Piaget and Vygotsky: Theory Comparison

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Piaget and Vygotsky: Theory Comparison by Mind Map: Piaget and Vygotsky: Theory Comparison

1. The zone of proximal development is the range of activities that children cannot complete alone, but can complete with the assistance of an adult (Ormrod, 2014). In relation, children learn little from activities they can already do on their own.

2. Children think differently at different ages. The four stages are: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operations, and formal operations (Ormrod, 2014). These stages start at birth and range from object permanence to logical and abstract thinking.


3.1. Children are naturally curious and they actively seek out information to help make sense of their world; they also pull experiences together to construct understanding (Ormrod, 2014)

3.2. Children's interactions with their physical and social environments are integral for cognitive development. Likewise, interactions with other people are equally important (Ormrod, 2014).


4.1. Adults foster foster children's cognitive development in an intentional and systematic manner. When adults interact with children, they share meanings attached to objects. This includes informal conversations and formal education (Ormrod, 2014).

4.2. Cultures pass along physical and cognitive tools to help make daily living productive (Ormrod, 2014). Children can take these tools and use them as they see fit.

5. The relationship between the two theories lies in children interacting with their social environments and learning in this way. Whether it is through objects, children, experiences, or adults. Children needs hands-on activities to learn about the world around them and about themselves. However, Vygotsky stresses the role that the adult plays in this process and how proper tools are needed for children to learn.

6. Taghrid's Cognitive Theory: Children learn through active learning and play. Children and adults learn better when they are allowed to experience the word in a physical and mental capacity.

7. Both theories encourage play and for children to not simply receive information. Students need to be active participants in their learning.

8. Modern Applications / 21st Century Learning

8.1. In terms of Vygotsky, adults need to model not only curriculum, they need to model appropriate social interactions since students are paying close attention. Children need to be given the tools that they need to succeed so that they can create their own meaning and succeed.

8.2. In terms of Piaget, students need to be given assignments appropriate to their developmental level, not under or below it. This will help them grow and learn at a pace that is comfortable for them.

9. Middle School Application

9.1. Movement - Students learn through experience, thus it is integral they are given proactive ways to learn according to their developmental level. Children in middle school can engage in gallery walks, can do creative writing assignments around their campus, and engage in group activities that allow them to move around.

9.2. Group Activities - Children need to be guided initially, but they will be able to work together and combine their skills to reach solutions. In order to develop in a multi-dimensional fashion, they will need to have social experiences and constant independent work will not allow that. Strategies used in classrooms today including working in pairs, Kagan strategies, and "i do, we do, you do" can also aid in this task.