Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. History of U.S. Education

1.1. Reform Movement

1.1.1. The Age of Reform: The Rise of the Common School -The Industrial Revolution, which began in the textile industry in England, crossed the Atlantic Ocean and brought its factory system with its new machinery to urban areas, Immigrants flocked to the factories looking for work. The industry then expanded westward. When Andrew Jackson was elected as president, all men had obtained the right to vote, except for slaves and emotionally disturbed persons. After 1815, the reformers emerged. The reformers often lacked higher education and did not hold public office, but often articulated their ideas with the fervor of evangelical Christianity. Although the reform movement attempted to address such a diverse societal problems as slavery, mental illness, intemperance, and pacifism, many reformers generally believed that the road to secular paradise was through education. By 1820, it had become evident to those interested in education that the schools that had been established by the pre-war generation were not functioning effectively. Even in New England, with its laws specifying common schools, town neglected or evaded their duties. In other parts of the country, charity schools provided the only opportunities for disadvantaged children to obtain an education. The struggle for free public education was led by Horace Mann. Mann believed that schools could change the social order and can foster social mobility.

1.2. Historical Interpretation

1.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School - Democratic-liberals believe that the history of the U.S. education involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality of  opportunity of all. Democratic-liberal historians suggest that each period of educational expansion involved the attempts of liberal reformers to expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and to reject the conservative view of schools as elite institution for the meritorious.

2. Sociology  of Education

2.1. Relationship Between School and Society

2.1.1. Functional Theories - Functionalists view society as a kind of machine, where one part articulates with another to produce dynamic energy to make society work.

2.1.2. Conflict Theories - Not all sociologist of education believe that society is held together by shared values alone. Some sociologists argue that the social order is not based on some collective agreement, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups through force, cooptation, and manipulation.

2.1.3. Interactionalism - Interactional theories about the relation of school and society are primarily critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives.

2.2. Three Effects of Schooling on Individuals

2.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes - Sociologists argue how much of an effect schooling has on knowledge and attitudes of the students. Nobody argues that schools have no impact on student development, but there are sharp divisions among researchers about how significant school effects are, when taking into account student's social class background.

2.2.2. 2. Employment - Graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities.

2.2.3. 3. Teacher Behavior - Teachers have a huge effect on student's learning and behavior. Persell found that when teachers demanded more from their students and praised them more, students learned more and felt better about themselves.

2.2.4. 4. Gender - Schools reproduce inequalities through gender discrimination. Men are usually paid more than women for the same work, and women generally have fewer job opportunities than men.

2.2.5. 5. Tracking - Tracking is the placement of students in curricular programs based on students' abilities and inclinations.

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Pragmatism - An American philosophy that that developed late in the nineteenth century, Pragmatism comes from the Greek work pragma. Pragmatism is a philosophy that encourages people to find the process that works in order to achieve their desired ends. Pragmatics are action oriented, experimentally grounded, and will generally pose questions such as "What will work to achieve my desired end?"

3.1.1. Curriculum - Progressive schools generally follow Dewey's notation of a core curriculum, or and integrated curriculum. A particular subject matter under investigation by students, such as whales, would yield problems to be solved using math, science, history, reading, writing, music, art, wood, or metal working, cooking, and sewing - all academic and vocational disciplines in an integrated, interconnected way.

3.1.2. Role of the Teacher - In a progressive setting, the teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows. The teachers assumes the peripheral position of facilitator.

3.1.3. Goal of Education - Dewey's vision of schools was rooted in the social order. He did not see ideas as separate from social conditions.

3.1.4. Key Researchers - The founders of this school of thought were George Sanders Pierce, William James, and John Dewey. There were also European philosophers who would be considered pragmatists, such as Frances Bacon, John Locke, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.

3.1.5. Generic Notions - Dewey's form of pragmatism (instrumentation and experimentalism) was founded on the new psychology, behaviorism, and the philosophy of pragmatism. His ideas were influenced by the theory of evolution and by an eighteenth century optimistic belief in progress.

3.1.6. Method of Instruction - Dewey proposed that children learn both individually and in groups. He believed that children should start their mode of inquiry by posing questions about what they want to know. Formal instruction was abandoned.

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Governance

4.1.1. Senators

4.1.1.1. Richard Shelby

4.1.1.2. Jeff Sessions

4.1.2. House of Representatives

4.1.2.1. District 29: Becky Nordgren

4.1.3. State Superintendant

4.1.3.1. Michael Sentance

4.1.4. State School Board Representative

4.1.4.1. District 8: Mary Scott Hunter

4.1.5. Local Superintendant

4.1.5.1. Etowah County: Alan Cosby

4.1.6. Local School Board

4.1.6.1. Place Representative: Doug Sherrod

4.2. Comparison to One Country

4.2.1. Conflicts is a necessary part of change. When changes are immanent, conflict is likely. Someone must be able to resolve conflicts.

4.2.2. New behaviors must be learned. Change requires new behaviors and relationships.

4.2.3. Everyone in the school must be involved in team building.

4.2.4. Process and content are interrelated.

5. Curriculum & Pedagogy

5.1. Humanist Curriculum Theory

5.1.1. Students can decide what they want to learn.

5.1.2. The students should be taught how to learn and should also be self-motivated.

5.1.3. Grades are not important, but only the student's evaluation of their performance.

5.1.4. Feelings and knowledge are a learning process.

5.1.5. If students feel safe and secure, then their learning experience will be more successful.

5.2. The Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

5.2.1. Back-to-the-Basics/Traditional

5.2.1.1. Main Objective: High test scores, graduation.

5.2.1.2. Teacher instruction.

5.2.1.3. Students grouped by age.

5.2.1.4. Direct instruction, seat work, lecturing.

5.2.1.5. Textbooks are greatly encouraged.

5.2.1.6. Method of memorization encouraged.

5.2.1.7. Teacher is reverenced by last name.

5.2.2. Conventional Education/Non-traditional

5.2.2.1. Progressivism.

5.2.2.2. Hands on learning.

5.2.2.3. Performance-based assessment.

5.2.2.4. Collaborative learning environment.

5.2.2.5. Social skills are improved.

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Educational Achievement & Attainment

6.1.1. How does race affect education?

6.1.1.1. With different cultures and races in the same classroom, the teacher still must teach the curriculum no matter who the standards are about. Some children could get embarrassed depending on the subject.

6.1.1.2. Some families have not had an opportunity to be highly educated.

6.1.1.3. Some students may receive a late start on their education (no preschool).

6.1.2. How does class affect education?

6.1.2.1. Children in lower income households will have less resources to study do projects than students who live in higher income households.

6.1.2.2. Some lower income students are not able to participate in higher education due to cost.

6.1.3. How does gender affect education?

6.1.3.1. Boys and girls learn differently.

6.1.3.2. Most girls communicate better than boys.

6.1.3.3. Most boys are needy when it comes to an imagination.

6.2. Response to the Coleman Study

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Sociological Explanations of Unequal Achievement

7.1.1. Material Deprivation

7.1.1.1. Refers to the income inequality and the problems associated with it, such as bad diet, inadequate housing, and lack of resources.

7.1.1.2. Five Policies

7.1.1.2.1. Gifted children improvisions

7.1.1.2.2. Mentors

7.1.1.2.3. Support Unit

7.1.1.2.4. Beacon schools

7.1.1.2.5. Specialist schools

7.1.2. Cultural Deprivation

7.1.2.1. Tension between different income classes

7.1.2.2. The working class income levels do not have the resources to practice education that the upper class may have.

7.1.2.3. The restricted code: Speech used by the working class that consists of unfinished sentences and limited vocabulary.

7.1.2.4. The elaborated code: Speech used by the middle class that consists of a broad vocabulary and complex sentences.

7.2. School Centered Explanations

7.2.1. School Financing

7.2.1.1. Jonathan Kozol documented the differences in funding between poor and rich school environments. He then called for equalization of funding. Public schools are financed through local, state, and federal sources.

7.2.2. Effective School Research

7.2.2.1. Edmonds, Austin, & Garber's Research: 1. A environment of high expectations for students. 2. Strong and effective leadership by a principal or school head. 3. Accountability processes for teachers and students. 4. The monitoring of student learning. 5. High degree of instructional time on task. 6. Flexibility for teachers and administrators to experiment and adapt to new situations and problems.

7.2.3. Gender and Schooling

7.2.3.1. There are many explanations of inequalities in schooling. For example, Feminists agree that schooling limits the educational opportunities and the life chances of women in a number of ways.

7.2.4. Curriculum and Ability Grouping

7.2.4.1. Different groups of students in the same schools perform very differently suggests that there may be school characteristics affecting these outcomes.

8. Educational Reforms

8.1. School-based Reforms

8.1.1. Privatization: A time when something that is government or publicly owned is changed to ownership by a few people.

8.1.2. School-to-work program: A program where students learn to go from school straight into the work force. Proper training is given so the students are prepared.

8.2. Societal, Community, Economic, or Political Reforms

8.2.1. No Child Left Behind

8.2.1.1. Annual testing is required for students in grades 3-8 in reading and math plus at least one test in grades 10-12 with science to follow.

8.2.1.2. States and districts are required to report school by school data on test performance broken down into categories (race, culture).

8.2.1.3. States must set AYP goals for each school.

8.2.1.4. Schools that don't meet AYP for two years are labeled "In Need of Improvement"

8.2.1.5. Schools must have "highly qualified" teachers for the "core academic subjects".

8.2.2. School-to-Work Programs

8.2.2.1. Relevant education

8.2.2.2. Skills

8.2.2.3. Valued credentials

9. Politics of Education

9.1. Vision

9.1.1. 1. Intellectual Purposes

9.1.1.1. The intellectual purposes of education are to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics.

9.1.2. 2. Political & Civic Purposes

9.1.2.1. The political purposes of schooling are to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order.

9.1.3. 3. Economic Purposes

9.1.3.1. The economic purposes of schooling are to help students for their later occupational roles, and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

9.1.4. 4. Social Purposes

9.1.4.1. The social purposes of schooling are to help solve social problems.

9.2. Perspective

9.2.1. 1. The Role of the School

9.2.1.1. The conservative perspective sees the school's role as providing the necessary educational training to ensure that the most talented and hard-working individuals receive the tools necessary to maximize economic and social productivity.

9.2.1.2. The conservative perspective believes that schools should ensure that all students have the opportunity to compete individually in the educational marketplace and that schools should be meritocratic to the extent that individual effort is rewarded.

9.2.2. 2. Explanations of Unequal Performance

9.2.2.1. Conservatives argue that individuals or groups of students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work, and initiative, and that achievement is based on hard work and sacrifice.

9.2.3. 3. Definitions of Educational Problems

9.2.3.1. In response to liberal and radical demands for greater equality in the 1960s and 1970s , schools systematically lowered academic standards and reduced educational quality. Conservatives often refer to this problem as the decline of students.

9.2.3.2. In response to the liberal and radical demands for multicultural education, schools watered down the traditional curriculum and thus weakened the school's ability to pass on the heritage of American and Western civilizations to children. Conservatives often define this problem as the decline of cultural literacy.

9.2.3.3. In their response to liberal and radical demands for the cultural relativism, schools lost their traditional role of teaching and moral standard values. Conservatives often refer to this as the decline of values or of civilization.

9.2.3.4. In response to liberal and radical demands for individuality and freedom, schools lost their traditional values disciplinary functions and often become chaotic. Conservatives often refer to this problem as the decline of authority.

9.2.3.5. Because they are state controlled and are immune from the Laws of competitive free market, schools are stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency

9.2.3.6. Because they are state controlled and are immune from the laws of a competitive free market, schools are stifled by bureaucracy and inefficiency, Liberals have significantly different viewpoints on the major educational problems of our times.