Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. The Four Purposes of Education

1.1.1. Political: to foster patriotism, to prepare students to be functional citizens within a society, and to assimilate various cultural groups into one main culture (22).

1.1.1.1. Conservative

1.1.1.1.1. Based on evolutionary theory of competition (23).

1.1.1.1.2. Free Market belief.  Supports capitalism (24).

1.1.1.1.3. Primary emphasis on individual (24).

1.1.1.1.4. Charles Darwin, William Graham Sumner, Adam Smith, Milton Friedman (23-4).

1.1.1.2. Liberal

1.1.1.2.1. Progressive - concerned with issues of equality of opportunity (24).

1.1.1.2.2. Supports government-regulated free market capitalism in order to protect marginalized individuals (24).

1.1.1.2.3. Balance of capitalism and social and economic needs of citizens to create even playing field (24).

1.1.1.2.4. Primary emphasis on social groups (25).

1.1.1.2.5. John Dewey, John Maynard Keyes, Franklin Delano Roosevelt

1.1.1.3. Radical

1.1.1.3.1. Democratic socialism should replace free market capitalism (25).

1.1.1.3.2. Karl Marx (25).

1.1.1.3.3. Focused on inequality under capitalism

1.1.1.3.4. Social problems are structurally created (25).

1.1.2. Social: to help solve social problems, to work on social cohesion, to work with other institutions such as family and church, and to teach children how to behave and what to value (22).

1.1.3. Economic:  to prepare students to be successful within the current economy as workers and contributors to the workforce (22).

1.1.4. Intellectual:  to teach basic cognitive skills, and to transmit knowledge in order to allow students to become analytical thinkers who can evaluate and synthesize information (22).

1.2. Role of The School

1.2.1. Liberal Perspective

1.2.1.1. School must provide required education so that everyone has equal opportunity for success in a capitalist society (27).

1.3. Explanations of Unequal Performance

1.3.1. Liberal Perspective

1.3.1.1. Different groups of students start out with different life chances; therefore, some have significantly greater advantages than others.  Society must use policies and programs to create a more even playing field (28).

1.4. Definition of Educational Problems

1.4.1. Liberal Perspective

1.4.1.1. Poor and minority children have less life changes due to school limitations, and that these groups underachieve as a result (29).

1.4.1.2. Too much attention on discipline and authority (29).

1.4.1.3. Urban and suburban schools, specifically between high and low socioeconomic backgrounds, vary greatly in quality and climate, resulting in significant inequalities (29).

1.4.1.4. Traditional curriculum is not diverse, and marginalizes minority groups (29).

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Educational Reform

2.1.1. The Development of Compulsory Education, specifically the Public High School

2.1.1.1. 1880, 27 states had compulsory education laws, by 1918 all states made public high school mandatory (72).

2.1.1.2. 1874, Kalamazoo, Michigan - court case set precedent to allow state to levy taxes to support public high school (72).

2.1.1.3. Progressive Movement

2.1.1.4. John Dewey, Jefferson, Franklin, Horace Mann

2.1.1.5. National Education Association

2.1.1.5.1. Purpose of education to prepare student for "duties of life" , and awarded academic merit to classic and modern subjects - classical and modern languages, English, math, history, science, and liberal arts, but neglected vocational education requirements.  All students were to be taught in the same way. (72).

2.1.1.5.2. Created committee on college requirements (73).

2.1.1.5.3. Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education

2.1.1.6. Education for life adjustment (73).

2.2. Historical Interpretation

2.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School

2.2.1.1. History of US Education is progressive in nature, and the school system strives to provide equality of opportunity for all (83).

2.2.1.2. Each period of US Education History shows how reformers have broadened educational opportunities for marginalized groups (83).

2.2.1.3. Historians: Ellwood Cubberly, Merle Curti, and Lawrence A. Cremin

2.2.1.4. Cremin

2.2.1.4.1. Popularization

2.2.1.4.2. Multitudinousness

2.2.1.5. Generally optimistic, see education as flawed, but generates greater equity and excellence through creating necessary compromises between popularization and multitudinousness (83).

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Theoretical Perspectives

3.1.1. Functionalsim

3.1.1.1. Stresses the interdependence of social system (117).

3.1.1.2. Society is a "machine" (117).

3.1.1.3. Emile Durkheim

3.1.1.3.1. Believed that education was the bedrock of creating morally sound citizens, and that moral values were the foundation of society (118).

3.1.1.3.2. Emphasis on morals and cohesion, set the tone for functionalism today (118).

3.1.1.4. Educational reform creates "structures, programs and curricula that are technologically advanced, rational, and encourage unity" (118).

3.1.1.5. Societal glue: shared morals (118).

3.1.2. Conflict Theory

3.1.2.1. Society is held together because dominate groups impose will on subordinate groups (118).

3.1.2.2. Societal glue:  economic, political, cultural, and military power (118).

3.1.2.3. Emphasize struggle.  Schools are "social battlefields", achievement ideology surpresses power struggles between teachers and administration and students and teachers (118).

3.1.2.4. Karl Marx based (119)

3.1.2.5. Max Weber

3.1.2.5.1. beaurocracy dominate in shaping education (119)

3.1.2.5.2. status competition and organization restraints (119)

3.1.2.5.3. Schools run the risk of anarchy due to school environments as oppressive and demeaning (119).

3.1.2.6. Randall Collins

3.1.2.6.1. Status group struggle (119)

3.1.2.6.2. College is a way of dominant groups securing their place in society, it does not mean that a person has learned more (119).

3.1.2.7. Basil Bernstein

3.1.2.7.1. Communication, family and educational codes contribute to social inequalities (120).

3.1.3. Interactionsim

3.1.3.1. Questions the ordinary day-to-day interactions within schools to reveal truths.  Ex:  process at how students are labeled "gifted" and "special needs" (120).

3.1.3.2. Feels conflict theory and functionalism are both too abstract, and look at the macro.  Interactionism looks at the micro (120).

3.1.3.3. Must view wholistically.

3.1.3.4. Basil Bernstein

3.1.3.4.1. linked speaking patterns of working class students with inequality due to the fact that schools are based on middle class speaking patterns (120).

3.2. Five Effects of Schooling on Individuals that have had the Greatest Impact on Students

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.2.1.1. Taking into account social class, students who spend more time in school, study challenging academic programs, and have consistent discipline, are more likely to do well in school (121).

3.2.1.2. The more education an individual receives, the more likely he/she will be liberal in political and social views (121).

3.2.1.3. Education is related to self esteem and well being (121).

3.2.2. Education and Mobility

3.2.2.1. Education is "civic religion",  and referred to as the "great equalizer" (122).

3.2.2.2. Education may lead to mobility in the middle class, but not necessarily with the poor or rich (123).

3.2.2.3. Data suggests that poor students are not more likely to rise out of poverty due to earning an education, and rich students are not going to loose their wealth if they do not become educated (123).

3.2.2.4. Rosenbaum - tournament selection, in which criteria are based on social class, race, gender, and some merit variables - so education is only one of many variables (123).

3.2.3. De Facto Segretation

3.2.3.1. Most Americans live in racially-segregated neighborhoods, so they are more likely to go to school with children of their own race (127).

3.2.3.2. Minority students who attend racially mixed schools are more likley to graduate, not become pregnant before 18, less likely to be arrested, and are generally benefited.  Other students are not negatively affected (127).

3.2.3.3. School choice is listed as an option to overcoming de facto segregation, but it does not necessarily point to change.  Sometimes it results in segregated schools rather than mixed (127).

3.2.4. Inadequate Schools

3.2.4.1. Urban education increasingly fails to educate poor and minority children (126).

3.2.4.2. Differences in school systems reinforce inequalities (126).

3.2.4.3. Students who attend elite schools obtain significant advantages over other children due to educational experience and social value of their diploma (126).

3.2.5. Teacher Behavior

3.2.5.1. Teacher expectation of students directly affects student achievement (124).  Rosenthal and Jacobson

3.2.5.2. When teachers demand more from students and praised them more, students learned more and felt better about themselves Persell (124).

3.2.5.3. Many contacts daily, and in danger of dealing with role strain (124).

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Existentialism

4.1.1. Generic Notions

4.1.1.1. Pose questions as to how concerns impact the lives of individuals (190).

4.1.1.1.1. Compulsory education laws spiked public high school attendance from 25,000 (1875) to @,382,542 in 1880 and to 6.5 million in 1940 (72).

4.1.1.2. Individuals are placed on the earth alone, and must make sense out of the chaos (190).

4.1.1.3. People create themselves through the choices they make, and they are constantly evolving.  Incredible amount of freedom and responbility, and can make a difference (190).

4.1.2. Key Researchers

4.1.2.1. Soren Kierkegaard

4.1.2.1.1. devout Christian who attacked contemporary Christianity

4.1.2.1.2. Rejected scientific approach to existence, but sought meaning in a world full of inhuman acts (WWII).

4.1.2.2. Martin Buber

4.1.2.2.1. Nontraditional/nonthreatening friendship between teacher and student.

4.1.2.3. Karl Jaspers

4.1.2.4. Jean--Paul Sartre

4.1.2.4.1. Individuals can make a difference in the world.

4.1.2.4.2. "existence precedes essence"

4.1.2.4.3. Atheist

4.1.2.5. Maxine Greene

4.1.2.5.1. "Awakeness"

4.1.3. Goal of Education

4.1.3.1. Focus on needs of individuals, cognitive and affective (191).

4.1.3.2. Education should stress individuality (191).

4.1.3.3. Discussion of rational and nonrational (191).

4.1.3.4. Address tensions such as anxiety (191).

4.1.4. Role of Teacher

4.1.4.1. Understand own "lived world" as well as their students, in order to achieve the best "lived worlds" (191).

4.1.4.2. Take risks, expose themselves to resistant students, work constantly to educate students (191).

4.1.4.3. Encourage students to be in touch with their worlds and to empower them through introspection.  Teach them to act on choices (191).

4.1.4.4. Intensely personal role with great responsibility (191).

4.1.5. Method of Instruction

4.1.5.1. Each child has a different learning style and the teacher must discover what works for each child (191).

4.1.5.2. Nontraditional, nonthreatening friendship between student and teacher - Martin Buber (191).

4.1.5.3. Posing questions, generating activities, and working together (191)

4.1.6. Curriculum

4.1.6.1. heavily based towards the humanities (191).

4.1.6.2. Emphasis on literature, since it has a way of bringing out responses that may lead to new levels of awakeness (Maxine Greene) (191).

4.1.6.3. Art, drama, and music (191).

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. My  Major Stakeholders

5.1.1. House Representatives

5.1.1.1. State Representative, 4th Congressional District

5.1.1.1.1. Mr. Scott DesJarlais

5.1.2. State Senators

5.1.2.1. State Senator, 14th District

5.1.2.1.1. Mr. Bob Corker

5.1.2.1.2. Mr. Lamar Alexander

5.1.3. State Superintendent

5.1.3.1. Mr. Kevin Huffman

5.1.4. Representative on State School Board

5.1.5. Local Superintendent

5.1.5.1. Dr. Bill Heath, Director, Lincoln County Schools

5.1.6. Lincoln County, TN School Board

5.1.6.1. Dr. James Louis Bledsoe, Federal Programs Supervisor

5.1.6.2. Mr. Ricky Bryant, Supervisor of Facilities and Management

5.1.6.3. Ms. Stephanie Britt, Supervisor of Child Nutrition

5.1.6.4. Ms. Margaret Campbell, Supervisor of Special Education

5.1.6.5. Mr. John Fanning, Supervisor of 9-12th Instruction and Public Relations

5.1.6.6. Ms. Jane Fisher, Supervisor, Grades K-2, Community Involvement, Public Relations, and Communication

5.1.6.7. Mr. Keith Gill, Supervisor of Transportation

5.1.6.8. Ms. Christine Hunter, Supervisor of Instruction 3-8th and System Testing Coordinator

5.1.6.9. Mr. Brad Luna, Supervisor of Technology

5.1.6.10. Ms. Carman Smith, Supervisor of Coordinated School Health

5.1.6.11. Ms. Linda Tallman, Supervisor of Human Personnel, Attendance, and Athletics

5.1.6.12. Ms. Renee Pryor, Supervisor of Instruction and Teacher Evaluation

5.1.6.13. Ms. Kathy Ward, Pre-Kindergarten Coordinator

5.2. Elements of Change within the School processes and school cultures

5.2.1. United States

5.2.1.1. Public

5.2.1.1.1. DeFacto Segregation

5.2.1.1.2. Consolidating, more students per teacher

5.2.1.1.3. Secular

5.2.1.2. Private

5.2.1.2.1. 25 percent of all schools, and educate 10 percent of population

5.2.1.2.2. Growing, less students per teacher

5.2.1.2.3. Mainly religious

5.2.2. Great Britian

5.2.3. France

5.2.4. Former Soviet Union

5.2.5. Japan

5.2.6. Germany

5.2.7. Finland

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum (284)

6.1.1. related to needs and interests of students rather than the needs of society

6.1.2. emphasizes the process of teaching as well as content

6.1.3. Based on the philosophy of Dewey

6.1.4. Takes developmental psychology based on Piaget's research and theory

6.1.5. Stresses flexibility in what is taught and how it is taught

6.1.6. Relates school to the life experiences of each child in such as way that knowledge comes alive for each child

6.1.7. Stressed in teacher education programs and in alternative schools

6.2. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic (296)

6.2.1.1. purpose of education to transmit specific knowledge to students

6.2.1.2. didactic method of teaching, which relies on lecture or presentation as main form of communication

6.2.1.3. the teacher is to give the student the information

6.2.1.4. rational sequencing and assessment of learning

6.2.2. Transformative (297)

6.2.2.1. purpose of education to change student in some meaningful way (intellectually, spiritually, creatively, and emotionally)

6.2.2.2. multidimensional theory of teaching

6.2.2.3. dialectal method of teaching, based on Socratic method

6.2.2.4. based on theory of John Dewey

6.2.2.5. begins with active participation from student and results in some growth

6.2.2.6. more difficult to assess and measure

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Factors affecting educational outcomes

7.1.1. Class (342)

7.1.1.1. education is extremely expensive, and the longer a student stays in school the longer he or she needs parental financial support; therefore, the system favors wealthier families

7.1.1.2. Upper class and middle class families are more likely to expect their children to finish school, and working class and lower class families have lower expectations

7.1.1.3. Schools represent the cultural values from the middle and upper classes

7.1.1.3.1. Middle and upper class families more likely to speak standard English

7.1.1.3.2. Typically have more books, more books in home, more likely to do better in school

7.1.1.3.3. Peer groups play a large role in student success, typically upper and middle class peer groups are more likely to accept academic achievement

7.1.1.4. direct correlation between parental income and academic scores on achievement tests, as well as placement in ability groups and curriculum track in high school

7.1.1.5. the more well off the student is, the more likely he or she will enroll in college and obtain a degree, also the more elite the college, the more upper class students enrolled there

7.1.2. Race (342-343)

7.1.2.1. race has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to receive

7.1.2.2. whites receive far more educational opportunities than minorities, and are more likely to reap the benefits of them

7.1.2.3. 5.2 percent of whites drop out, verses 9.3 percent of African-Americans, and 17.6 percent of Hispanics

7.1.2.4. 89 percent of whites can read at an intermediate level, verses 66 percent of African-Americans and 70 percent of Hispanics

7.1.2.5. Whites do better on the SAT, which in turn creates more pathways for higher education and scholarships

7.1.2.6. American society is racially segregated despite 1960s Civil Rights Legislation, and continues to be unequal when it comes to minorities, who are also disproportionately poorer

7.1.3. Gender (343)

7.1.3.1. Historically women have attained lower levels of education than men

7.1.3.1.1. due to feminizing of classroom - conservatives argue or due to success of education reform - argued by liberals

7.1.3.2. Today women have higher level of reading and less likely to drop out of school than men

7.1.3.3. Men still outperform women in mathematics proficiency

7.1.3.3.1. due to behavior of classroom teachers, who tend to assume that females will not do as well as males on the SATs

7.1.3.4. More women attend post-secondary educational facilities than men, but that they are typically less academically and socially prestigious than men

7.1.3.5. Over last 20 years, gender differences reduced, and girls have not only caught up to boys, but now there is a "boy problem"

7.2. Coleman Study Responses from 1982

7.2.1. Response One

7.2.1.1. Coleman and his associates found findings significant, that private schools were more effective learning environments than public schools because they place more emphasis on academic activities and because private schools enforce discipline in a way that is consistent with student achievement

7.2.2. Response Two

7.2.2.1. Challengers did not find Coleman's findings significant. Jencks used findings to compute the estimated yearly average achievement gain by public and Catholic school students, and that the difference was tiny.

7.2.2.2. statistically significant, but not statistically significant in learning

8. Educational Reform

8.1. School Based Reforms

8.1.1. School Choice

8.1.1.1. 1980s - school choice - the ability of studnets to chose to go to magnet and private schools, became the norm, based on the concept that these schools served students better

8.1.1.2. Intersectional

8.1.1.2.1. choice between public and private schools, but the fact that most private schools are religiously affiliated is a problem

8.1.1.3. Intrasectional

8.1.1.3.1. choice only exists between public schools

8.1.1.3.2. student can attend any school district in the state, as long as the school has space and is willing to accept

8.1.1.4. Intradistrict

8.1.1.4.1. Can attend any public school within the district as long as there is space and they are willing to accept

8.1.1.4.2. Can also mean that the student can choose a different curriculum within the same school

8.1.1.5. Charter schools

8.1.1.5.1. a phenomenon of the 1990s that still continues

8.1.1.5.2. Charter schools are public schools that are free from many of the regulations applied to traditional public schools, and in return are held accountable for results (swap red tape for results).

8.1.1.5.3. autonomous, and are bound by a charter regarding performance.

8.1.1.5.4. paid for with tax dollars

8.1.1.6. Vouchers

8.1.1.6.1. money goes to families to help pay for private schooling

8.1.1.6.2. highly controversial, due to separation of church and state (challenges deemed the voucher program is constitutional), and because resources are drained from the public school system to feed a private industry

8.1.1.6.3. proponents say that the system works, by providing quality education for some students.

8.1.2. School-based Partnerships

8.1.2.1. 1980s, business leaders became increasingly concerned that the nation's schools were not producing the kinds of graduates necessary for a revitalization of the U.S. economy

8.1.2.2. Several school-business partnerships formed, most notable was the Boston Compact of 1982

8.1.2.3. only 1.5 percent of businesses gave to these partnerships in the 1990s, but recently a large groups of foundations and entrepreneurs have contributed significantly

8.1.2.4. not much evidence that shows that school-based partnerships actually work

8.2. Societal, Economic, Community and Political Reforms

8.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools

8.2.1.1. a way to fight education inequality by attacking community inequality

8.2.1.2. meet student and family's educational, physical, psychological, and social needs

8.2.1.3. schools serve as community centers

8.2.1.4. Harlem Children's Zone

8.2.1.4.1. New York, reaches African-American families and their children to prepare them for college, and educate parents.

8.2.1.5. State Intervention and Mayoral Control in Local School Districts

8.2.1.5.1. based on rewards and sanctions

8.2.1.5.2. no standard method, but can create more radical changes in under performing schools

8.2.1.5.3. drawback is that takeover is usually based on standardized test scores as markers of achievement.

8.2.1.5.4. mayoral control of urban districts has been most popular recently

9. Educational Inequality

9.1. School Centered Explanations for Educational Inequality

9.1.1. school financing

9.1.1.1. more affluent schools are more able to provide due to higher funding, since schools are financed through revenues from local, state, and federal sources

9.1.1.2. Serrano v. Priest (1971) California Supreme Court ruled the system of unequal school financing unconstitutional

9.1.1.3. Reliance on property taxes not outlawed, but still not equal.

9.1.1.4. State aid is utilized for underprivileged areas, but it is not enough to offset the differences in property taxes.

9.1.2. curriculum and pedagogic practices

9.1.2.1. emphasizes the role of school climate in achievement

9.1.2.2. upper middle class perform better, based on Bernstein's research, that curriculum is different for working class neighborhoods (more vocational, authoritative, and directed) than it is for upper class neighborhoods (more academic and college centered).

9.1.3. curriculum and ability grouping

9.1.3.1. occurs at all levels, and is often determined by teacher observation, standardized test scoring, and even race, class or gender.

9.1.3.2. it is debatable how effective this is, despite being a tool used in most schools to determine the pace of instruction for students. Content is not necessarily modified, but pace and complexity can be modified according to ability groups.

9.1.3.3. Albert Shanker stated that education in the United States assumes that students in the lower tracks are not capable of doing academic work and thus schools do not offer them an academically challenging curriculum.

9.1.3.4. Lower tracks tend to have didactic, teacher-led learning, and upper tracks tend to have dialectical, student-centered learning. Material is the same, but taught differently.

9.1.3.5. Lends to self-fulfilling prophecies. Differences in tracks determine success of students, so the way the material is taught directly impacts the learning of the students.

9.1.4. gender and schooling

9.1.4.1. Feminist scholarship on the way schools work has attempted to understand gender roles and the impacts of such in schooling

9.1.4.2. Carol Gilligan - breaks down Kohlberg's theory of learning as hierarchical and gender biased, due to the fact that he placed rational thought above emotional thought on this scale. She argues that society rewards men for male behavior and negatively affects women for female behavior. She argues that women are more caring because they are raised to be more caring, but that this is not inferior to male socialization.

9.1.4.3. Not all feminists agree with Gilligan, since women are more than caring. Some argue that schools need to accept a full range of male and female behaviors as normal and acceptable,

9.1.4.4. Feminists argue that schools limit life chances and educational opportunities of women in multiple ways.

9.1.4.4.1. curriculum materials often portray men and women as holding traditional gender roles

9.1.4.4.2. silences women by leaving out important female figures in history

9.1.4.4.3. continue to produce gender inequality, although current research suggests that the gender gap has decreased significantly.

9.2. Cultural Difference Theories

9.2.1. argue that there are cultural and family differences between working class and non-white students and white middle-class students.

9.2.2. Minority students may arrive at school unprepared without the required skills and attitudes because they are oppressed, not because they are deprived. They are different and are not represented by the majority.

9.2.3. John Ogbu

9.2.3.1. African-American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the calss and caste structure, and that there is a job ceiling for African-Americans in the United States

9.2.3.2. African-American families socialize their children to deal with the oppression and inferior life chances

9.2.3.3. school success requires African-American students to deny their own cultural identities and to accept the dominant culture of the schools, which is a white, middle-class model.

9.2.4. Bowles and Gintis

9.2.4.1. Similar to Ogbu, but theorize that working class families socialize children to deal with unequal access and success as African-Americans

9.2.5. Bourdie,u Passeron and Bernstein

9.2.5.1. Similar, but deal with other minority or disadvantaged groups.

9.2.6. 2nd type

9.2.6.1. suggests that working class and non white students resist the dominant culture of the schools

9.2.6.2. students reject white, middle-class culture, and embrace an antischool culture, which opposes schooling as it currently exists.

9.2.6.3. Often reject school and drop out to work in factories, where they believe they belong

9.2.6.4. hot rods, heavy metal, and the like...not seen as inferior to middle-class culture, but seen as different,

9.3. Cultural Deprivation Theories

9.3.1. Cultural Deprivation Theory: Oscar Lewis

9.3.1.1. the poor have a deprived culture - one that lacks the value system of middle-class culture

9.3.1.2. middle class culture values hard work, initiative, delay of immediate gratification for future reward, and the importance of schooling as a means for future success

9.3.1.3. culture of poverty encourages immediate reward instead of delayed gratification, rejects hard work and initiative as a means to success, and does not view schooling as a means to social mobility

9.3.2. Cultural Deprivation Theory: Deutsch

9.3.2.1. deprivation results in educationally disadvantaged students who achieve poorly because they have not been raised to acquire the skills and dispositions required for satisfactory academic achievement.

9.3.2.2. because of these drawn conclusions, policy makers created reformation programs such as Project Head Start, in an effort to reach disadvantaged children early to catch them up and to involve parents. It did not work as well as researchers had hoped.

9.3.2.3. Criticsim - paternalistic at best, racist at worst. Critics say that it blames the victims, and removes responsibility from schools.