Foundation of Education

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Foundation of Education by Mind Map: Foundation of Education

1. The Sociology of Education

1.1. Identify and describe your choice (s) of the theoretical perspective concerning the relationship between school and society

1.1.1. Functional Theories

1.1.1.1. Education in virtually all societies is critical importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony.

1.1.1.2. picture of society that stresses the interdependence of the social system.

1.2. Choose and describe at least two effects of schooling on individuals that you think have the greatest impact on students.

1.2.1. Knowledge and attitudes

1.2.1.1. Sharp divisions among researchers about how significant school effects are, when taking into accounts students' social class background.

1.2.1.2. Schools where students are compelled to take academic subjects and were there is consistent discipline, student achievements levels go up.

1.2.1.3. The actual amount of time students spend in school is directly related to how much they learn.

2. The Philosophy of Education

2.1. Idealism

2.1.1. Curriculum

2.1.1.1. There is a Great Books course promoted by individual in the private sector and there exists as well a grass-roots movement to institure a core curriculum in elementary and junior high school throughout the nation.

2.1.2. Method of instruction

2.1.2.1. Through questioning, students are encouraged to discuss, analyze, synthesize, and apply what they have read to contemporary society.

2.1.3. Role of teacher

2.1.3.1. analyze and discuss ideas with students in order fro students to move to new levels

2.1.4. Goal of education

2.1.4.1. the search for truth through ideas rather than through the examination of the false shadowy world of matter

2.1.5. Key researchers

2.1.5.1. St. Augustine (354-430 AD

2.1.6. Generic notions

2.1.6.1. Greek philosopher Plato ( 427-347 BC)

3. Politics of Education

3.1. Choose to describe your particular perspective (conservative, liberal, radical, neo-liberal)

3.1.1. Liberal

3.1.1.1. view became politically dominant during Franklin D Roosevelt

3.1.1.2. Free Market - if left unregulated is prone to significant abuses

3.1.1.3. Capitalist Market - prone to cycles of recession that must be addressed through government intervention

3.1.1.4. Place a heavy emphasis on issues pf equality, especially equality of opportunity,

3.2. Chose and describe one vision of education (traditional or progressivism)

3.2.1. Triditional

3.2.1.1. view the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society, such as hard work, family unity, individual initiative.

4. The History of Education

4.1. Choose and describe a reform movement that you think has had the most influence

4.1.1. The education for Women and African-Americans

4.1.1.1. allowed women and African-Americans to be able to attend public school like all white males

4.2. Choose and describe one historical interpretation of U.S. Education

4.2.1. The Democratic- Liberal School

4.2.1.1. school committed to providing equality of opportunity for all

5. School as Organizations

5.1. 5 structures of the US Education

5.1.1. Governance

5.1.1.1. US public school system is in large part decentralized right down to the school district level.

5.1.2. Size & Degree Centralizartion

5.1.2.1. elementary and secondary school systems are extremely large. Examples- because school districts have become larger, superintendents have become more powerful, and as a consequence teacher have had fewer opportunities to make decisions regarding curriculum, conditions of employment, and school policy.

5.1.3. Student Composition

5.1.3.1. The students composition of US school is becoming more diverse at the same time that there has been a trend toward increasing residential segregation.

5.1.4. Degree of "Openness"

5.1.4.1. ALL youngsters are entitled to enroll into public schools and to remain in school until they graduate.

5.1.5. Private Schools

5.1.5.1. Tend to attract students form families that are relatively affluent and have a commitment to education. Tremendous amount of diversity in private schools.

5.2. International Comparisons

5.2.1. Few school systems are as completed as the US.  Most have National Ministry of Education or a Department of Education. France is highly centralized, Great Britain is considered to be a responsibility of the parents. The Former Soviet Union is highly centralized, Japan in the twentieth century was compare closely to the US, but now id highly competitive. Germany take the children at an early age and tracks them into tripartite systems of secondary education. Finland have high levels of students that achieve the highest scores in math, science and literacy.

5.3. School Processes and School Cultures

5.3.1. 1. The have a definite population 2. They have a clearly defined political structure, arising from the mode of social interaction characteristics of the school, and influenced by numerous minor processes of interaction. 3. They represent the nexus of a compact network of social relationship. 4. They are pervaded by a "we feeling." 5. The have a culture that is definitely their own.

5.4. Teacher, Teaching and Professionalization

5.4.1. Who Becomes a Teacher?

5.4.1.1. '08- 75.2 % were women, the median are was 46, 73.1% were married, 13.2 % were single, and 13.8% were widowed, divorced or separated. 37.2% had bachelors,  60.4% had masters, and 1.4 % had doctorate. What is perhaps even more alarming is that the best students who enter the teaching profession are the ones that are most likely to leave the profession at an early date.

5.4.2. The Nature of Teaching

5.4.2.1. Teachers must be skilled in so many areas of technical expertise and human relations. These roles include colleague, friend, nurturer of the learner, facilitator of learning, researching, program developers, administrator, decision maker, professional leader, and community activist. Of the teacher: the caring, empathetic, well-rounded person that can act as a role model to students, parents, and other professionals.

5.4.3. Underqualified Teachers

5.4.3.1. Have less to do with teacher shortages and more to do with organizational issues inside schools. Principals often find it easier to hire unqualified teachers than qualified ones, and the absence of status and professionalism in teaching leads to high dropout rates in the first five years of teaching.

5.4.4. Teacher Professionalization

5.4.4.1. The general status of teaching, the teacher's role and the condition and transmission arrangements of its subculture point to a truncated rather than fully realized professionalization.

6. Curriculum & Pedagogy

6.1. Social Efficiency Curriculum

6.1.1. Rooted in the belief that different groups of students with different set of needs and aspirations, should receive different types of schooling.

6.1.2. Elementary school level- intelligence tests and reading were used to assign students to ability groups and ability-grouped classes.

6.1.3. Secondary level - Standardized test, as well as previous school achievement, were used to place students into different curriculum tracks.

6.2. Developmentalist Curriculum

6.2.1. Needs and interest of the student rather than the needs of society.

6.2.2. Relating the curriculum to the needs and interests of each child at particular development stages.

6.2.3. A facilitator of students growth

6.3. Romantic Progressivism

6.3.1. Philosophical allegiance squarely within this form of curriculum and pedagogy. "Open" and "Free"

6.3.2. many of the early progressive schools still exist and in varying degrees still reflect their early progressive chapter.

6.4. Social meliorist curriculum

6.4.1. Concerned with the role of the schools in reforming society

6.4.2. schools should change society, or at least helps solve fundamental problems

6.4.3. School curriculum should teach students to think and help solve societal problems, contemporary, critical curriculum theory.

6.5. Modern Functionalist

6.5.1. Developed through Talcott Parsons and Robert Dreenen

6.5.2. Role of schooling is to prepare students for modern society.

6.5.3. Curriculum must change to meet new requirements of the modern world (technology).

6.5.4. Teaches general cognitive skills, values and norms essential to modern society.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Human differences do not cause social stratifacation

7.2. Social Stratification

7.2.1. Caste

7.2.2. Estate system

7.2.3. Class system

7.3. Educational Achievement

7.3.1. Directly related to family achievement and social class

7.3.2. Related to financial success

7.3.3. Parental income is directly related to educational and test performance

7.4. Race

7.4.1. Impacts on how much educational attainment a person achieves

7.5. Gender

7.5.1. Disparities still exist in education and job salaries

7.6. SAT & ACT

7.6.1. Test have favored the white American and upper and middle class students

7.7. Coleman Study 1966

7.7.1. As a result lower class students should attend schools with the middle and upper class to improve their educational success.

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Functionalist Theorists

8.1.1. support the idea that each students' success is determined by their own hard work and desire to succeed.

8.2. Conflict Theroists

8.2.1. support the idea that student success is affected by their environment.

8.3. Interactionist Theorists

8.3.1. support that students success is determined by a combination of factors such as family, social class, schools and environment.

9. School Reform

9.1. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)- Centerpiece of President George . Bush's educational policy. It is the reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act which included Title I, the government's flagship aid program for disadvantage students.

9.2. Education Equality Project (EEP), working to create an effective school for every child. To create effective schools, the EEP works to ensure that every school has a highly effective teacher and principal; to create system- wide accountability; to empower parents, as well as encourage tem to demand more from their schools and from themselves.

9.3. Intra-district Choice Plan -students choose a school anywhere in a district o with in some zone within a district.

9.4. School-to-work Program Act- President Bill Clinton signed this Act in 1994. The law provided seed money to states ad local partnerships of business, labor, government, education, and community organizations to develop school-to-work systems. This allowed states and their partners to bring together efforts at education reform, work preparation, and economic development to create a system to prepare youth for the high-wage-high-skill careers of today and tomorrow's economy.

9.5. Developmental Realm- schools need to become more humane institutions where students develop as complete human beings. Schools need to emphasize, as well, values such as caring, compassion, and cooperation.

9.6. First Wave- concerned primarily with the issue of accountability and achievement. Second wave- targets at the structures and process of the school themselves, placing more control in the hands of the local schools, teachers, and communities.