My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 4 purposes of education

1.1.1. intellectual

1.1.1.1. "The intellectual purposes of schooling are to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics."

1.1.2. political

1.1.2.1. "The political purposes of schooling are to inoculate allegiance to the existing political order; to prepare citizens who will participate in this political order; teach children basic laws of society."

1.1.3. social

1.1.3.1. "The social purposes of schooling are to help solve social problems; to work as one of many institutions, such as the family and the church to ensure social cohesion; to socialize children into the various roles, behaviors, and values of the society."

1.1.4. economic

1.1.4.1. "The economic purposes of schooling are to prepare students for their later occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor."

1.2. Perspective

1.2.1. 1. The role of school

1.2.1.1. Although I tend to lean towards conservative values, I agree more with the liberal perspective for the role of schools. It stresses providing the necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in school. Teach children to respect cultural diversity so they understand and can fit into a diverse society. They see school's role as enabling the individual to develop his or her talents, creativity, and sense of self.

1.2.2. 2. Explanations of unequal performance

1.2.2.1. I agree with conservatives that if students don't succeed, the individual is deficient in some manner or because they are members of a group that is deficient.

1.2.2.2. But, I also agree with liberals. Liberals believe some students are at a disadvantage because of their life chances. Try to give disadvantaged backgrounds a better chance through policies and programs.

1.2.3. 3. Definition of educational problems

1.2.3.1. Opinion: I think conservatively in the fact that tradition should be taught in school, but other cultures should be embraced, too, not just the American heritage. Conservatives should be able to teach morals and values.

1.2.3.1.1. Conservatives argue: -Loss of tradition -Loss of teaching values/morals -Loss of discipline

1.2.3.1.2. Liberals argue: -Minorities achievement chances are limited -Schools place too much emphasis on discipline and authority, instead of helping students develop -Traditional curriculum leaves out diverse cultures

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform movement -The one I think I had the most influence on education:

2.1.1. PROGRESSIVE MOVEMENT

2.1.1.1. In 1909, teachers had to teach socialization skills because more than half of students in the classroom were foreign born.

2.1.1.2. John Dewey-- "concerned with the loss of traditional ways of understanding the maintenance of civilization, and anxious about the effects unleashed individualism and rampant materialism would have on a democratic society", would try to solve his answers through pedagogic practice.

2.1.1.2.1. He supported the "creation of curriculum that would allow for the child's interests and developmental level".

2.1.1.2.2. He believed that the result of education is growth.

2.1.1.3. Bobbit'ts curriculum design

2.1.1.3.1. "The purpose of curriculum design was to create a curriculum that would include the full range of human experience and prepare students for life."

2.2. Historical interpretation of U.S. Education

2.2.1. DEMOCRATIC-LIBERALS

2.2.1.1. "Democratic liberals believe that the history of U.S. education involves the progressive evolution, albeit flawed, of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all.' They suggest that educational expansion was an attempt of liberal reformers to "expand educational opportunities to larger segments of the population and to reject the conservative view of schools as elite institutions for the meritorious (..privileged)."

2.2.1.2. They believe that the "U.S. educational system must continue to move closer to each (equity and excellence), without sacrificing one or the other too dramatically"

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. The Relation between School and Society

3.1.1. FUNCTIONALISM

3.1.1.1. Functionalist Thoughts: -pictures a society that stresses interdependence of the social system -"education... was in critical importance in creating the moral unity necessary for social cohesion and harmony." -Assume consensus is the normal state of society -"educational reform... is supposed to create structures, programs, and curricula that are technically advanced, rational, and encourage social unity."

3.1.2. CONFLICT THEORY

3.1.2.1. Conflict socialists: -emphasize struggle -believe schools are similar to "social battlefields, where students struggle against teachers, teachers against administrators..."

3.1.2.1.1. "schools pass on to graduates specific social identities that either enhance or hinder their life chances"

3.1.2.1.2. to understand the impact of culture

3.1.3. INTERACTIONALISM

3.1.3.1. Critiques and extensions of the functional & conflict perspectives.. by observation

3.1.3.2. Interactional theories "attempt to make the commonplace strange by turning their heads on everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between students and students, and students and teachers"

3.1.3.2.1. -Speech patterns reflect student's social class -language linked to educational processes and outcomes

3.1.4. EXTRA NOTES "Sociologists take an interest in how schools act as agents of cultural and social transmission"

3.1.4.1. SOCIALIZATION "Schools shape children's perceptions of the world by processes of socialization."

3.1.4.1.1. "The values, beliefs, and norms of society are internalized within children so that they come to think adn act like other members of society"

3.1.4.1.2. Socialization: -can shape children's consciousness - promotes gender definitions/stereotypes by extracurricular activities and segregated learning -boys dominate class discussions/activities

3.1.4.2. Schools sort and select students

3.1.4.2.1. Schools "stratify students by curricular placement" which "influences the long-term social, economic, and cultural destinies of children."

3.1.4.2.2. They play a role in who gets ahead in society

3.2. Effects of Schooling on Individuals

3.2.1. Knowledge

3.2.1.1. "academically oriented schools produce higher rates of learning"

3.2.1.2. "more years of schooling leads to greater knowledge and social participation"

3.2.2. Employment

3.2.2.1. large organizations require high levels of education

3.2.2.2. "academic credentials help individuals to obtain higher-status jobs early in their careers"

3.2.3. Teacher Behavior

3.2.3.1. teachers have a bug impact on student learning

3.2.3.1.1. teachers have a negative expectation for working class and minority students

3.2.4. Tracking

3.2.4.1. has an impact on student mobility

3.2.4.1.1. tracking decisions are based on students' abilities, inclinations, or also on students' class and race.

3.2.4.1.2. working class students often end up in vocational tracks, middle class students end up in academic tracks

3.2.5. Student Peer Groups and Alienation

3.2.5.1. "student cultures play an important role in shaping students' educational experience'

3.2.5.2. student subcultures: Careerists Intellectuals Strivers The unconnected

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Student-centered philosophy

4.1.1. PRAGMATISM Viewed as an American philosophy that developed in the latter part of the nineteenth  century.

4.1.1.1. Key researchers: -George Sanders Pierce - William James - John Dewey Other philosphers - Frances Bacon - John Locke -Jean-Jacques Rousseau

4.1.1.2. Goal of Education (according to Dewey) "rooted in the social order... school as a place where ideas can be implemented, challenged and restructured, with the goal of providing students with the knowledge of how to improve the social order"

4.1.1.3. Role of the Teacher "the teacher is no longer the authoritarian figure from which all knowledge flows;" more of a facilitator. The teacher "encourages, offers suggestions, and helps plan and implement courses of study."

4.1.1.4. Method of Instruction -Learn individually and in groups - "children could converse with one another" -"individual study, problem solving, and the project method" - Dewey believed children had the right to talk in class and ask questions

4.1.1.5. Curriculum -integrated curriculum -"curriculum changes as the social order changes and as the children's interests and needs change." - "a child centered curriculum based on imagination and intuition"

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Major Stakeholders in District 3

5.1.1. State Senator District 3- Arthur Orr

5.1.2. State Superintendent- Michael Sentance

5.1.3. Rep on State School Board- Stephanie W. Bell

5.1.4. Local Superintendent- Matt Massey

5.1.5. Local School Board- Mary Louise Stowe

5.1.6. House of Rep D3- Marcel Black

5.2. Elements of Change within School processes and school cultures

5.2.1. School cultures

5.2.1.1. school is a "unity of interacting personalities" that are "bound together in an organic relation" and is a "social organism."

5.2.2. School processes/changes of elements

5.2.2.1. Four Elements of Change 1. Conflict is a necessary part of change 2. New behaviors must be learned 3. Team building must extend the entire school 4. Process and content are interrelated.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Curriculum Theory in which I advocate

6.1.1. The Developmentalist Curriculum - focuses more on the needs of a student than the society as a whole. -relates the curriculum to the needs and interests of each child at particular developmental stages.

6.2. Two dominant Traditions of Teaching

6.2.1. Mimetic Tradition -Purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to teaching. lecture or presentation is main form of communication

6.2.2. The Transformative Tradition -purpose of education is to change the student in some meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally. believes in active participation.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. How does class, race, and gender impact educational outcomes?

7.1.1. Class- different class, different experience. Class is directly to achievement and to educational attainment.

7.1.2. Race- has a direct impact on how much education he or she is likely to achieve

7.1.3. Gender- Historically educational attainment was related to gender. In the last 20 years, attainment levels based on gender have been reduced.

7.2. The two responses to the Coleman Study from 1982:

7.2.1. Private schools did better than public schools on tests

7.2.2. School's achievement levels are effected by race, class, and economic background

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. 2 types of cultural deprivation theory

8.1.1. working class and non-white families often lack cultural resources, and are therefore at a disadvantage at school.

8.1.2. relative failure for disadvantaged students

8.2. Four school-centered explanations for educational inequality

8.2.1. School financing- schools with less funding are at a disadvantage compared to schools who have higher funding

8.2.2. Effective school Research- differences in school resources and quality do not adequately explain between-school differences in academic achievement

8.2.3. Between-school differences- working class neighborhoods are more likely to have authoritarian teacher-directed classes. Middle class are more likely to have less authoritarian and more student-centered classes

8.2.4. Gender and schooling- differences bw men and women are cultural not biological

9. Educational Reform

9.1. 2 school based reforms

9.1.1. teacher education- overall problems in education cant be solved w/out corresponding changes in teachers education

9.1.2. Effective school movement- there are characteristics in good schools that could be used as models for improving educational effectiveness.

9.2. Describe 2 reforms

9.2.1. School finance reforms- potential to improve schools for low-income and minority children

9.2.2. full service and community schools- improve at-risk neighborhoods, prevent problems and support them.