The River Civilazations

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The River Civilazations by Mind Map: The River Civilazations

1. Religion

1.1. Sumerians

1.1.1. The Sumerians practiced polytheism,or the worship of many gods.

1.1.2. They believed that the gods controlled all natural forces.

1.1.3. The Sumerians also believed that a god protected each city-state.

1.1.4. Sumerians worked hard to please the gods, they built Ziggurats and temples.

1.2. Shang Zhou Dynasty

1.2.1. The Shangs believed in an afterlife in which a ruler would still need his riches and servants.

1.2.2. Shang religion centered on the idea of ancestor worship.

1.2.3. The Shang prepared ritual meals with their ancestors in mind.

1.2.4. As part of their worship the Shang often asked their ancestors for advice.  They sought this through the use of oracle bones.

2. Geography and Agricultue

2.1. Sumerians

2.1.1. The land between the Tigris and Euphrates river was called Mesopotamia.

2.1.2. Sumer lacked many raw materials such as wood and metals.

2.1.3. The sumer invented the wheel, which they used to make pottery.

2.1.4. The heart of their temple was a pyramid shaped structure called a ziggurat rose to the sky.

2.2. Shang Zhou Dynasty

2.2.1. Civilization began by growing crops nine thousand years ago.

2.2.2. Most people spent their time working in the fields.

2.2.3. From time to time farmers were called upon to fight in the army.

2.2.4. The region the shangs occupied was suitable for grains such as wheat and millet.

3. Arts and Education

3.1. Sumerians

3.1.1. Ruins and artifacts provide us with examples of the Sumerians artistry and creativity.

3.1.2. Sculptures had large eyes and small objects carved out of ivory.

3.1.3. Cylinder seals are the most famous works of art.

3.1.4. Sumerians used cylinder seals to "sign" documents or to show ownership.

3.2. Shang Zhou Dynasty

3.2.1. Earliest development of Chinese writing was on Oracle bones.

3.2.2. Artist designed many objects with bronze, used in religious rituals.

3.2.3. Shang astronomers created a precise calendar based on the cycles of the moon.

3.2.4. Evidence shows that Shang may have created one of the world's first systems of money.

4. Social Structure and Family LIfe

4.1. Sumerians

4.1.1. Top of the hierarchy were kings, priests, and their principle agents.

4.1.2. Next on the social class were merchants and landowners.

4.1.3. Middle class contained artisans, farmer, and laborers.

4.1.4. The very bottom of the social class consists of slaves.

4.2. Shang Zhou Dynasty

4.2.1. China was ruled by a strong monarchy.

4.2.2. An army was made to fight opponents and prevent rebellions.

4.2.3. Most people tended crops in the fields.

4.2.4. People hunted and collected expensive items for fun.

5. Government and Leaders

5.1. Sumerians

5.1.1. Men held political powers and made laws while women took care of the children and stayed home.

5.1.2. Priests held a high status in sumer and initially governed the city-states.

5.1.3. City-States's kings eventually formed dynasties which is a series of rulers from one family.

5.1.4. Sumerians had CIty-States, a political unit with its own government.

5.2. Shang Zhou Dynasty

5.2.1. The Shang dynasty had kings and the kings had a court which was a gathering of wealthy nobles, who performed rituals intended to perform rituals and keep kingdoms safe.

5.2.2. The king would have governors to help watch and rule distant parts of the kingdom.

5.2.3. Had the Mandate of Heaven which stated that gods would support a just ruler but they would not allow someone who was corrupt to hold power

5.2.4. They used the Mandate of Heaven to explain the dynastic cycle which was the rise and fall of dynasties in china. Used this cycle to state that if a dynasty lost power that it had become corrupt.

6. Economy and Trade

6.1. Sumerians

6.1.1. They obtained materials for their buildings and art through trading materials.

6.1.2. Traded with people across Southwest Asia and farther out, needed materials such as woven textiles, timber, and stone.

6.1.3. As trading became more enriched a social hierarchy developed which put kings and priests on top and farmers and laborers at the bottom.

6.1.4. Needed to trade with surroundings because they didn't have the materials they needed to survive, they also used

6.2. Shang Zhou Dynasty

6.2.1. Nearby rivers would help transport the good and were a way to move items..

6.2.2. Do to the food surpluses they were able to have and produce more food therefore, being able to sell more.

6.2.3. Leaders worried that the chinese would not accept the Zhou, We also introduced coins to the chinese.

6.2.4. The Zhou learned how to use iron which became the backbone for their economy and was easier and more cheap to to produce.

7. Science and Technology

7.1. Sumerians

7.1.1. Sumerians invented the wheel,which they used both to make pottery and to build a variety of vehicles.

7.1.2. Sumerians invented the plow and learned to use bronze to make stronger tools and weapons.

7.1.3. Sumerians learned a way to build sewers.

7.1.4. Sumerians preformed surgery and knew impressive amounts of knowledge.

7.2. Shang Zhou Dynasty

7.2.1. The Zhou's first geographical map was the map of the starry sky.

7.2.2. The growth of the city led to the building of roads and canals.

7.2.3. The Zhou's developed new transportation.

7.2.4. Farmers learned new techniques that increased the size of their harvests