My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Intellectual purposes of schooling are to teach basic cognitive skills such as mathematics, reading, and writing.  Also, this purpose is to transmit specific knowledge and to help students acquire a level of higher-order thinking skills which include analysis, evaluation, and synthesis.

1.2. Political purposes of schooling are to inculcate allegiance to the existing political order, to prepare ciizens who will participatte in this political order, to teach children the basic laws of the society, and to help assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order.

1.3. Social purposes of schooling are to help solve social problems, to work as one of many institutions like as the family and the church to make sure we have social cohesion, and to socialize children into the the various roles, behaviors ,and values of the society.  Sociologists refer to this process as socialization which is a main ingredient to the stability of any society.

1.4. Economic purposes of schooling are to prepare students for their later job roles and to choose, train, and allocate individuals into the workforce.  The way and how much schools prepare individuals for work varies between societies.

1.5. In the Conservative Perspective, the role of the school is to provide the necessary educational training to make sure that the most-talented and hard working people will receive the necessary tools to maximize economic and social productivity.

1.6. In the Conservative Perspective, the explanations of unequal educational performance are because of students intelligence, work ethic, and initiative, and that achievement is based on hard work and sacrifice.

1.7. In the Conservative Perspective, they say that education problems arise from the decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values or civilization, and decline of authority.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. I believe that the reform movement of the 1980s-2012 has had the most impact on education.  During this reform they implanted five recommendations to improve literacy because of the rise in adult literacy deficiencies.  Also, they improved the curriculum and raised standards.  During this time period, the No Child Left Behind Act and the Race to the Top Act.  I believe that this has contributed to better our education system.

2.2. The Democratic-Liberal interpretation is that they should expand educational opportunities to everyone.  They believe that the Common School Era was a victory for Democratic movements and was the first step in opening U.S. education to everyone.  They also believe that the diverse background has changed the goals education..  They view the education system has not been flawed.  They believe that the educational system must continuously moved towards the ideals of equality and excellence without sacrificing one over the other.

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Functionalists view our society as being like a machine, where one part articulates with another to produce the dynamic energy required by our society to make everything run smoothly. Durkheim believed that education was the most critical importance to create moral unity that is necessary for social harmony.

3.2. Conflict Theorists believe that schools are similar to social battle fields, where students struggle with teachers, administrators, and etc.

3.3. Interactional theories are mainly critiques and extensions of the functional and conflict perspectives. Also, they attempt to make the common place different by turning their heads on every day taken for granted behaviors and interactions between students and between students and teachers.

3.4. Knowledge and attitudes: I believe that this section has the greatest impact on students because where students go to school really does affect their education. Students that go to lower income schools have less opportunities than a students that may go to a private school, which will affect the quality of education provided.

3.5. Employment: The level of education a person receives directly affects the amount of money they will make. People with a higher degree will more likely be given better opportunities for certain jobs.

3.6. Education Mobility: The amount of education affects how quickly a person may climb in the social and economic ladder.

3.7. Teacher Behavior: Teacher behavior affects the student's learning because a student will listen and respect a teacher who treats them with kindness and also shows that they care about them and a student and as well as a person. If a teacher has a bad attitude towards students, then students will not want to listen to them nor respect them.

3.8. Inadequate Schools: I believe that schools are not giving students all of the proper tools necessary to prepare them for life. Students from a poor community will receive a more watered down version of what really needs to be taught to them, which will cause them to not be learning the necessary material that will prepare them for the future. Students from a more wealthy community will receive the education that will prepare them for their futures.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Pragmatism: Generic Notions

4.1.1. The ideas of John Dewey were that educators need to target the interests and needs of the child, to let the children plan their own course of study, introduce group learning, and rely on experiential learning.  This is referred to as being a progressive idea.

4.1.2. Also, he believed that school should be a reflection of the community so that students could resume roles in society when they graduate.

4.2. Key Researchers

4.2.1. John Dewey, William James, and George Sanders Peirce

4.3. Goal of Education

4.3.1. The goal is to provide students with the knowledge of ways to improve social order.

4.4. Role of the Teacher

4.4.1. The teacher is in a position as a facilitator instead of an authoritarian figure.

4.4.2. The teacher is to encourage, offer suggestions, question, and help plan a course of study.

4.5. Methods of Instruction

4.5.1. The methods teachers should use are to have students work individually and in groups.

4.5.2. Should use the problem-solving method, which is where students say what they want to know.

4.5.3. Take field trips or do projects that connect with the course of study.

4.6. Curriculum

4.6.1. Pragmatists are in favor of a core or integrated curriculum.

4.6.2. They do not have a fixed curriculum because they believe education should change as society changes, children's needs change, and children's interests change.

4.6.3. Provide a balance between traditional subject content and children's needs and interests.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Stakeholders in my district

5.1.1. State Senator: Larry Stutts

5.1.2. House of Representatives: Marcel Black, Johnny Mack Morrow,

5.1.3. State Superintendent: Michael Sentance

5.1.4. Representative of state board on education: Jeffrey Newman

5.1.5. Local Superintendent (Tuscumbia City School): Darryl Aikerson

5.1.6. Local Board of Education (Tuscumbia City Schools): Mark McIlwain, Betsy Gardiner, Troy Youngblood, Buddy Whitlock, and Fred Williams.

5.2. School process and cultures

5.2.1. Conflict is a major component for change.  This allows issues that schools have to surface, so that the staff can discuss what actions need to be taken to correct what needs to be corrected.

5.2.2. New behaviors and relationships are another part of change.  This change promotes communication, collalaboration, and and how to solve conflicts.

5.2.3. Team building is a part of change.  This goes for all the staff.  Without team building and shared ideas, the school will not be on the same page, which will cause the school not to run smoothly.

5.2.4. Process and content are interrelated are the final changes that must occur.  The staff must feel like they all have as say in what goes on within the school.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy`

6.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum

6.1.1. I advocate this curriculum because it deals with preparing students for society.

6.1.2. I believe this is the goal on education.  Educators are to prepare students to be able to function in society.  Each student has different needs and strengths.  We should target the skills that students do the best and attack here because students are going to go into jobs that they are good at not ones that are difficult for them to understand.  Therefore, each student should receive different instruction.

6.2. Mimetic Tradition

6.2.1. Knowledge is passed from one person to another.

6.2.2. What we see in most educational settings.  Teacher passes knowledge to students.

6.3. Transformative Tradition

6.3.1. A change is the person being taught.

6.3.2. Teachers are transforming their students.  Molding and shaping them into productive figures in society.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Students from different social classes have different educational experiences.  As students get further along in their educational experience, the more expensive school becomes.

7.2. Race directly impacts students education.  Drop out rate:  white-5.2%; African-American-9.3%; Hispanic-American-17.6%.  Reading at intermediate rate: white-89%; African-American-66%; Hispanic-American-70%.

7.3. Females are less likely to drop out and perform at a higher reading proficiency than men.  However, men typically do better in math than women.  Males do better on SAT's than women.  More women attend post-secondary school.

7.4. Coleman Study (1982)

7.4.1. Private schools are educationally above public schools.  However, private schools are at an advantage to public schools.

7.4.2. Going to a high-poverty or highly-segregated school has an enormous effect on student's achievement.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. The working class values school as a means to future success.  They understand and value hard work and initiative.  The poor class does not value hard work.  They want immediate gratification and believe that school is not the means for bettering themselves. The reason for poor results was because of the families.

8.2. Some critics argue that it is not the families fault these students struggle.  Instead, it is the schools fault.  This group argued that the previous theory took blame off the school and made the school less responsible.  They argued that the theory about the poor not caring about school is racists.

8.3. School-Centered Explanations

8.3.1. School Financing- school funding helps schools that are of more upstanding communities.  Schools that are not a wealthy community do not receive the funding as wealthier school districts.

8.3.2. Gender and Schooling- Men and women are socialized differently during school processes.  Men are given more opportunities than women.

8.3.3. Effective School Research- socioeconomic status contributes to effectiveness. Effective schools students do much better than the non-effective.

8.3.4. Curriculum and Pedagogic Practices- School climate affects performance.  The type of school and location factors in a students success.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School Based Reforms

9.1.1. School-Business Partnerships Businesses pledge to help schools with management assistance and training. Also, they helped give scholarships to students to attend college. However, much of the support was not given to public institutions.

9.1.2. 2) School-to-Work Programs Students get to explore different careers, and see what they would doing in the profession they chose. Learned skills that would be necessary for them to understand in the workforce. Helped insure students were receiving instruction they would need and that it was quality instruction.

9.2. Mayoral Control

9.2.1. Many systems have begun leaning towards mayoral control, instead of school boards. They believe this will limit corruption and will lead to more effective budgeting and management.

9.3. Community

9.3.1. Many programs are now offering not just and education for students but for the whole community. The focus on meeting the needs of the students as well as the needs of the families. Full-service schools are designed to improve at-risk neighborhoods. They help prevent problems and support people that have problems.