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1. Diversities in early childhood

1.1. As discussed above, accounts of the ‘normal’ developing child fail adequately to acknowledge diversities in young children’s lives, the striking variations in how childhood is understood and experienced

1.2. Kagitcibasi argues that modern views of child development are steeped in individualism, with its emphasis on the psychological value of the child to parents, socialisation goals associated with separation and independence, and a style of rearing encouraging autonomy and social development.

2. Quality, critical perspectives and the politics of early childhood

2.1. Acceptance of the view that children's behavior, thinking, social relationships and adaptation, are culturally as much as biologically constituted, has profound implications for the ways quality in ECCE is understood, defined and monitored.

2.2. Quality is seen as about fundamental philosophical and ethical issues, about the values and meanings that attach to young children, the child’s role as a co-constructor of knowledge, identity and culture and the scope for pedagogy of relationships.

3. Constructions and reconstructions of early childhood

3.1. A socio-cultural paradigmemphasizes respects in which early childhood contexts and processes are shaped by human action, profoundly social in character and at all times mediated by cultural processes.

3.2. An interdisciplinary childhood studies offers a meeting place for diverse perspectives on early childhood and is more consistent with the trend towards more coordinated policies.

3.3. Early childhood settings, pedagogies and practices are shaped by generations of human activity and creativity, shaped by circumstances, opportunities and constraints and informed by multiple discourses about children’s needs and nature.

4. Developmentally appropriate practices in context

4.1. For the most part, DAP echoed traditional child-centred values, reinforced by Piagetian theory, emphasising: respect for universal stages of development.

4.2. Cultural assumptions are brought into sharp focus when compared with more ethnographic studies of children’s lives throughout much of the Majority World, highlighting the circumstances where values for childhood are about early socialisation into work and economic contribution rather than about realising individual human potential through education.

5. A social and cultural process

5.1. Social and cultural context should not be seen as something outside the process of development; the most significant features of any child's environment are the humans with whom they establish close relationships (their parents, carers, siblings, peers etc.)

5.2. Barbara Rogoff elaborated 'guided participation' as a framework for examining the way children are initiated into cognitive and social skills perceived as relevant to their community.

5.3. Development' is about the acquisition of cognitive tools and cultural competencies which are themselves products of human civilization.

6. A