7 Aspects of civilization

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7 Aspects of civilization by Mind Map: 7 Aspects of civilization

1. Science and Technology

1.1. Shang Zhou

1.1.1. Metal Weapon

1.1.2. An alloy of copper and tin, used to fashion weapons, parts of chariots, and ritual vessels

1.1.3. Bronzes were made by the method known as piece-mold casting, as opposed to the lost-wax method, which was used in all other Bronze Age cultures

1.2. Sumerians

1.2.1. writing implements, harnessing the wind, the domestication of animals, agricultural developments such as irrigation, medical advances, dentistry, architectural developments, and urbanization.

1.2.2. they created the rudimentary invention of time, a system of numbers, the 360 degree circle, geometry, the first wheeled vehicles, children’s toys

1.2.3. The Wheel

2. Government and Leaders

2.1. Shang Zhou

2.1.1. King Cheng of zhou

2.1.2. A powerful leader of the Zhou named Wen Wang began to plan to overthrow the Shang Dynasty. Wen Wang's son, Wu Wang, led an army across the Yellow River to defeat the King of the Shang Dynasty. King Wu established a new dynasty, the Zhou Dynasty.

2.1.3. The earlier leaders of the Zhou Dynasty introduced the idea "Mandate of Heaven". This concept said that the leaders gained their authority to rule from the gods.

2.1.4. It was believed that when the Zhou overthrew the Shang Dynasty, this was because the Shang had become tyrants and the gods allowed them to fall.

2.1.5. The Zhou government was based on the feudal system. The emperor divided the land into "fiefs" which were usually ruled by his relatives. The nobles who ruled the fiefs basically owned the farmers who worked their lands.

2.2. Sumerians

2.2.1. The Sumerian priest-kings received advice from a General Assembly, made up of free men whom were elected. When war broke out, the Assembly would choose one of its members to serve as a leader until the war was over.

2.2.2. Until 3000 B.C. kings were elected to a temporary ruling position only in times of crisis. After 3000 B.C. the position of king was no longer an elected office, but was hereditary.

2.2.3. The ancient Sumerians are credited for the invention of government. It was invented to organize labor and officials were appointed to sort out problems and work on construction projects.

2.2.4. Sumerian laws were not written down. People were expected to know what they were and what could happened if you broke the law. The laws clearly stated how you had to behave and what your punishment would be if you did not.

2.2.5. Gilgamesh, king of Urak

3. Social Structure and Family Life

3.1. Shang Zhou

3.1.1. Shang Zhou Social Structure

3.1.2. Aristocracy's were the most respected and were responsible for governing the smaller areas of the dynasty

3.1.3. The Shang middle class were craftman and artsian

3.1.4. The lowest class in the Shang society were the peasants and they were mainly farmers

3.1.5. Some people believe that the peasants functioned as slaves; others believe that they were more like serfs

3.2. Sumerians

3.2.1. There are four social classes: priests, upper class, lower class, and slaves. Sometimes you could tell what social class people were in by the way they dressed

3.2.2. The Sumerians placed great importance on their families. The man was the head of the family and could have more than one wife.

3.2.3. Children were expected to respect and obey their parents and in return they were treated fairly.

3.2.4. Each family had a cylindrical seal with markings and images which acted as their signature

3.2.5. Sumerian Social Sturture

4. Geography and Agriculture

4.1. Shang Zhou

4.1.1. Map

4.1.2. The core of the dynasty ran off the yellow river and Yangtze river.

4.1.3. Agriculture was very intensive and directed by the government

4.1.4. Large-scale irrigation and water-control increasing the crop yield

4.1.5. improved through the construction of new roads and canals

4.2. Sumerians

4.2.1. Located in mesomatania, fertil cresent

4.2.2. Farmers would use threshing wagons to separate the cereal heads from the stalks and then use threshing sleds to disengage the grain.

4.2.3. Tigris and Euphrates river, both shaped the civilization.

4.2.4. The very fertile soil allowed farmers to grow barley, chickpeas, lentils, millet, wheat, turnips, dates, onions, garlic, lettuce, leeks and mustard.

4.3. a

5. Arts and Education

5.1. Sumerians

5.1.1. Sumerian art is mainly about supporting the relationships between the people, the gods, the plants and animals.

5.1.2. Students learned by copying down lessons on stone tablets, memorizing them, and the reciting them for their teacher.

5.1.3. Sumerian education mostly took place in a temple, associated with a priest. A larger portion of the students were wealthy and male.

5.1.4. Sumerians established forms of ancient pottery, they also worked on crafts such as weaving, leather work and Metal work. Pottery was what they were best at.

5.2. Shang zhou

5.2.1. The earliest Chinese bronzes were made by a method known as piece-mold casting. this technique allowed the bronze worker to achieve a higher degree of sharpness and definition in intricate designs.

5.2.2. Jade (along withe bronze) represents the highest achievement of Bronze Age material culture. the Shang dynasty can be viewed as the culmination of 2,000 years of the art of jade carving.

5.2.3. Confucius (the great educator) devoted his life to the private school system and instructed many students. It is known that over three thousand disciples followed him.

5.2.4. The schools divided the youth nobles into "lower" and "upper" groups. The government founded five national schools to educate Six Arts of junior nobles. Depended on the education of the person, not the government.

6. Economy and Trade

6.1. Shang Zhou

6.1.1. 90% of peasants lived on farms

6.1.2. bronze wares reached a high level of artistry that signified  advanced civilization.

6.1.3. Fishing began to grow as an industry as the people fished in the fresh waters.

6.1.4. The most important item to trade was slik

6.2. Sumerians

6.2.1. Trade was based on agriculture which was influenced by advancement in technology

6.2.2. Jobs included pottery makers, stonecutters, bricklayers, metal smiths, farmers, fishers, shepherds, weavers, leather-workers, and sailors.

6.2.3. They would trade with far civilizations to get what they needed

6.2.4. The wheel was invented for carts, chariots, and pottery making. Aloud trade to be easier.

7. Relgion

7.1. Elephant Vessel

7.2. Sumerians

7.2.1. a polytheistic religion, with anthropomorphic deities representing cosmic and terrestrial forces in their world.

7.2.2. In the Sumerian city-states, temple complexes originally were small, elevated one-room structures. In the early dynastic period, temples developed raised terraces and multiple rooms.

7.2.3. Fertility Figure

7.3. Shang Zouh

7.3.1. Ancestral Cult: the belief that the world was divided into three tiers: heaven, earth, and the underworld. A Chinese family was connected not only to their fathers and mothers of the recent past but those from the distant past.the human body had two souls: the soul that ascends at death, the hun, and the one that stays with the corpse, the po

7.3.2. Two practices that extend from these ancient dynasties to the present are ancestral rites, performed in conjunction with the ancestral cult, and divination

7.3.3. Divination: the art of using omens or magic powers to discern movements in the supernatural world, has long been an important decision-making tool for the Chinese.