My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. 4 purposes:

1.1.1. 1. intellectual- teach basic cognitive skills to transmit knowledge political- prepare citizens who will participate in political order social- help solve social problems

1.2. The role of the school

1.2.1. The role of the school from the conservative perspective is viewed as essential to both economic productivity and social stability. The students are prepared to become adults with socialization, cultural traditions, and the curriculum.

1.3. Explanations of unequal performance

1.3.1. The liberal perspective argues that students begin school with different life chances so some groups have more of an advantage in school than others with disadvantaged backgrounds.

1.4. Definition of educational problems

1.4.1. The liberal perspective argues that students who have limited backgrounds have an underachievement problem. Schools focus on authority instead of developing the students as individuals. Because of backgrounds, low economic backgrounds do not have equal results.

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Reform Movement

2.1.1. Education for women and African-Americans- By 1820, the movement for education for women in the USA had started. Emma Hart Willard, Catherine Beecher, and Mary Lyon opened schools for women. Many of these colleges had the same expectations for women as the men. Educational opportunities for African-Americans were limited, but people fought to change this. After Roberts v. City of Boston, African-Americans were encouraged to start their own schools.

2.2. Historical Interpretation

2.2.1. The Democratic-Liberal School believes that the history of education involves the progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality opportunity for all. They tend to interpret U.S. educational history optimistically even though there have been many flaws.

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Theoretical perspectives of the relations between school and society

3.1.1. Functional theories- Functionalists view society as a kind of machine, where one part works with another to make society work. Education creates the moral unity necessary for social cohesion. Conflict represents a breakdown of shared values.

3.1.2. Conflict theories- Schools are similar to social battlefields. Students struggle against the teachers, teachers against the administrators, and so on. Karl Marx is the intellectual founder of the conflict school. Conflict sociologists emphasize struggle. They see schools as oppressing and demeaning.

3.1.3. Interactional theories- These are extensions of the functional and conflict theories. They attempt to make the commonplace strange by turning on their heads everyday taken-for-granted behaviors and interactions between  students and students, and between teachers and teachers.

3.2. 5 effects of schooling on individuals

3.2.1. Knowledge and attitude- The more amount of time students spend in school is directly related to how much they learn. Education is also related to sense of well-being and self-esteem. Class background has an impact on education.

3.2.2. Employment- Graduating from college will lead to greater employment opportunities. Corporations require high levels of education. Possession of a college degree is significantly related to higher income.

3.2.3. Teacher behavior- Teachers have a huge impact on student learning and behavior. Teachers must wear many hats. Teachers set standards for students and influence students' self-esteem and sense of efficacy. Teachers play a major role in encouraging or discouraging students.

3.2.4. Inadequate schools- Urban education has failed to educate minority and poor children. Students who attend urban and private schools have a better educational experience. All students need equal opportunities and substantial educational benefits.

3.2.5. Education and inequality- There are the haves and have nots. People are not only stratified by class but by education as well. People judge by lifestyle and life chances.

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Idealism

4.1.1. Generic notations: This method of philosphy is to engage another individual in a dialogue, and, through the dialogue, question that individual's point of view. Education is important as a means of moving individuals towards the good.

4.1.2. Key researchers: Plato, St. Augustine, Rene Descartes, Immanuel Kant, and George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

4.1.3. Goal of Education: Educators who subscribe to idealism are interested in the search for the truth through ideas rather than through the examination of the false shadowy world of matter.

4.1.4. Role of the teacher: teacher's responsibility to analyze and discuss ideas with students in order for the students to move to new levels of awareness so that they can be transformed. The teacher needs to pose questions, select materials, and establish an environment.

5. Equality of Opportunity

5.1. Class- Education is expensive. Upper and middle class are more likely to pay for extended education. The number of books in a home is related to class and academic achievement. Middle and upper class are more likely to speak Standard English. There is a direct correlation between parental income and children's performance in school.

5.2. Race- A higher percentage(89%) of Whites are at the intermediate reading level by age 17 while 66% of African Americans can, and only 70% of Hispanic Americans can. Whites have a higher SAT score average than any other race. Minority students receive fewer educational opportunities.

5.3. Gender- Males outperform females in Mathematics. Males are more likely to score higher on standardized tests. In the last 20 years, gender differences have been reduced.

6. Educational Inequality

6.1. Cultural Deprivation Theories

6.2. School Centered Explanations

6.2.1. School Financing- There are vast differences in funding between affluent and poor school districts. More affluent communities are able to provide more per-pupil spending.

6.2.2. Curriculum and pedagogic practices- There are significant differences between culture and climate of schools in lower socioeconomic and higher socioeconomic communities. Working-class neighborhoods are more likely to have authoritarian and teacher-directed practices. Middle and higher classes have a humanistic approach.

6.2.3. Curriculum and Ability Grouping- Different groups of students within the same school perform differently. Some students are taught at one pace while some are taught at another pace. Tracking produces inequalities based on curriculum differences.

6.2.4. Gender and Schooling- Some argue that schools devalue connectedness and caring in favor of the male behaviors such as competition. The traditional curriculum according to Bennett and LeCompte silences women. Teachers are more likely to assist males with a task but actually do the task for the females.

7. Educational Reform

7.1. Two School Based Reforms

7.1.1. School-Business Partnerships- Business leaders became concerned that schools were not producing graduates necessary for a revitalization of the U.S. economy. Businesses implement a site-based management plan, on campus training, scholarships for poor students, adopting of a school, and improve schools.

7.1.2. Teacher Education- The education and training of teachers was a starting point to improve students' education. Teachers needed to be trained to prepare students for the new economic reality. There was an increase in standards in teacher education. The National Commission on Teaching and America's Future recommended that teachers and students should get serious about standards, teacher preparation and professional development should be reinvented, qualified teachers needed to be in every classroom, and schools needed to be created that were organized for student and teacher success.

7.2. Societal, economic, community, or political reforms

7.2.1. Full Service and Community Schools- Schools service as community centers within neighborhoods that are open extended hours to provide a multitude of services such as adult education, health clinics, rec centers, after school programs, mental health services, drug and alcohol programs, job placement and training, and tutoring services.

7.2.2. Harlem Children's Zone- Canada provides programs for parents in Harlem before their children are born in attempt to infuse knowledge that middle-class parents know they should do for their fetuses and infants. Instructors of color teach the parents in "Baby College" how to have academic conversations with their child as well as how to provide them with a healthy environment and acceptable forms of discipline.

8. Schools as Organizations

8.1. Stakeholders:

8.1.1. State Senator: Williams, Phillip W. "Phil"

8.1.2. House: Craig Ford

8.1.3. State superintendent: Michael Sentance

8.1.4. State school board: Cynthia Sanders

8.1.5. Local superintendent: Alan Cosby

8.1.6. Local School Board: Tim Womack, Scarlett Farley, Todd Hindsman, Ernie Payne, Doug Sherrod, Danny Golden, Tim Langdale

8.2. Elements of Change

8.2.1. Conflict is a necessary part of change.

8.2.2. New behaviors must be learned.

8.2.3. Team building must extend to the entire school.

8.2.4. Process and content are interrelated.

9. Curriculum and Pedagogy

9.1. Curriculum theory

9.1.1. Developmentalist: Student centered theory that focuses on the students' interests and needs rather than a set curriculum/ Stresses flexibility in both what is taught and how it is taught

9.2. Dominant traditions of teaching

9.2.1. The Mimetic Tradition- the transmission of factual and procedural knowledge from one person to another through an imitative process

9.2.2. The Transformative Tradition- a transformation of one kind or another in the person being taught- a qualitative change often of dramatic proportion