Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Purposes of Education

1.1.1. 1. Intellectual

1.1.1.1. Teach basic skills

1.1.1.2. Transmit specific knowledge

1.1.1.3. Help students to acquire higher-order thinking skills

1.1.2. 2. Political

1.1.2.1. Instill patriotism to the existing political order

1.1.2.2. Prepare citizens who will participate in this political order

1.1.2.3. Help integrate diverse cultural groups

1.1.2.4. Teach children the basic laws of society

1.1.3. 3. Social

1.1.3.1. Help solve social problems

1.1.3.2. Work together to ensure social cohesion

1.1.3.3. Socialize children into society

1.1.4. 4. Economic

1.1.4.1. Prepare students for their later occupational roles

1.1.4.2. Select, train, and distribute individuals into the division of labor

1.2. Conservative Perspective

1.2.1. 1. The Role of the School

1.2.1.1. The school provides educational training.

1.2.1.2. They set out to ensure that the most talented and hard-working students receive the tools needed to grow economically and socially.

1.2.2. 2. Explanations of Unequal Educational Performances

1.2.2.1. The students rise and fall on their own intelligence, hard work and initiative.

1.2.2.2. Achievement is based on hard work and success.

1.2.3. 3. Definition of Educational Problems

1.2.3.1. Schools lowered standards.

1.2.3.2. They reduced the quality of education.

1.2.3.3. They also altered curriculum in cultural literacy.

1.2.3.4. Schools lost the traditional role of teaching.

1.2.3.5. Schools changed the disciplinary rules.

2. Philosophy of Education

2.1. Pragmatism

2.1.1. 1. General Notions

2.1.1.1. The school is a place where children can learn skills both experientially as well as from books, and traditional information.

2.1.1.2. The school enables them to work cooperatively in a democratic society.

2.1.1.3. Pragmatism encourages people to find processes that work in order to achieve their goals.

2.1.2. 2. Key Researchers

2.1.2.1. George Sanders Peirce

2.1.2.2. William James

2.1.2.3. John Dewey

2.1.3. 3. Goal of Education

2.1.3.1. Primary goal is growth.

2.1.3.2. Dewey stressed that school should be a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged, and restructured.

2.1.3.3. The goal should be to provide students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order.

2.1.3.4. The school should be the central institution for societal and personal improvement.

2.1.4. 4. Role of Teacher

2.1.4.1. The teacher assumes the peripheral position of facilitator.

2.1.4.2. Encourages

2.1.4.3. Offers suggestions

2.1.4.4. Questions

2.1.4.5. Helps plan the course of study

2.1.4.6. Creates, writes and implements curriculum

2.1.5. 5. Method of Instruction

2.1.5.1. Methods used are individualize study, problem solving, and the project method.

2.1.5.2. Dewey poposed that children learn both individually and in groups.

2.1.5.3. It is said that asking questions is a beneficial place to begin.

2.1.6. 6. Curriculum

2.1.6.1. The curriculum followed is generally the core curriculum or an integrated curriculum.

2.1.6.2. The curriculum is not fixed.

2.1.6.2.1. It changes as the social order changes.

2.1.6.2.2. It changes as the children's interests and needs change.

3. Equality of Opportunity

3.1. Impact on Educational Outcomes

3.1.1. Class

3.1.1.1. Class is directly related to student performance and achievement.

3.1.1.2. The underclass families often have lower expectations for their children.

3.1.1.2.1. These children are more likely to underachieve or dropout.

3.1.1.2.2. These students do not speak  the same as middle and upper class students, and they are labeled.

3.1.1.3. Middle and upper class families have higher expectations for their children.

3.1.1.3.1. Some of these expectations include enrolling in college and gaining a degree.

3.1.1.3.2. Teachers tend to favor these students, or think more highly of them.

3.1.2. Race

3.1.2.1. The United States is segregated.

3.1.2.2. Minority students receive fewer educational opportunities than White students.

3.1.2.3. Many minority students have low levels of proficiency

3.1.2.3.1. This directly affects SAT scores, which also determines getting into college.

3.1.3. Gender

3.1.3.1. Females

3.1.3.1.1. Less likely to drop out of school than males.

3.1.3.1.2. Higher level of reading and writing proficiency than men.

3.1.3.2. Males

3.1.3.2.1. Outperform females in math.

3.1.3.2.2. Score higher on SATs than females.

3.1.3.3. The gender differences have been reduced over the last several years.

3.2. Coleman Study 1982

3.2.1. First Response

3.2.1.1. Everything Coleman viewed as significant, others saw as insignificant.

3.2.1.2. Consisted of a lot of criticism and controversy.

3.2.1.3. Jencks completed a study on his own, using Coleman's findings.

3.2.1.3.1. He claims that the results are negligible when it comes to significant learning differences between Catholic and public schools.

3.2.1.3.2. Alexander and Pallas agreed with Jencks.

3.2.1.4. Chubb and Moe also completed a study similar to Coleman.

3.2.1.4.1. They received the same criticism.

3.2.2. Second Response

3.2.2.1. Geoffrey Borman and Maritza Dowling completed a study of their own

3.2.2.1.1. Their findings confirmed Coleman's previous studies.

3.2.2.1.2. Where children go to school is often directly related to their race and socioeconomic background.

3.2.2.1.3. Student achievement is effected more by the racial and socioeconomic composition of a school than their race and class.

4. History of U.S. Education

4.1. Reform Movement

4.1.1. 1. Education for women

4.1.1.1. Education for women was very limited in the early 19th century.

4.1.1.2. The movement gradually became more prominent.

4.1.1.3. This movement allowed for women to have access to higher education.

4.1.1.4. Young girls began starting school at an earlier age.

4.1.1.5. Female schools were more widespread after this movement began.

4.1.1.6. The gap between men and women's equality lessened.

4.1.1.7. Important people

4.1.1.7.1. Catherine Esther Beecher

4.1.1.7.2. Mary Lyon

4.1.1.7.3. Emma Hart Willard

4.2. Historical Interpretation

4.2.1. 1. Democratic-Liberal

4.2.1.1. This is a system committed to providing equal, educational opportunities for everyone.

4.2.1.2. Democratic-Liberals have a positive outlook.

4.2.1.2.1. They believe that combining equity and excellence is necessary as long as neither ideal is compromised too much.

4.2.1.3. Lawrence A. Cremin had a large influence on this school system.

4.2.1.3.1. He believed that the history of education included expanding opportunity to more students and providing a purpose.

5. Sociological Perspectives

5.1. Relationship Between School & Society

5.1.1. 1. Functional Theory

5.1.1.1. Emile Durkheim embraced this point of view.

5.1.1.2. Beliefs

5.1.1.2.1. Schools socialize students into the appropriate values.

5.1.1.2.2. The schools select students according to their abilities.

5.1.1.2.3. Educational reform is supposed to create structures, programs, and curricula that are advanced, rational, and encourage social unity.

5.1.2. 2. Conflict Theory

5.1.2.1. Max Weber supported this point of view.

5.1.2.2. This view emphasizes struggle.

5.1.2.3. Beliefs

5.1.2.3.1. Schools are a place where students, teachers, and administrators are constantly struggling against one another.

5.1.2.3.2. Conflict theorists see schools as oppressive and demeaning.

5.1.2.3.3. Conflict theorists portray student noncompliance with school rules as a form of resistance.

5.1.3. 3. Interactional Theory

5.1.3.1. Primarily an extension of the functional and conflict perspectives.

5.1.3.2. This theory hardly provides an interpretable snapshot of the everyday school life.

5.1.3.3. Beliefs

5.1.3.3.1. Labeling students gifted or learning disabled is extremely important to analyze.

5.1.3.3.2. Actions, such as labeling students, carry implied assumptions about children and learning.

5.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

5.2.1. 1. Knowledge and Attitudes

5.2.1.1. It is found that the higher the social class background of the student, the higher their achievement level.

5.2.1.2. More recent research shows that student achievement level go up in schools where students are compelled to take academic subjects.

5.2.1.3. It is also found that achievement levels go up in places where students are held to consistent discipline.

5.2.2. 2. Education and Mobility

5.2.2.1. For some, not all, education opens doors for opportunity.

5.2.2.2. Where people get their education often effects their mobility within society.

5.2.2.3. Examples

5.2.2.3.1. Private schools

5.2.2.3.2. Public schools

5.2.3. 3. Teacher Behavior

5.2.3.1. Teachers have a monumental impact on student learning and behavior.

5.2.3.2. They are models, and they influence student self-esteem and sense of efficiency.

5.2.3.3. How the teacher responds, whether positively or negatively, directly effects the students' potential.

5.2.4. 4. Tracking

5.2.4.1. Refers to the placement of students in curricular programs based on students' abilities and inclinations.

5.2.4.2. This is often based on the child's class or race.

5.2.4.3. Students in lower tracks experience more alienation and authoritarian teachers than high-track students. This directly affects cognitive development.

5.2.5. 5. Gender

5.2.5.1. Men and women are not always equal.

5.2.5.2. Although girls start school cognitively ahead of boys, by the end of high school girls have lower self-esteem and show signs of not living up to their full potential.

5.2.5.3. Often the expectations between girls and boys in school play a large role in the way boys and girls think cognitively.

5.2.5.4. Sometimes stereotyping them by behavior effects the students.

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Curriculum Theory

6.1.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1.1. Relates to the needs and interests of the student, rather than the society.

6.1.1.2. Influenced by Dewey's writings about curriculum.

6.1.1.3. Student-centered

6.1.1.4. Emphasiszes the process and content of teaching.

6.1.1.5. Relates the curriculum to the needs and interests of the child at different developmental stages.

6.1.1.6. Flexible in what is taught and how it is taught.

6.1.1.7. Stresses the importance of relating school to real-world experiences.

6.1.1.8. The teacher should act as a facilitator of student growth.

6.2. Two Dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. 1. Mimetic Tradition

6.2.1.1. Purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students.

6.2.1.2. Best method to use for this is the didactic method.

6.2.1.2.1. This method relies on the lecture or presentation as the main form of communication.

6.2.1.3. Holds the belief that education is a process of transferring information from one person to another, and it involves the relationship between the teacher and student.

6.2.1.4. Emphasizes the importance of using a clear statement of learning goals, and a clear means to assess whether students understand.

6.2.1.5. They want to attempt to create a science of teaching.

6.2.1.5.1. Many often view this as a way to improve achievement within education.

6.2.2. 2. Transformative Tradition

6.2.2.1. The purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way.

6.2.2.2. Best method to use for this is the dialectical method.

6.2.2.2.1. This method involves the use of questioning.

6.2.2.3. Holds the belief that students should become an integral part of the learning process.

6.2.2.4. This tradition rejects the authoritarian relationship between teachers and students.

6.2.2.5. Educators believe that teaching begins with the active participation of the student and results from growth.

6.2.2.6. They reject the scientific model of teaching.

6.2.2.6.1. This tradition views teaching as an artistic endeavor.

7. Schools as Organizations

7.1. Governance

7.1.1. State Senator

7.1.1.1. Sen. Tim Melson is the State Senator for District 1.

7.1.2. House of Representative

7.1.2.1. Rep. Phillip Williams is the representative for District 6.

7.1.3. State Superintendent

7.1.3.1. Michael Sentence is the State Superintendent for Alabama.

7.1.4. State School Board Representative

7.1.4.1. Mary Scott Hunter is the representative for District 8, and has been in this position since 2011.

7.1.5. Local Superintendent

7.1.5.1. Matt Massey is the Superintendent for Madison County, Alabama.

7.1.6. Local School Board Representative

7.1.6.1. David Weis is the school board representative for District 4 in Madison County.

7.2. Elements of Change

7.2.1. Conflict

7.2.1.1. Conflict is necessary.

7.2.1.2. The school allows issues and problems to resurface .

7.2.1.3. The staff must be prepared to elicit, manage, and resolve conflicts.

7.2.2. New behaviors must be learned

7.2.2.1. Building communication and trust

7.2.2.2. Enabling leadership

7.2.2.3. Learning techniques of communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution

7.2.3. Team building must extend to entire school

7.2.3.1. Decision-making must be shared.

7.2.3.2. There must be on-going attention given to relationships within the rest of the school.

7.2.4. Process and content are interrelated

7.2.4.1. The process the team uses is just as important as the content of education changes it attempts.

7.2.4.2. There needs to be trust and openness built within the team and the school.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

8.1.1. Type 1

8.1.1.1. The first type claims that working-class and non-white families lack the cultural resources needed for success.

8.1.1.1.1. These resources could include books, or other educational materials.

8.1.1.1.2. This causes these students to be at a disadvantage in the school environment.

8.1.2. Type 2

8.1.2.1. The second type claims that the poor have a deprived culture.

8.1.2.1.1. The theorists say that middle-class culture places emphasis on hard work and the importance of school for success.

8.1.2.1.2. They also describe that the culture of poverty is the exact opposite of middle-class.

8.1.2.1.3. Those in charge tried to create programs aimed at family environments rather than at schools.

8.2. School-centered Explanations for Inequality

8.2.1. 1. School Financing

8.2.1.1. Schools receive different amounts of funding through local, state, and federal sources.

8.2.1.2. A significant amount of funds come from local property taxes.

8.2.1.2.1. Poorer communities have lower property values, in turn raising less money for their schools.

8.2.1.2.2. Higher income communities are able to raise more money for their schools.

8.2.1.2.3. Many argue that this form of funding is unequal and unconstitutional.

8.2.1.3. There have been several court cases to deal with the issue.

8.2.1.4. States have attempted to decrease inequalities in school funding.

8.2.2. 2. Gender and Schooling

8.2.2.1. Focuses on the claim that men and women see the world differently.

8.2.2.2. Schooling often limits the educational opportunities and life chance of women.

8.2.2.2.1. Curriculum portrays men's and women's roles in stereotypical and traditional ways.

8.2.2.2.2. The traditional curriculum omits aspects of women's history and women's lives from discussion.

8.2.2.2.3. Hidden curriculum reinforces traditional gender roles and expectations.

8.2.2.2.4. School organization reinforces traditional gender roles and inequality.

8.2.2.3. The gender gap in achievement has diminished greatly.

8.2.3. 3. Between-School Differences

8.2.3.1. There are many significant differences between the culture and climate of schools in lower and higher socioeconomic communities.

8.2.3.2. The types of teachers also vary depending on the status of the school.

8.2.3.2.1. Schools in working-class neighborhoods might have an authoritarian teacher.

8.2.3.2.2. Schools in middle-class communities might have a less authoritarian teacher.

8.2.3.3. Different school environments teach the students to dream different dreams.

8.2.4. 4. Within-School Differences

8.2.4.1. Students within schools perform and achieve differently and at different levels.

8.2.4.2. Students are grouped according to their ability, and sometimes race, gender, and class.

8.2.4.2.1. When this happens, it is assumed that students in lower level groups are not capable of challenging curriculum.

8.2.4.2.2. The next level of curriculum is not offered to students in lower levels, thus they are not able to learn what they are not taught.

8.2.4.2.3. There are higher expectations of those in higher level groups, compared to those in lower level groups.

8.2.4.2.4. When there are differences in these groups or tracks, the students are receiving a different education in the same school.

9. Educational Reform

9.1. School-Based Reforms

9.1.1. School-Business Partnerships

9.1.1.1. Businesses began partnering with schools because they felt as if they were not producing prepared students.

9.1.1.2. Some examples could include businesses providing scholarships to poorer students, or businesses adopting a school to help fund.

9.1.1.3. Business support for public schools has decreased dramatically since the 1970's.

9.1.1.4. Major foundations and entrepreneurs that have contributed to educational reform:

9.1.1.4.1. Walton Foundation

9.1.1.4.2. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

9.1.1.4.3. Mark Zuckerberg

9.1.2. Teacher Quality

9.1.2.1. It is extremely important to have high quality teachers in the classrooms.

9.1.2.2. The problem is that many teachers are being put in classrooms where they are made to teach subjects they are not qualified to teach (out-of-field teaching)

9.1.2.2.1. Data indicates that this is a bigger issue for low-income, urban schools.

9.1.2.2.2. The staffing issues have less to do with a shortage of teachers, and more to do with organizational problems within the school.

9.1.2.2.3. There are programs in place to try and solve these issues.

9.1.2.3. Reformers have stressed that tenure and layoff provisions are the primary reason for the lack of  improvement in teacher quality.

9.2. Community Reforms

9.2.1. 1. Harlem Children's Zone

9.2.1.1. Geoffrey Canada

9.2.1.1.1. He is the creator.

9.2.1.1.2. He wanted to make sure African-American children were prepared, unlike he was.

9.2.1.2. This reform is unique in that it does not remove the children from their neighborhood.

9.2.1.3. It provides a program for parents to learn how to better educate their children in their home environment.

9.2.1.3.1. This program is called "Baby College"

9.2.1.3.2. It is offered to parents before their children are even born.

9.2.1.4. Canada also provided an extended school day and tutoring for at-risk students.

9.2.2. 2. Full service schools

9.2.2.1. Joy Dryfoo

9.2.2.1.1. She is the creator.

9.2.2.2. The focus is to meet the student's and family's needs.

9.2.2.3. Schools are community centers that are open extra hours and provide a variety of services.

9.2.2.3.1. Adult education

9.2.2.3.2. Health clinics

9.2.2.3.3. Afterschool programs

9.2.2.3.4. Tutoring services

9.2.2.3.5. Job placement and trainning

9.2.2.4. It is designed to improve at-risk neighborhoods, and to not only prevent problems, but also support them.