My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Chapter 2

1.2. Perspectives

1.2.1. Conservative originated in the 19th century that applied the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin to the analysis of societies Sociologist William Graham Sumner developed this perspective around the idea that social evolution as a process that enables the strongest individuals and/or groups to survive and adapt to changes in the environment A positive view of the U.S. society that states that capitalism is the best economic system and ensures maximum productivity with individual freedom The Role of the School is to provide the necessary educational training to ensure that the talented and hard working individuals receive the tools to excel economically and socially

1.2.2. Liberal originated in the twentieth century by John Dewey became politically dominant during Franklin Delano Roosevelt's administration also known as New Deal Era A positive view of U.S. society that states that capitalism is the most productive economic system The Role of the School stresses the training and socialization of the school

1.2.3. Radical does not believe that free market capitalism is the best form of economic organization, but believes democratic socialism is the best form belief is that capitalist system is central to U.S. social problems and are structural in nature A negative view of the U.S. society recognizing the productive capacity of capitalist economic system but argues that the society structure creates inequality between members The Role of the School is to perpetuate the society and to sever those with great wealth and political power

1.2.4. Neo-liberal in the past decade this perspective has become more popular and has become important part of official federal, state, and local school policy Philosophy of Education President Bush's No Child Left Behind (2001) the use of achievement tests to measure a schools quality and President Obama's Secretary of Education Arne Duncan's program Race to the Top (RTT) required states to expand number of charter schools to implement Valued Added Models (VAM) based on student achievement to qualify for RTT funds There are 5 areas of educational policy: Austerity; the market model; individualism; State intervention; and Economic prosperity, race and class The Role of the School is centered on the No Child Left Behind mandate

1.3. Visions

1.3.1. Traditional notions that schools are necessary for the transmission of the U.S. society values such as family unity, hard work, and individual initiative Schools should strive to pass on traditional values generation to generation

1.3.2. Progressive notions that schools are the central point for solving social problems, a vehicle for upward mobility, essential to the development of individual potential, and as an integral part of a democratic society Belief that schools should be part of a steady progress to make everything better

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Chapter 4

2.2. Reform Movements

2.2.1. 2001 No Child Left Behind

2.2.2. required standardized testing nationwide for all students in the 3rd to 8th grade annually

2.2.3. President Georgia W. Bush

2.3. Historical Interpertation

2.3.1. Democratic-Liberal School

2.3.2. education involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to equality of opportunity for all

2.3.3. Radical-Revisionist School

2.3.4. Michael Katz, Joel Spring and Clarence Karier are a part of the radical-revisionist group that began to challenge the democratic-liberals.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Chapter 3

3.2. Relationships between School and Society

3.2.1. Theoretical Perspectives Functional Theories focus on positive functions performed by education Conflict Theories sees the purpose of education in society as a dynamic entity constantly changing as a result of competition over scarce resources which consist of economic, political, cultural and military power Interactional Theories limits analysis of education to what they directly observe that happens in the classroom and focus is on the teacher's expectations influence performance, perceptions, and attitudes of the children he/she teaches

3.3. Tree Effects of Schooling an Individuals

3.3.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.3.2. Employment For many students a high quality education means greater employment opportunities which is important to the individual and cause the individual to strive to achieve a college education

3.3.3. Education and Mobility

3.4. Inside the Schools

3.4.1. Teacher Behavior Teachers have a great impact on their student's learning Teachers are role models Teachers are instructional leaders Teachers influence students self-worth

3.4.2. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

3.5. Education and Inequality

3.5.1. Inadequate Schools

3.5.2. Tracking

3.5.3. De Facto Segregation

3.5.4. Gender

4. Schools  as organizations

4.1. Chapter 6

4.2. Community and County Leaders

4.2.1. Senator Steve Livingston

4.2.2. House of Representative Nathaniel Ledbetter

4.2.3. State Superintendent Michael Sentance

4.2.4. Representative of State School Board Mary Scott Hunter

4.2.5. Local Superintendent Huge Taylor

4.2.6. Local School Board Chairman Matt Sharp Vice Chairman Jeff Williams Member Randy Peppers Member Mark Richards Member Terry Wooten

4.3. Elements of Change

4.3.1. Team Building Team building must become a goal of the entire school. Shared decisions are critical for everyone involved in the day to day collaborative processes. Lack of communication can lead to issues of exclusiveness and imagined elitism.

4.3.2. Changing the Culture of school to make the school more learning efficient will warrant more time, intellect, benevolence and effort.

4.3.3. New Behaviors New behaviors must be formed because of change means establishing new relationships and behaviors. This change in process must include the following; building communications and trust, collaboration, conflict resolution, enabling leadership and initiative to emerge, and learning techniques of communication.

5. Educational Inequality

5.1. Chapter 9

5.2. 1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

5.2.1. suggests that working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources

5.2.2. Oscar Lewis drew a thesis about poverty in Mexico that stated that poor the have a deprived culture one that lacks the value system of the middle-class culture

5.2.3. Deutsch a cultural deprivation theorists expresses that disadvantaged students who achieve poorly  because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for academic achievement

5.3. 2. Cultural Differences Theories

5.3.1. there are cultural and family differences between working-class and nonwhite students, and white middle-class students

5.3.2. John Ogbu argued that African-American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class and caste structure

5.3.3. Bourdieu's concepts of social and cultural capital area are also important in understanding cultural differences affecting education inequalilty

5.4. School-Centered Explanations

5.4.1. 1. School Financing Jonathon Kozol compared public schools in affluent suburbs with public schools in the poor inner cities and called for equalization in school financing inequalities exist because of the way that public school are financed in the United States

5.4.2. 2. Between-school Differences: Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices differences in what is often termed school climates affect academic performances differences between schools in inner city, lower socioeconomic neighborhoods demonstrate that schools can make a difference in these commuities findings support the argument that schools do affect educational outcomes

5.4.3. 3. Gender and Schooling feminist movement influenced education 1960s and 1970s feminist included the following women: Betty Friedan, Gloria Steinem, Ellen Willis, Germaine Greer and Kate Millett. These women challenged the view that biology is destiny. Vivian Gornick argued that differences between men and women  are cultural. She states that women deserve equality in the public and private spheres of life in her essay "The Next Great Moment in History Is Theirs." This movement changed both attitudes and laws that limited the life chances of women.

5.4.4. 4. Effective School Research Coleman and Jencks found that differences in school resources an quality do not explain between-school differences in academic achievement as a mixed blessing by teachers unequal educational performances of nonwhite and working-class students was a big concern Ronald Edmonds stated that comparing schools in different socioeconomic communities was only part of the bigger puzzle

6. Educational Reform

6.1. Chapter 10

6.2. School -Based Reforms

6.2.1. 1. Federal Involvement in Education President G.H.W. Bush established 6 national goals to improve education in 1990. Goals were to be in place by the year 2000. All children will start school ready to learn High school graduation rate will increase by at least 90 percent American students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12, demonstrating competency in English, mathematics, science, history, and geography U.S. students will be first in the world in mathematics and science achievment Every adult American will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy

6.2.2. 2. No Child Left Behind Act President George W.Bush's educational policy that was initiated in 1983 Annual testing is required of students in grade 3 through 8 States and districts are required to report school-by-school data on student test performance States must set adequate yearly process (AYP) goals for each school Schools that don't meet AYP for two years are labeled " In Need of Improvement" Schools must have "highly Qualified" teachers for the "core academic subjects"

6.3. Societal, Community, Economic, and Political Reforms

6.3.1. 1. Connecting School, Community, and Societal Reforms Research by the Consortium for Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago that was conducted for 20 years demonstrates that school, community, and societal level reforms are necessary to reduce achievement gap Reform must be base on the following:

6.3.2. 2. Full Service and Community Schools education inequality can be attacked is to examine and plan to educate the whole child schools focused on meeting students' and their families educational, physical, psychological, and social needs schools service as community centers within neighborhoods that are open extended hours to provide a multitude of services and programs designed to target and improve at-risk neighborhoods, full-service schools aim to prevent problems and support them

7. Curriculum and Pedagogy

7.1. Chapter 7

7.2. Developmentalist Curriculum

7.2.1. emerged from Dewey's aspects and writings related to the relationship between the child and the curriculum

7.2.2. related to the needs and interests of the individual child

7.2.3. philosophical progressive approach to teaching

7.2.4. placed emphasis on the process of teaching as well as its content

7.2.5. child centered and concerned about child's developmental stages

7.2.6. flexibility was stressed in both what was taught and how it was taught, helped in the developement of each student's individual capacity

7.2.7. related schooling to life experiences of each child was considered important to assist children in a way that would make education come alive

7.2.8. the teacher was not a transmitter of knowledge but rather a facilitator of the child's growth

7.3. Dominate Traditions of Teaching

7.3.1. 1. Mimic Tradition freely accompanies with the traditional model purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to the students is the main focus dialect method is the best method of transmitting specific knowledge which relies on presentations and lectures to communicate the principle that the student does not process what the teacher has exasperates the importance of rational sequence in the teaching process and assessments of the students learning processes

7.3.2. 2. The Transformative Tradition

7.3.3. accompanies with the progressive model

7.3.4. presumes that the purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way, including intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and creatively

7.3.5. rejects authoritarian relationships between teacher and student

7.3.6. does not discern the transference of knowledge  as the only component of education

7.3.7. a more multi-dimensional theory of teaching

7.3.8. lectures may be used along with the dialectical method

7.3.9. has a broad spectrum of outlined goals

7.3.10. harder to measure educational outcomes and harder to assess

8. Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Chapter 8

8.2. Effects on Education

8.2.1. Class social classes have different effects on educational experiences education is extremely expensive and the longer a student stays in school the more money it costs, poor children are effected the most from the expense of an education Upper class and Middle class parents are more likely to send their children to college than the working class and underclass class is directly related to achievement and to educational attainment

8.2.2. Race individual's race has a direct impact on how much education he or she achieves 5.2 percent of white students drop out of school 9.3 percent of African-American students are likely to drop out of school 17.6 percent of Hispanic-American students are likely to drop out of school is related to educational outcomes is undeniable minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as whites

8.2.3. Gender individual's gender was directly related to  his or her education attainment females are less likely to drop out of school than males, and are more likely to have a higher reading and writing level males outperform females in mathematics proficiency, and males are more likely than females to score high on the SAT test

8.3. Coleman Study 1982

8.3.1. James Coleman, Thomas Hoffer, and Sally Kilgore published High School Achievement Public, Catholic, Private Schools Compared

8.3.2. found that the average test scores of public school students scored higher than private school students in reading, vocabulary, mathematics, science, civics and writing

8.3.3. debates over the findings were centered on the interpretations attached to the magnitude of findings

8.3.4. study concluded that where an individual goes to school is often related to his or her race and socioeconomic background

9. Philosophy of Education

9.1. Chapter 5

9.2. Pragmatism

9.2.1. Generic Notions Ideals were influenced by theory of evolution and by an optimistic belief of the eighteenth-century Thought a better education would lead to a better society Schools would be an embryonic community.

9.2.2. Key Researchers Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was a English philosopher and scientist. John Locke (1632-1704) was a modern realist and a political philosopher. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) was a French philosopher. John Dewey (1859-1952) was a heir to Charles Darwin and a teacher of philosophy.

9.2.3. Goals of Education focus was on social order to enrich minds through laboratory experiments Laboratory research would then implement, challenge and restructure students with the knowledge of how to improve social order. The role of school would be to integrate children into a democratic society.

9.2.4. Role of Teacher The teacher becomes a facilitator in a progressive setting. encourages, offers suggestions, ask questions, and helps plan and implement courses of study writes curriculum from commands of several disciplines to create and implement curriculum

9.2.5. Method of Instruction Students were taught in groups and individually Students would begin by asking questions to stimulate their minds on what they wanted to know.  This is known today as the problem-solving or the inquiry method of instruction. Combined participation of the students and the teacher would write books of study Field trips and projects were used to reinforce learning and were a big part of laboratory school.

9.2.6. Curriculum Existentialists and phemomenologists use curriculum biased toward humanities Art, drama and music are incorporated in to study Literature is used to evoke readers to new levels of awareness.