Disabilities Identified by IDEA

All 14 disabilities as defined by The Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA): Definitions, modifications, adaptations, adaptive technologies and case studies.

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Disabilities Identified by IDEA by Mind Map: Disabilities Identified by IDEA

1. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

1.1. Description

1.1.1. An impairment in vision (including both partial sight and blindness) that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

1.1.2. The degree of impairment a child experiences can range from mild to severe.

1.2. Adaptations

1.2.1. Changes in the way materials are presented

1.2.1.1. Verbalize all information as it is written on the board

1.2.1.2. Use recorded text

1.2.1.3. Allow student to record lectures/instruction

1.2.1.4. Large print textbooks/materials

1.2.1.5. Braille textbooks/materials

1.2.2. Changes in the way students demonstrate learning

1.2.2.1. Accommodate visual fatigue by shortening amount of assignments

1.2.2.2. Avoid activities requiring extensive visual scanning, avoid visually cluttered materials

1.2.2.3. Allow students to use unique writing tools, bold lined paper, or raised lined paper for assignments

1.2.2.4. Give extended time for tests

1.2.2.5. Give abbreviated homework assignments and shorter written assignments

1.2.2.6. Give oral tests

1.2.3. Changes in Environment

1.2.3.1. Preferential seating in the classroom, permission to move about when need to see information presented away from desk

1.2.3.2. Avoid glare from overhead lights

1.2.3.3. Open and close doors fully, Eliminate clutter to avoid dangerous obstacles

1.2.3.4. Eliminate unnecessary background noise

1.2.3.5. Place materials in consistent places

1.3. Devices

1.3.1. Nonoptical Devices

1.3.1.1. A reading stand which brings material closer to a child's eyes Bold markers for writing Dark-lined paper, which is easier to see when writing A large-print calculator to use when working math problems A hat or visor to decrease the glare of overhead lights or the sun

1.3.2. Optical Devices

1.3.2.1. Optical devices, sometimes known as "low vision devices," use lenses to help people make better use of their existing vision. They include various types of magnifiers and telescopes. An electronic device, known as a video magnifier or closed-circuit television system (CCTV), which uses a camera to project an enlarged image on a TV screen or monitor, is also considered an optical device.

1.4. Assistive Technology

1.4.1. For Low Vision

1.4.1.1. Eyeglasses or contact lenses A handheld or stand magnifier A slant board for bringing material closer when working Colored overlays to put over printed material to provide better contrast Bold-lined paper to help stay on the line when writing A bold marker for writing A calculator with a large-print display A digital recorder A computer with screen enlargement software a video magnifier

1.4.2. For Blindness

1.4.2.1. A braillewriter A slate and stylus Raised-line paper for writing or graphing A signature guide used to position a pen when signing one's name A calculator with voice output that speaks what is on the screen A digital recorder A talking dictionary A computer with screen reading software An audio book player

2. Intellectual Disability

2.1. Description

2.1.1. IDEA defines intellectual disability as: “…significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.”

2.2. Modifications/Interventions

2.2.1. Use alternative instructional strategies and alternative assessment methods

2.2.2. Use short and simple sentences, repeat instructions frequently

2.2.3. Teach organizational skills

2.2.4. Teach the difference between literal and figurative language

2.2.5. Remove distractions from the classroom

2.2.6. Increase difficulty of tasks over time

2.2.7. Use mnemonics, use concrete items and examples to explain new concepts

2.2.8. Maintain high yet realistic expectations, emphasize the student's successes.

2.2.9. Use alternate activities that would be less difficult for the student

2.2.10. Provide the student with hands-on materials and experiences

2.2.11. Break tasks in to small steps

2.2.12. Give immediate feedback

2.3. Assistive Technology

2.3.1. Communication boards

2.3.1.1. boards or pages in a book that have pictures that a student can point to in order to express themselves.

2.3.2. Communicators

2.3.2.1. computers that allow a person to communicate audibly by pointing to particular images, or typing in a message. The computer then speaks the word or sentence out loud.

3. Autism

3.1. Description

3.1.1. As defined by IDEA "…..a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance."

3.1.1.1. A child who shows the characteristics of autism after age 3 could be diagnosed as having autism if the criteria above are satisfied.

3.1.2. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engaging in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term autism does not apply if the child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in IDEA.

3.2. Modifications/Adaptations

3.2.1. Extra time for tests and assignments

3.2.2. Seating in the front of the classroom

3.2.3. Receiving written study guides

3.2.4. Provide instructions orally and written

3.2.5. Reducing the number of questions on a test or homework

3.2.6. Adjusted grading to weighted grading

3.2.7. Using a calculator during a math test

3.2.8. Changes in curriculum to suit the child's needs

3.2.9. Use of visual aids and providing pictures the student can point to when communication is difficult

3.3. Assistive Technology

3.3.1. Visual support--dry erase boards, clipboards, 3-ring binders, manila file folders, photo albums, highlight tape, etc.

3.3.2. Simple electronic devices--tape recorder, Language Master, overhead projector, timers, calculators, simple voice output devices.

3.3.3. Video cameras, computers and adaptive hardware, complex voice output devices

3.4. Case Study

3.4.1. Maggie's Case Study: When Maggie was first identified as autistic when she was almost three years old. At that time she was developmentally functioning at 18 months to two years. She avoided eye contact, and was opposed to social interaction with anyone except her parents. She couldn't transition between activities with out completely loosing control. Therapists first tried traditional therapies with Maggie, and she made little progress. Then they tried ILS (Integrated Listening Systems) therapy paired with traditional therapy. Pretty soon Maggie maggie was making up her own games, she initiated and completed communication circles. She did ILS therapy at home with her mother three times per week, and twice per week with therapists. She made significant improvement in eye contact, writing, and fine motor skills. Before starting therapy, Maggie's parents thought she would need to be in therapy for a long time, and that she would not be able to join "main steam" school. Now she is in a regular Kindergarten class and no one knows she's autistic except her teachers.      https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YAVx95wKvaw

4. Orthopedic Impairment

4.1. Description

4.1.1. IDEA defines orthopedic impairment as: a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

4.2. Adaptations

4.2.1. Special seating arrangements

4.2.2. Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

4.2.3. Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices

4.2.4. Awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student (such as getting tired quickly)

4.2.5. Adapted physical education teachers specially trained to work along with the student to develop an exercise program.

4.3. Assistive Technology

4.3.1. Devices to Access Information

4.3.1.1. Speech recognition software

4.3.1.2. Screen reading software

4.3.1.3. augmentative and alternative communication devices (such as communication boards)

4.3.1.4. Academic software packages for students with disabilites

4.3.2. Devices for Positioning and Mobility

4.3.2.1. Canes, walkers, crutches, wheelchairs

4.3.2.2. Specialized exercise equipment

4.3.2.3. specialized chairs, desks, and tables for proper posture development

5. Specific Learning Disability

5.1. Description

5.1.1. A specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.

5.1.2. Specific learning disability does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of intellectual disability, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

5.2. Modifications/Interventions

5.2.1. Break tasks into smaller steps, give directions verbally and in writing

5.2.2. Give the student more time to finish work and tests

5.2.3. Let the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities

5.2.4. Let the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder

5.2.5. Let the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, and recognizes speech.

5.3. Assistive Technology

5.3.1. Abbreviation expanders

5.3.2. Alternative keyboards

5.3.3. Audio books and publications

5.3.4. Electronic math work sheets

5.3.5. Freeform database software

5.3.6. Graphic organizers and outlining

5.3.7. Information/data managers

5.3.8. Optical character recognition

5.3.9. Personal FM listening systems

6. Multiple Disabilities

6.1. Description

6.1.1. According to IDEA, multiple disabilities means, "concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness."

6.1.1.1. Example: intellectual disability and blindness; intellectual disability and orthopedic impairment

6.2. Modifications/Adaptations

6.2.1. Use audio recording, audio books, movies, videos, and digital media instead of print

6.2.2. Set up a "buddy" to read to, share notes with, and focus attention of the student

6.2.3. Allow tests to be taken in a quiet room with few distractions

6.2.4. Use sensory tools to help the student focus and/or get their energy out

6.2.5. Seat student at the front of class or near the teacher

6.2.6. Allow extra time for tests and schoolwork

6.2.7. Allow time for processing information and directions, allow frequent breaks

6.2.8. Complete fewer or different homework problems

6.2.9. Fewer or different test questions

6.2.10. Alternate projects or assignments

6.2.11. Learn different material

6.2.12. Use different grading standards

6.3. Assistive Technology

6.3.1. Computers

6.3.2. Augmentative/alternative communication systems

6.3.3. Communication Boards

7. Other Health Impairment

7.1. Description

7.1.1. According to IDEA, other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that—

7.1.1.1. Is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and

7.1.1.2. Adversely affects a child’s educational performance

7.1.2. ADD and AD/HD; Diabetes; Epilepsy; Heart conditions; Hemophilia; Lead Poisoning; Leukemia; Nephritis; Rheumatic fever; Sickle cell anemia; Tourette syndrome; Fetal alcohol syndrome; Bipolar disorders; Dysphagia; Other organic neurological disorders

7.2. Adaptations/Interventions

7.2.1. Students with Learning and Attention Issues:

7.2.1.1. Teach specific techniques for organizing their thoughts and materials. Organize the classroom accordingly, and keep all materials in permanent locations for easy access.

7.2.1.2. Allow extra time for finishing assignments or for testing

7.2.1.3. For more complex activities, simplify steps to make them more manageable.

7.2.1.4. Seat the student close to the teacher and away from any peers that might be distracting.

7.2.1.5. Post a daily and weekly schedule that clearly delineates each activity. These schedules can then be used as prompts to direct the student back on task.

7.2.1.6. Keep these schedules as consistent as possible, and keep unstructured time at a minimum.

7.2.2. Students with Health-Related Impairments

7.2.2.1. Medications kept at school

7.2.2.2. Rest times throughout the school day

7.2.2.3. A reduction in work load to lessen fatigue

7.2.2.4. Ergonomic work stations

7.2.2.5. Two sets of books (one at school, one at home)

7.2.2.6. Trained aides to assist with medical-related needs such as g-tube feedings, toileting, wheelchair transfers, etc.

7.3. Assistive Technology

7.3.1. Low tech devices such as notebooks and dividers to record and organize assigned homework and classroom tasks.

7.3.2. Personal digital assistants, dictating machines, and a variety of computer programs.

7.3.3. Most students in the other health impairment category can access and benefit from the same technological supports that are used with their normally developing peers.

7.3.4. Note takers

7.3.5. Scribe

8. Emotional Disturbance (i.e. behavioral disorders, mental illness)

8.1. Description

8.1.1. IDEA definition: “…a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.”

8.1.2. anxiety disorders; bipolar disorder (sometimes called manic-depression); conduct disorders; eating disorders; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); and psychotic disorders.

8.2. Modifications/Interventions

8.2.1. A strategy such as allowing students to choose between classroom tasks.

8.2.2. Consistent and specific praise

8.2.3. Forming a relationship with these students that is built on empathy, trust, and mutual respect can often be the solution to many problem behaviors, and can have a lasting impact of the emotional development of the child.

8.2.4. Modification in instruction, particularly in the area of writing.

8.3. Assistive Technology

8.3.1. Word processing software allowing them to edit and revise their work as they produce it.

8.3.1.1. These programs can also strengthen spelling skills and writing cohesion simply by making the writing process easier overall.

8.3.1.2. Word processing programs that read the text as it is typed

8.4. Example/Case Study

8.4.1. "Megan is a pre-adolescent who, in spite of average to highaverage cognitive abilities and commensurate academic achievement, is failing all of her content classes. Despite various interventions designed to change her behavior, she continues to experience considerable emotional stress characterized by persistent sadness, irritable mood, withdrawal, and unfounded physical complaints. She is easily frustrated, lacks persistence, and believes that she has little power to change things. Further, Megan’s lack of age-appropriate social skills and low self-esteem have isolated her from peers so that she cannot rely on a peer-based support system to help her cope. Her social-emotional difficulties—rather than low cognitive abilities or academic skill deficits—have contributed to the constellation of behaviors that can be linked to her lack of academic success. Megan exhibits to a marked degree 1) an inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers, 2) a general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression, and 3) a tendency to develop physical symptoms associated with personal or school problems. Megan is at high risk for continued school failure and requires immediate, likely, and intensive intervention."

9. Developmental Delay

9.1. Description

9.1.1. A student with a developmental delay is defined by IDEA as someone "who is experiencing developmental delays as defined by the State and as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures in one or more of the following areas: Physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development; and who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services.

9.2. Modification/Intervention

9.2.1. Establish routines, structure, and predictability.

9.2.2. Use manipulatives and hands-on learning

9.2.3. Use alternatives to the pencil and paper: drawing pictures, writing short phrases

9.2.4. Engage in frequent discussion to help a child develop language skills

9.2.5. Make accommodations with seating arrangements and minimize distractions in the classroom.

9.3. Assistive Technology

9.3.1. Communication boards

9.3.1.1. boards or pages in a book that have pictures that a student can point to in order to express themselves.

9.3.2. Communicators

9.3.2.1. computers that allow a person to communicate audibly by pointing to particular images, or typing in a message. The computer then speaks the word or sentence out loud.

10. Traumatic Brain Injury

10.1. Description

10.1.1. IDEA defines TBI as: “…an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psycho-social behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.”

10.2. Modifications/Interventions

10.2.1. Work on specific meaningful goals or skills the student will need to learn, presenting it at the level of the student

10.2.2. Break tasks into small steps and demonstrate each step

10.2.3. Provide opportunities for student response and practice at an appropriate pace

10.2.4. Provide immediate feedback and error correction when necessary

10.2.5. Use verbal praise and encouragement frequently

10.3. Assistive Technology

10.3.1. Planners, cell phones, etc.

10.3.1.1. Cell phone that reads the screen aloud or a light attached to a timer to help someone wake up in the morning

10.3.2. Specialized keyboards

10.3.3. Magnified screen on a computer or a specialized communication device built onto the tray of a wheelchair

10.3.4. Customized product, such as a chair built specifically for a particular user

10.4. Case Study

10.4.1. "Josh, an 11-year old, sixth-grade student was severely injured in a motor vehicle accident when the car in which he was riding swerved out of control and collided with another car. Josh was found unconscious at the scene. He was intubated and transported to a local hospital where a head computer tomography scan revealed a severe TBI, with multiple areas of hemorrhage in the right frontal and temporal regions. Josh also sustained facial fractures, as well as a right humerus fracture. He remained in a coma for 2 days and, after regaining consciousness, spent an additional 3 weeks in the hospital’s rehabilitation unit. After discharge, he continued to receive outpatient physical and occupational therapies 2–3 hrs per week. Shortly after the accident, the school principal contacted Josh’s parents and continued to communicate with them throughout the hospital stay. Prior to Josh’s return to school, his teachers, principal, and the school psychologist scheduled a meeting with the parents. The principal asked the school psychologist to serve as Josh’s case manager. Prior to his injury, Josh had been an average student in regular education, but struggled somewhat in math. He was social, had many friends, and was active in sports. At the meeting, Josh’s parents discussed his current levels of functioning and areas of impairment and the school team developed a plan to accommodate his needs. Six weeks after his injury, Josh continued to have some cognitive problems in the area of memory, information-processing speed, and executive functioning. His verbal skills and reading skills remained relatively strong. Josh had slowed motor speed and had a mild right-sided weakness. He had decreased endurance and fatigued easily. On the basis of this information, the school team recommended and developed accommodations for his return to school at the meeting. It was decided that Josh would initially return to school on a modified basis, starting with 2 hr per day, in the mornings, gradually increasing his attendance to all day as his physical endurance improved. The team scheduled more difficult subjects during the morning to minimize fatigue. Although Josh was eligible for special education services, the parents and school team decided Josh could be successful in his regular classroom with accommodations, and formalized these accommodations by developing a 504 Plan. These accommodations included the following: Allowing Josh to take breaks in the counseling area as needed and to check in with the psychologist at the beginning of the day for organizing sessions and to review his schedule. Seating Josh near the front of the classsroom in a quiet location near a designated peer buddy who could provide carbon copy notes and assist with prompts. Reducing written work requirements giving additional time to complete assignments, allowing him to dictate responses, and provide him with an extra set of books for home use. Providing multiple-choice exams and avoiding time limits in testing. Posting a schedule of daily activities in a visible place and training and prompting Josh to record his assignments in a daily planner. Determining environmental factors and situations that caused agitation and frustration (e.g., sensory overload, changes in routine) and avoiding them as much as possible. (The teacher and Josh developed a plan for him to “take 5” [take a 5 min. break when he became frustrated], by looking at magazines, or running an office errand). Meeting with the middle school team: Prior to his transition to middle school in the 7th grade, the school team, parents, and Josh met with the middle school team to discuss concerns and review the plan."

11. Hearing Impairment

11.1. Description

11.1.1. Hearing impairment is defined by IDEA as “an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.”

11.2. Adaptations

11.2.1. Communication

11.2.1.1. Enhance speech reading conditions (hands in front of face, facial hair, gum chewing)

11.2.1.2. Clearly enunciate speech

11.2.1.3. Allow extra time for processing information

11.2.1.4. Frequently check for understanding

11.2.1.5. Reduce visual distractions

11.2.1.6. Reduce background noise

11.2.1.7. Obtain student's attention before speaking

11.2.1.8. Specialized seating arrangements

11.2.2. Instructional

11.2.2.1. Visual supplements

11.2.2.2. Captioning or scripts for videos or movies

11.2.2.3. Speech-to-text translation programs (done with a computer on desk)

11.2.2.4. Buddy system for notes, extra explanations/direction

11.2.2.5. Down time/break from listening

11.2.2.6. Extra time to complete assignments

11.2.2.7. Step-by-step directions

11.2.2.8. Shorten reading and writing assignments

11.2.2.9. Provide reading assistance with tests

11.2.2.10. Allow extra time for tests and assignments

11.3. Assistive Technology Devices

11.3.1. Personal hearing device (hearing aid, cochlear implant, tactile device)

11.3.2. Personal FM system, FM system/auditory trainer, Walkman-style FM system, Sound-field FM system

11.3.3. Telecommunications Device for the Dear (TDD)

11.3.4. TV Captioned

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. Description

12.1.1. As defined by IDEA: “Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.”

12.2. Adaptations

12.2.1. For speech impairment

12.2.1.1. Allow student to substitute oral assignments with written papers or us AAC

12.2.1.2. Allow student time to express themselves (don't interrupt)

12.2.1.3. Provide student with spelling/vocabulary list

12.2.1.4. Allow students to use AAC to help communicate with classmates

12.2.2. For language impairment

12.2.2.1. Provide student with information on topics prior to going over them in class

12.2.2.2. Minimize background noise/distractions

12.2.2.3. Give assignments orally and written

12.2.2.4. Give simple one-step instructions

12.2.2.5. Give student a study partners

12.2.2.6. Provide peer tutoring

12.2.2.7. Allow extended time for testing and homework

12.2.2.8. Modify length of assignments

12.2.2.9. Private location for testing

12.2.2.10. Allow adaptive technology (spell checker, calculator, AAC)

12.3. Assistive Technology

12.3.1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ACC) devices

12.3.1.1. Picture and symbol communication boards

12.3.1.2. Other electronic devices

12.4. Example or Case Study

13. Deafness

13.1. Description

13.1.1. Deafness is defined by IDEA as “a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification.”

13.2. Adaptations

13.2.1. Communication

13.2.1.1. Enhance speech reading conditions (hands in front of face, facial hair, gum chewing)

13.2.1.2. Clearly enunciate speech

13.2.1.3. Allow extra time for processing information

13.2.1.4. Frequently check for understanding

13.2.1.5. Reduce visual distractions

13.2.1.6. Reduce background noise

13.2.1.7. Obtain student's attention before speaking

13.2.1.8. Specialized seating arrangements

13.2.2. Instructional

13.2.2.1. Visual supplements

13.2.2.2. Captioning or scripts for videos or movies

13.2.2.3. Speech-to-text translation programs (done with a computer on desk)

13.2.2.4. Buddy system for notes, extra explanations/direction

13.2.2.5. Down time/break from listening

13.2.2.6. Extra time to complete assignments

13.2.2.7. Step-by-step directions

13.2.2.8. Shorten reading and writing assignments

13.2.2.9. Provide reading assistance with tests

13.2.2.10. Allow extra time for tests and assignments

13.3. Assistive Technology

13.3.1. Personal hearing device (hearing aid, cochlear implant, tactile device)

13.3.2. Personal FM system, FM system/auditory trainer, Walkman-style FM system, Sound-field FM system

13.3.3. Telecommunications Device for the Dear (TDD)

13.3.4. Classroom captioning (CART, CPrint, TypeWell)

13.3.5. Interactive whiteboard

13.3.6. Notetaker

13.3.7. Speech to text software (speech recognition)

13.3.8. Video phone or text phone

14. Deaf-Blindness

14.1. Description

14.1.1. The word “deaf-blindness” may seem as if a person cannot hear or see at all. The term actually describes a person who has some degree of loss in both vision and hearing. The amount of loss in either vision or hearing will vary from person to person.

14.1.2. IDEA defines it as "[simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness."

14.2. Adaptations

14.2.1. Provide a written, Brailled, or taped secondary source of information during class lectures

14.2.1.1. Interpreters

14.2.1.1.1. Interpreters can communicate information between the student and others in the classroom.

14.2.2. Use large print/Braille Materials or Taped textbooks

14.2.3. Give handouts and other course materials early, to allow time for conversion of materials into the student's preferred mode.

14.3. Assistive Technology

14.3.1. Assisted Listening Devices (ALDs)

14.3.1.1. A small microphone device worn by the teacher that increases the volume and clarity for the student wearing the device.

14.3.2. Reading Machines

14.3.2.1. For students who have usable hearing and limited vision

14.3.2.2. Also known as closed circuit televisions (CCTV)