in their classroom.

2.2.3.2. In a study conducted by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968) teachers' expectations of students were found to directly influence student achievement.

2.2.3.3. Teachers are models for students and, as instructional leaders, teachers set the standards for students and influence student self=esteem and sense of efficacy.

2.2.4. Inadequate Schools

2.2.4.1. Urban education has failed to educate minority and poor children.

2.2.4.2. differences between schools and school systems reinforce existing inequalities

2.2.4.3. Students who attend suburban schools and private schools get a better educational experience than other children.

2.2.5. Tracking

2.2.5.1. there is compelling evidence that within-school tracking has a critical impact on student mobility.

2.2.5.2. It has been found in many through studies that tracking decisions are often based on other criteria, such as students' class or race.

2.2.5.3. Students in lower tracks experience more alienation and authoritarian teachers than high-track students

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Idealism

3.1.1. Generic Notions

3.1.1.1. Search for truth

3.1.1.2. Dialectic - Platos method of Philosophy was to engage another individual in a dialogue and through that dialogue, question that individuals point of view.

3.1.2. Key Researchers

3.1.2.1. Plato

3.1.2.2. St. Augustine (354-430 A.D.)

3.1.2.2.1. added religion to classical idealism

3.1.2.3. Rene' Descartes (1596-1650)

3.1.2.4. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

3.1.2.5. George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (1770-1831)

3.1.3. Goal of Education

3.1.3.1. The search for truth through Ideas rather than through examination of the false shadowy world of matter

3.1.3.2. search for truth as individuals

3.1.3.3. Education is transformation: Ideas can change lives

3.1.4. Role of Teacher

3.1.4.1. It is the teachers responsibility to analyze and discuss ideas with students in order for students to move to new levels of awareness so that they can be transformed.

3.1.4.2. The teacher plays an active role in discussion, posing questions, selecting material, and establishing an environment

3.1.4.3. brings out what is already in the students mind

3.1.4.4. supports moral education and is a role model in the classroom

3.1.5. Method of Instruction

3.1.5.1. They predominately use the dialectic approach

3.1.5.2. Through questioning, students are encouraged to discuss, analyze, synthesize, and apply what they have read to contemporary society.

3.1.5.3. Students are encouraged to work in groups or individually on research projects.

3.1.6. Curriculum

3.1.6.1. Focus on the study of classics

3.1.6.2. Back to basics approach to education

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. U.S. Senators

4.1.1. Richard Shelby

4.1.2. Jefferson Sessions

4.2. State Senator

4.2.1. Larry Stutts

4.3. House of Representatives

4.3.1. Robert Aderholt

4.4. State Representative

4.4.1. Marcel Black

4.5. State Superintendent

4.5.1. Michael Sentance

4.6. State School Board Representative

4.6.1. Jeffrey Newman

4.7. Muscle Shoals Board of Education

4.7.1. Terri Snipes

4.7.2. Clayton Woods

4.7.3. Willis Thompson

4.7.4. Farrell Southern

4.7.5. Celia Rudolph

4.8. Muscle Shoals Superintendent

4.8.1. Dr. Brian Lindsey

4.9. Elements of Change

4.9.1. Conflict is a necessary part of change.

4.9.1.1. Efforts to democratize schools do not create conflicts, but allow previously hidden problems, issues, and disagreements to surface.

4.9.1.2. Staff involvement in school restructuring must be prepared to elicit, manage, and resolve conflict.

4.9.2. New behaviors must be learned.

4.9.2.1. Because change requires new relationships and behaviors, the change process must include building communication and trust, enabling leadership and initiative to emerge, and learning techniques of communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution.

4.9.3. Team building must extend to the entire school.

4.9.3.1. Shared decision making must consciously work out and give on-going attention to relationships within the rest of the schools staff. Otherwise, issues of exclusiveness and imagined elitism may surface, and perceived "resistance to change" will persist.

4.9.4. Process and content are interrelated.

4.9.4.1. The process a team uses in going about its work is as important as the content of educational changes it attempts.

4.9.4.2. The substance of a project often depends upon the degree of trust and openness built up within the team and between the team and the school.

4.9.4.3. At the same time, the usefulness and the visibility of the project will influence future commitments from and the relationships among the staff and others involved.

5. Curriculum, Pedagogy, and the Transmission of Knowledge

5.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum

5.1.1. A philosophically pragmatist approach developed in the early twentieth century as a putatively democratic response to the development of mass public secondary education.

5.1.2. The social efficiency curriculum was rooted in the belief that different groups of students, with different sets of needs and aspirations, should receive different types of schooling.

5.2. Traditions of Teaching

5.2.1. The Mimetic Tradition

5.2.1.1. Knowledge of a "mimetic" variety, whose transmission entails mimetic procedures, is by definition identifiable in advance of its transmission.

5.2.1.2. A crucial property of mimetic knowledge is its reproducibility. It is this property that allows us to say it is "transmitted" from teacher to student or from text to student.

5.2.1.3. The knowledge involved in all transmissions within the mimetic tradition has an additional property worth noting: It can be judged right or wrong, accurate or inaccurate, correct or incorrect on the basis of a comparison with the teacher's own knowledge or with some other model as found in a textbook or other instructional materials.

5.2.1.4. Mimetic is by no means limited to "bookish" learning, knowledge expressible in words alone. Though much of it takes that form, it also includes the acquisition of physical and motor skills, knowledge to be performed in one way or another, usually without any verbal accompaniment whatsoever.

5.2.1.5. In essence the procedure for transmitting mimetic knowledge consists of 5 steps.

5.2.1.5.1. Step one: Test

5.2.1.5.2. Step two: Present

5.2.1.5.3. Step three: Perform/Evaluate

5.2.1.5.4. Step four (A): if correct performance - Reward/Fix

5.2.1.5.5. Step four (B): if incorrect performance - Enter remedial loop

5.2.1.5.6. Step five: Advance

5.2.2. The Transformative Tradition

5.2.2.1. This tradition deems successful teaching to be capable of accomplishing: a transformation of one kind or another in the person being taught- a qualitative change often of dramatic proportion, a metamorphosis, so to speak.

5.2.2.2. Such changes would include all those traits of character and of personality most highly prized by the society at large.

5.2.2.3. They also would include the eradication or remediation of a corresponding set of undesirable traits.

5.2.2.4. These transformation changes happen in many ways.

5.2.2.4.1. Personal modeling

5.2.2.4.2. Use of narrative

6. Politics of Education

6.1. Purposes of schooling

6.1.1. Intellectual Purposes

6.1.1.1. Teach basic cognitive skills

6.1.1.1.1. Reading

6.1.1.1.2. Writing

6.1.1.1.3. Mathamatics

6.1.1.2. Help students acquire higher-order thinking skills

6.1.1.2.1. Analysis

6.1.1.2.2. Evaluation

6.1.1.2.3. Synthesis

6.1.2. Political Purposes

6.1.2.1. Inculate allegiance to the existing political order

6.1.2.2. Prepare citizens who will participate in this political order

6.1.2.3. Help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order.

6.1.3. Economic Purposes

6.1.3.1. Prepare students for occupational roles

6.1.3.2. Select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor

6.1.4. Social Purposes

6.1.4.1. Help solve social problems

6.1.4.2. Socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of the society.

6.2. Political Perspectives

6.2.1. The Conservative Perspective

6.2.1.1. Role of the school

6.2.1.1.1. Provide the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity.

6.2.1.1.2. Schools socialize children into the adult roles necessary to the maitnence of the social order

6.2.1.1.3. Transmit the cultural traditions through what is taught.

6.2.1.2. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performance

6.2.1.2.1. Individuals or groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative.

6.2.1.3. Definition of Educational Problems

6.2.1.3.1. Decline of standards

6.2.1.3.2. Decline of cultural literacy

6.2.1.3.3. Decline of values or of civilization

6.2.1.3.4. Decline of authority

6.2.2. The Liberal Perspective

6.2.3. The Radical Perspective

6.2.4. The Neo-liberal Perspective

7. Equality of Opportunity and Educational Outcomes

7.1. Class

7.1.1. Students of different social classes have different kinds of educational experiences.

7.1.2. There are several factors that may contribute to these different experiences.

7.1.2.1. Education in extremely expensive and therefore favors wealthier families.

7.1.2.2. Families from the upper class and the middle class are also more likely to expect their children to finish school, whereas working class and underclass families often have lower levels of expectation for their children.

7.1.2.3. From a cultural point of view, schools represent the values of the middle and upper class.

7.1.2.4. Studies show that the number of books in a family's home is related to the academic achievement of its children.

7.1.2.5. Middle and upper middle-class children are more likely to speak "standard" English which is an educational asset.

7.1.2.6. There is a direct correlation between parental income and children's performance on achievement tests, as well as placement in ability groups and curriculum track in high school.

7.1.2.7. Children from working-class and underclass families are more likely to underachieve, drop out, and resist the curriculum of the school.

7.2. Race

7.2.1. An individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve.

7.2.2. Among 16-24 year olds, for instance, 5.2 percent of white students drop out of school, whereas 9.3 percent of African-American students and 17.6 percent of Hispanic- American students are likely to drop out of school.

7.2.3. Among 17 year olds, 89 percent of white students will be able to read at the intermediate level. However, 66 percent of African- American students have reached that level of reading proficiency and 70 percent of Hispanic- American students are reading at the intermediate level.

7.2.4. Minorities have, on average, lower SAT scores than white students,

7.2.5. Minority students receive fewer and inferior educational opportunities than white students.

7.3. Gender

7.3.1. Historically, an individuals' gender was directly related to his or her educational attainment.

7.3.2. Females are less likely to drop out of school than males, and are more likely to have a higher level of reading and writing proficiency than males.

7.3.3. Males outperform females in mathematics proficiency.

7.3.4. Overall, males are more likely to score higher on the SAT's than females.

7.3.5. In the last 20 years, gender differences between men and women, in terms of educational attainment, have been reduced.

7.4. Coleman Study 1982

7.4.1. In 1982, James Coleman, Thomas Hoffer, and Sally Kilgore, published High School Achievement: Public, Catholic, and Private Schools Compared which set off a firestorm of controversy.

7.4.2. Jencks (1985) used the Coleman study to make his own interpretations. He believed that the differences that do exist between public and Catholic schools are statistically significant, but in terms of significant differences in learning, the results are negligible.

7.4.3. Subsequent studies that have compared public and private schools have also found that private schools seem to "do it better" particularly for low-income students.

7.4.4. Geoffrey Borman and Maritza Dowling later applied the most sophisticated statistical tools to evaluate educational data in a similar manner as Coleman had done in 1966.

7.4.4.1. They found that both the racial/ethnic and social class composition of a student's school are 1 3/4 times more important that a students individual race/ethnicity or social class for understanding educational outcomes.

7.4.4.2. Borman and Dowling argue that school segregation based on race and socioeconomic status and within school interactions dominated by middle-class values are largely responsible for gaps in student achievement

8. Explanations of Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.1.1. Popularized in the 1960's, the cultural deprivation theory suggests that working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage.

8.1.2. Cultural deprivation theorist assert that the poor have a deprived culture- one that lacks the value system of middle-class culture.

8.1.2.1. Middle-class culture values hard work and initiative, the delay of immediate gratification for future reward, and the importance of schooling as a means to future success.

8.1.2.2. The culture of poverty eschews delayed gratification for immediate reward, rejects hard work and initiative as a means to success, and does not view school as a means to social mobility.

8.1.2.3. This deprivation results in educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for satisfactory academic achievement.

8.1.3. Cultural deprivation theory was attacked in the 60's and 70's by social scientists who believed it to be paternalistic at best and racist at worst.

8.1.4. Critics argue that it removes the responsibility for school success and failure from schools and teachers, and places it on families. It blames the victims of poverty for the effects of poverty rather than placing the blame squarely where it belongs: on the social and economic processes that produce poverty.

8.1.5. Another criticism concerned the relative failure of many of the compensatory educational programs that were based on its assumptions about why disadvantaged children have lower levels of achievement than more advantaged children.

8.2. School-centered explanations for educational inequality

8.2.1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. Jonathan Kozol, in his book, Savage Inequalities, compared public schools in affluent suburbs with public schools in poor inner cities.

8.2.1.1.1. He documented the vast differences in funding between affluent and poor districts, and called for equalization in school financing.

8.2.1.2. Public schools are financed through a combination of revenues from local, state, and federal sources. However, the majority of funds come from state and local taxes, with local property taxes being a significant source.

8.2.1.2.1. Property taxes are based on the value of the property in local communities and therefore is a proportional tax. Since property values are significantly higher in more affluent communities, these communities are able to raise significantly more money for schools through this form of taxation than poorer communities with lower property values.

8.2.1.2.2. Thus, more affluent communities are able to provide more per-pupil spending than poorer districts, often at a proportionately less burdensome rate than in poorer communities.

8.2.2. Between- School Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices

8.2.2.1. Bernstein (1990), suggested that schools in working-class neighborhoods are far more likely to have authoritarian and teacher-directed pedagogic practices, and to have a vocationally or social efficiency curriculum at the secondary level.

8.2.2.2. Schools in middle-class communities are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student-centered pedagogic practices and to have a humanistic liberal arts college preparatory curriculum at the secondary level.

8.2.3. Within- School Differences: Curriculum and Ability Grouping

8.2.3.1. At the elementary school level, students are divided into reading groups and separate classes based on teacher recommendations, standardized test scores, and sometimes descriptive characteristics such as race, class, or gender.

8.2.3.1.1. For the most part, elementary students receive a similar curriculum in these different groups, but it may be taught at a different pace, or the teachers in the various groups may have different expectations for the different students.

8.2.3.2. At the secondary school level, students are divided both by ability and curriculum, with different groups of students often receiving considerably different types of education within the same school

8.2.4. Effective School Research

8.2.4.1. The concern with unequal educational performance of nonwhite and working-class students is at the heart of such inquiry.

8.2.4.2. The finding that within-school differences are as or more significant than between-school differences raised questions about the common-sense argument that students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds do poorly simply because they attend inferior schools.

9. Educational Reform and School Improvement

9.1. School-Business Partnerships

9.1.1. During the 1980's, business leaders became increasingly concerned that the nation's schools were not producing the kinds of graduates necessary for the revitalization of the U.S. economy.

9.1.2. Several school-business partnerships were formed, the most notable of which was the Boston Compact began in1982.

9.1.3. School-business partnerships may include scholarships for poor students to attend college and programs where businesses "adopt" a school.

9.1.4. School-business partnerships have attracted considerable media attention, but there is little convincing evidence that they have significantly improved schools or that, as a means of reform, school-business partnerships will address the fundamental problems facing U.S. education.

9.2. Privatization

9.2.1. from the 1990s, the traditional distinction between public and private education became blurred, with private education companies increasingly becoming involved in public education in a variety of ways.

9.2.2. First, for profit companies, such as Edison Company, took over the management of failing schools and districts.

9.2.3. The Philadelphia Public Schools, taken over by the state of Pennsylvania in 2003due to low student achievement, hired for-profit companies, including Edison, as well as local universities, including Penn and Temple to manage its schools.

9.2.4. Second, for profit companies, such as Kaplan and Sylvan Learning Canters, have the majority of contracts for supplemental tutoring under NCLB.

9.3. Full Service and Community Schools

9.3.1. Full service schools focus on meeting students' and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs in a coordinated and collaborative fashion between school and community services.

9.3.2. In this model, schools serve as community centers within neighborhoods that are open extended hours to provide a multitude of services such as adult education, health clinics, recreation facilities, after-school programs, and tutoring services.

9.3.3. Specifically designed to target and improve at-risk neighborhoods, full-service schools aim to prevent problems, as well as to support them.

9.4. Harlem Children's Zone

9.4.1. Geoffrey Canada felt that growing up in the South Bronx in an all black community didn't prepare him for the academic and social challenges he faced at Bowdoin College. As a result, he wanted to ensure that other African-American children were prepared.

9.4.2. Canada's approach is unique I that he wants to leave children where they are, simultaneously changing them and their neighborhood, instead of removing them from the neighborhood.

9.4.3. Canada provides programs for parents in Harlem before their children are even born in attempt to infuse all knowledge that middle-class parents know they should do for their fetuses and infants in a "sensitive way."

9.4.4. Providing quality early childhood education helps minority and low-income children to be successful, rather than further behind, when they begin formal schooling.