My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Chapter 3- The History of Education

1.1. Reform Movement- Cycles of Reform: Progressive and Traditional

1.1.1. Beginning in 1945, the Progressive movement received criticism based on the belief that with this type of education students weren't progressing in their thinking. Progressives believed in a student centered learning that was based on needs of the students and times;

1.1.2. Traditionalism focused on a subject centered curriculum that that was purposefully structured to pursue excellence out of students.

1.1.3. This type of debate, commonly known as "the great debate", continued into until it was believed that the Soviets would win the race for space. This, in a sense, woke up the nation to improve standards, especially in math and science. The rocky age of inequality, that was the 1960's brought a new debate over the inequity in the educational system. With the uncertainty  of a public education for all children, the focus shifted once again to more social centered curriculum.

1.2. Historical Interpretation- The Democratic Liberal School

1.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal view of education is a combination of a hope to provide equality and excellence in the educational system. The belief is that with each progressive movement more educational opportunities were extended to a variety of Americans.

1.2.2. Some historians believe that the state of the education system now, is in direct relation to the work of the democratic movement throughout history.

1.2.3. The Democratic-Liberal goal of education is to reach and incorporate more diversity throughout the American school system by providing an equitable opportunity to all students and to uphold and instill excellence in school. The hope is to successfully balance equity and excellence without leaning on one side or the other. They believe by balancing the two there will be continued success.

2. Chapter 8- Educational Inequality

2.1. Educational Outcomes

2.1.1. Class

2.1.1.1. A students social class is directly related to their educational experience. Authors claim that there is a connection between parents income and student performance. Children from working class families are more likely to underachieve whereas middle and upper class children continue successfully throughout the education system.

2.1.2. Race

2.1.2.1. A student's race is directly related to how much education he or she will achieve. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as whites.

2.1.3. Gender

2.1.3.1. Women have many more opportunities for education than years past.  Women are now achieving a higher level of reading and writing proficiency than men. Although men often achieve higher proficiency in math, but that is because teachers assume that women will not do as well in math. Society still discriminates between men and women occupationally and socially.

2.2. Coleman Study 1982 Responses

2.2.1. 1. The first response disagrees with the results of the study. Researchers say that although there are differences between public and private Catholic schools, these differences do not have an affect on the learning process. This debate is still being discussed throughout society.

2.2.2. 2. On the contrary, other researchers used similar data to partially confirm Coleman's study. The second response says that where a student attends school is directly related to their race and socioeconomic background. The race and socioeconomic factors of a school have a greater effect on student achievement than their personal race and socioeconomic background. This response says that the focus needs to be on reducing segregation in the education system.

3. Chapter 5- The Philosophy of Education

3.1. Pragmatism

3.1.1. Generic Notions (Dewey's)

3.1.1.1. Dewey believed in an "embryonic community" which allowed students to learn skills through experimentation as well as traditional methods. He believed this would contribute to them working a democratic society. Dewey's ideas are often classified as progressive. He believed that children were constantly growing and changing and they deserved a course of study that was adaptable to their changing interests. He was a believer in providing children with freedom and responsibility.

3.1.2. Key Researchers

3.1.2.1. One modern idealist was Francis Bacon. He challenged people to drift from a traditional way of thinking and take on a more experimental approach. This method of thinking is known as "inductive". John Locke was another modern contributor. Locke was primarily focused on knowledge. He believed one's mind was a blank slate and knowledge is acquired through the senses and eventually verified in the natural world. Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher. He focused strongly on the environment an experiences. His way of think of children as adaptable beings allowed for the ideas of future idealists such as John Dewey. John Dewey sought to expand upon pragmatism. These ideas included instrumentalism (the work between school and society) and experimentalism (application of education ideals as an experimental practice). Dewey is labeled as "the father of progressive education". Many different ideals have stemmed from this philosophy such as child-centered progressivism and social reconstructionism.

3.1.3. Goals of Education

3.1.3.1. Dewey believed that the function of schools was to prepare students to participate in a democratic society. Dewey also strongly believed that a primary role of education was to help students grow. When asked what growth was towards, he responded "growth leading to more growth". He firmly believed that the goal of education was to develop human beings to continually add to the quality of life, and help others in creating and well functioning society.

3.1.4. Role of the Teacher

3.1.4.1. In a pragmatic or progressive view, a teacher is viewed as a facilitator. The teacher is there to help by offering suggestions as well as implementing a course of study and encouraging students.

3.1.5. Method of Instruction

3.1.5.1. Dewey believed in what is now known as a problem-solving method. Traditional methods became standard as well as individualized study, problem solving, and project based method.

3.1.6. Curriculum

3.1.6.1. Dewey supported a core curriculum or integrated curriculum. Progressive education supporters believe in a flexible curriculum that can change as children interests change and grow.

4. Chapter 2- The Politics of Education

4.1. Purposes of Education

4.1.1. 1. Intellectual- to teach basic cognitive skills; to help students acquire high level thinking skills

4.1.2. 2. Political- to implant patriotism; to prepare students to participate in a democracy and incorporate diverse cultures; to teach the laws of society

4.1.3. 3. Social- to help solve social problems by working with other social institutions to promote social unity; to expose children to the process of socialization

4.1.4. 4. Economic- to prepare students for future career roles and responsibilities

4.2. Perspective- The Conservative Perspective

4.2.1. 1. The Role of School- The conservative perspective believes that the role of school is to provide hard-working and dedicated individuals with the tools necessary to maximize academic, economic, and social growth.

4.2.2. 2. Explanation of Unequal Performance- Conservatives believe that all students are provided with the tools necessary for success. It is solely up to the individual to take the initiative and work hard to achieve a desired success.

4.2.3. 3. Definition of Educational Problems- The conservative perspective recognizes educational problems as: the decline of standards, cultural literacy, values of civilization, and authority. They also believe that school are sufficiently held back by bureaucracy and inefficiency.

5. Chapter 6- Schools as Organizations

5.1. District Representatives- Madison County District 5

5.1.1. State Senators

5.1.1.1. Richard Shelby

5.1.1.2. Jeff Sessions

5.1.2. State House Representative

5.1.2.1. Mo Brooks

5.1.3. State Superintendent

5.1.3.1. Michael Sentence

5.1.4. Representative of State School Board

5.1.4.1. Mary Scott Hunter

5.1.5. Local Superintendent

5.1.5.1. Matt Massey

5.1.6. Local School Board

5.1.6.1. Nathan Curry

5.1.6.2. Angie Bates

5.1.6.3. Mary Louise Stowe

5.1.6.4. David Vess

5.1.6.5. Jeff Anderson

5.2. Elements of Change

5.2.1. Conflict

5.2.1.1. Necessary in order for change

5.2.1.2. Allow conflicts to resurface

5.2.1.3. Staff must be able to manage and resolve conflicts

5.2.2. New behaviors must be learned

5.2.2.1. Building communication and trust

5.2.2.2. Enabling leadership

5.2.2.3. Learning new techniques of communication, collaboration, and conflict resolution

5.2.3. Team building must reach entire school body

5.2.3.1. Shared decision making must be practiced and consistently worked on

5.2.3.2. Relationships within the school's staff must be focused on as well

5.2.4. Process and content are interrelated

5.2.4.1. The process used is just as important as the content taught

5.2.4.2. Trust and openness needs to be established within the team

6. Chapter 7- Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.1.1. Relates to the interests and needs of the child at specific developmental stages rather than the needs of society

6.1.2. John Dewey (child and curriculum)

6.1.3. Piaget (Stages of Development)

6.1.4. Relate schooling to life experiences of the child to put the education into real life context

6.1.5. Teacher as facilitator of student growth

6.2. Mimetic Tradition (Traditional)

6.2.1. Purpose of education is to transmit knowledge to learner commonly through lecture or presentations (didactic method)

6.2.2. Knower transfers knowledge to learner

6.2.3. Clear learning goals and a clear means to assess whether students have acquired them

6.3. Transformative (Progressive)

6.3.1. Purpose of education is to change the student in a meaningful way (intellectually, creatively, spiritually, emotionally)

6.3.2. Conversation between student and teacher so that student is involved in learning and teaching process

6.3.3. Questioning at the core of method

6.3.4. John Dewey

6.3.4.1. Active participation of student to result in growth

6.3.5. Teaching as artistic endeavor

7. Chapter 4- The Sociology of Education

7.1. Theoretical Perspectives between school and society:

7.1.1. Functionalism

7.1.1.1. Functionalist theorist tend to believe that in society people lean on one another. As stated in the text, "functionalists view society as a kind of machine". Functionalist believe that groups in society work with one another to make a society successful.

7.1.1.2. Emile Durkheim was one of the most prominent founders of education sociology and believed in a functional point of view. He believed in values and cohesion.

7.1.1.3. Functionalist do not believe in social conflict because they believe that it breaks down the commonality of shared values.

7.1.1.4. From the functionalists point of view, education is supposed to create programs, structure, and curriculum to promote social unity.

7.1.2. Conflict Theory

7.1.2.1. Conflict theorists strongly believe that the devise in social class is what make society run. They believe that it is important for one class to be more powerful than another (socially, economically, and politically). Conflict theorists believe that class struggle is what keeps social order. According to the text, conflict theorists view the school as a battleground, where students are against teachers, teachers are against administrators and so fourth. . Many conflict theorists carry this view in today's society. Randall Collins elaborated on Weber's theory of social class position. He believed that a college degree was another social symbol rather than an achievement of academics. Currently, many conflict theorists believe that schools pass on a social identity to students which can be an advantage or a disadvantage depending on what school the students come from.

7.1.2.2. Karl Marx is the founder of the conflict theory. He believed that in the end the working class would overthrow the wealthy class, there by creating a new society with a new social order. Marxists believe that there is a direct relation between school organization and societal organization.

7.1.2.3. Max Weber was also a follower of Marx. Weber more so believed in addition to the struggle of social order is the struggle within classes to achieve a desired class position. Willard Waller that models of school organization hid the underlying feeling of tension and resistance that student feel because of school rules

7.1.3. Interactionalism

7.1.3.1. An internationalist point of view critiques and extends the views of functionalists and conflict theorists. The internationalist believe that functional and conflict theories observe society from a macro-sociological level. Although internationalist understand that it is important to view the bigger picture, they believe that is it more beneficial to study school society based on a micro-sociological level. Basil Bernstein believed that the macro and micro observations were more beneficial if viewed as a whole.

7.2. Five effects of schooling that have the greatest impact on students

7.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

7.2.1.1. The more knowledge a student receives the higher level of achievement they will attain.

7.2.2. Employment

7.2.2.1. Higher-level education will greatly contribute to a student securing a career.

7.2.3. Education and Mobility

7.2.3.1. A greater level of education will contribute to a person's success in navigating in society and the career field.

7.2.4. Teacher Behavior

7.2.4.1. Teachers help to employ an academic and sometimes social confidence in students which is turn benefits into academic achievement.

7.2.5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

7.2.5.1. Student cultures play a very important role in the development of student's attitudes towards academics as well as their position in society.

8. Chapter 9- Equality of Opportunity

8.1. Types of Cultural Deprivation

8.1.1. 1. The first theory argues that minorities, especially African Americans do not do as well in school because they adapt to their position in society and accept the oppression that they are in instead of fighting against it.

8.1.2. Children of minorities are taught to deal with their situations and live as such.

8.1.3. This theory by John Ogbu suggests that the reason minorities have a difficult time is because they are asked to deny their cultural identities and conform to that of the white majority.

8.1.4. 2. Another type of cultural deprivation suggest that working class and minorities just resist the dominant culture of schools.

8.1.5. The students take on an anti-school culture. Ogbu suggest that they reject school because they do not believe that ti will benefit them in the life that they live.

8.2. Explanations for educational inequality

8.2.1. 1. School financing- Public schools receive different benefits than private institutions. More wealthy communities are able to give more to schools in the area because of the differences in taxes. Therefore, schools in high poverty areas are disadvantaged because the community does not have as much to give.

8.2.2. 3. Curriculum and ability grouping- Within the school there is grouping that occurs that places the low scoring students together which hinders their growth. This is more evident at the secondary level where the students are grouped based on ability and curriculum.

8.2.3. 4. Gender- There is great difference in how men and women view the world and that is not catered to for women in the educational system. Women need to be in an environment that makes effective connections and allows for caring situations.

8.2.4. 2. Curriculum and Pedagogic practices- Different types of authoritative figures based on social class of communities which leads to more teacher-centered practices.

9. Chapter 10- Educational Reform

9.1. School Based reforms

9.1.1. 1. School-Business Partnerships

9.1.1.1. Business became concerned about success of graduates contributing to the economy

9.1.1.2. Successfully address fundamental problems facing the US education system

9.1.1.3. Little evidence of significant improvement as a means of reform

9.1.2. 2. School-to-work Programs

9.1.2.1. School-to-Work Opportunities Act of 1994

9.1.2.2. Vocation skills training for non-college bound students

9.1.2.2.1. Necessary skills and work-based training

9.1.2.3. Relvant education to explore different careers and skills necessary in those careers

9.1.2.4. Provide access to learning to skills neceassry in a particular career

9.1.2.5. Provide students with valued credentials

9.1.2.6. Successful but still considered a "second class" educational track

9.2. Community Reforms

9.2.1. Full Service Schools

9.2.1.1. Address needs of families such as education, physical, psychological, and social to create a bond between the school and community

9.2.1.2. Schools serve as community centers that house many reform programs such as job placement and training programs, drug and alcohol abuse programs, and tutoring services

9.3. Economical Reforms

9.3.1. Abbot vs. Burke 1980

9.3.1.1. Goal to provide a "through and efficient" education

9.3.1.1.1. Equalize funding between urban and suburban school districts

9.3.2. Extra funding to provide programs to eliminate disadvantages

9.3.2.1. Pre-school, summer-school, school-to-work, after school