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Exam2 by Mind Map: Exam2

1. Neural cells

1.1. Ganglonic cells

1.1.1. microglial immune

1.2. dendrocytes

1.2.1. Saltory conduction vs continual

1.3. Types of cells

1.3.1. Graymatter dendrites cellbodies processes CNS Surface-cortex deep-nuclei PNS Ganglion

1.3.2. Whitematter CNS Nerve tracts PNS Nerves

1.4. CNS vs PNS

1.4.1. Oligodendrocytes Schwann cells

1.4.2. Nerve tracts, Nerves

1.4.3. Nuclei Ganglion

1.5. Ependymal

1.5.1. CSN fluid

2. CNS oligodendrocyte multiple capillaries

2.1. Spinal (sense) (2)

2.1.1. (3) Plexuses (around paraSy) Cervical C1-C4 Diaphram Brachial (thoracic) C5-T1 shoulder Lumbosacral L1-S4 lowerlimbs Enteric CNS to digestive

2.1.2. Tracts (2) Ascending Spinothalmus dorsal column Sense Dorsal column, spinothalamus spinocerebellar Oblongada primary somatic sensory cortex Descending (lateral corticospinal tract) pyramid (in medulla oblong) Lateral corticospinal tract

2.1.3. reflexes receptor neuron interneuron motorneuron organ

2.2. Brain (5)

2.2.1. Cerebrum (2) Cerebral Cortex Frontal,parietal,occipital, temp cognition Basal Nuclei -Substantia nigra Parkinsons

2.2.2. Diencephalon (DMT) (3) thalamus and pineal emotion hypothalamus homeostatis

2.2.3. Brainstem (4) Midbrain (clear eyes) eye, pupil Pons (gum) breathing, chewing Medulla oblong running has pyramids skeletal muscle running. vomit,  breath HR, balance, cough Reticular formation (modafinil) sleep wake cycle

2.2.4. Cerebellum (slackline)

2.2.5. Ventricles Fourth ventricle base of cerebellum Choroid plexus by ventricles

2.3. Fluid

2.3.1. PAD (2) outerlayers epidural (pain) Subarachnoid (spinal tap)

2.3.2. Ventricles

3. Special senses contin eye and ear

3.1. vision

3.1.1. Parts Lacrimal Apparatus Lacrimal gland Nasolacrimal duct Eye muscles rectus Oblique Lateral Medially superior and inferior Accessory Eyebrow Pupil Iris Lower eye lid

3.1.2. chambers of eye (3) anterior chamber aqueous humor provide nutrients to inner eye Poesterior chamber behind AC, aqu hum Vitreous chamber vitrous humor, holds lens and retina

3.1.3. Tunics Vascular tunic Iris Pupil Ciliary body Choroid nervous tunic Retina Fibrous tunic Schlera Cornea

3.1.4. Pathway Rhodopsin Retinal and opsin cones and rods Optic nerve optic chiasm optic tract

3.1.5. defects myopia hyeropia prebyopia astigmatism Glaucoma

3.1.6. Cranial nerves

3.2. hearing

3.2.1. Structure External Auricle Tympanic Middle Malleus Incus Stapes Oval window Inner Cochlea

4. Muscles

4.1. Types

4.1.1. Skeletal Characteristics multinuclei Cylindrical longest striated Coverings epimysium (entire) Perimysium (fasciulis) endomysium (fibers) Cellular structure muscle fiber- cell fasciculi- many cells Sarcolemma T-tubules SR cellular mechanism of action anaerobic creatine phosphate in mitochondria 18X less ATP but faster Fatigue muscular fatigue contraction types isometric isotonic

4.1.2. Cardiac Characteristics 1 nucleus branching intercalated disks

4.1.3. Smooth no striation

4.2. Phases

4.2.1. Lag

4.2.2. Contraction

4.2.3. Relaxation

4.3. Anatomy

4.3.1. Neck Flex Sternocleidomastoid Scalene Extend trapezius

4.3.2. Lungs inhalation External intercostals External obliques Scalenes Exhalation Internal intercostals Rectus abdominis

4.3.3. Injection sites Gluteus medius

4.3.4. Arms elbow flex Extend shoulders Deltoid elbow

4.3.5. Legs extend knee quadricpes femoris Flex knee Sartorius Extend hip Hamstring

4.3.6. Feet Plantar flex insertion at Calcaneal tendon Gastrocnemius Soleus

5. PNS (outsidebrain) Schwann

5.1. Motor efferent)

5.1.1. Somatic movemnt to CNS Pseudo-unipolar

5.2. Autonomic (ganglia)

5.2.1. Sympathetic  (T1-T12 L1-L2) short-long transmitter Cholingeric Pre-gang Andergenic fiber NE (postgang) function blood pressure Ganglia Post-Nicotinergic adenergic fibers post

5.2.2. Parasym C1-8 and S1-S5 Transmitter Pre&post G-Ach function Digestion Ganglia post-has muscarinic

6. Sensory (PNS cont)

6.1. general

6.1.1. somatic and viseral TYpes of sensory receptors Mechanoreceptors Chemoreceptors Photoreceptor Thermoreceptor Nociceptor touch Merkel hair Meissner Pressure Paciniancorpusles Ruffini Pain Sharp rapid potential Diffuse:burnin slower Referred internal

6.2. special senses (3)

6.2.1. smell ethmoid bone Bipolar neuron how it works mucous. dendrite.OB olfactory bulb/tract to CNS (I) frontal. temporal

6.2.2. taste Papillae how it works Tastebuds Taste cells taste hairs Trigeminal (5)Facial (7) Glossopharynygeal (9) Vagus (10). Parietal