Protestant Reformation

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Protestant Reformation by Mind Map: Protestant Reformation

1. Martin Luther

1.1. Called out Catholic Church on their corruption with his 95 Theses

1.2. German monk and professor of theology

1.3. Lutheranism

1.3.1. Salvation can only be achieved through faith

1.3.2. Bible is the only source of faith, vs Catholicism that believes church tradition also is a source of faith

1.3.3. Only some sacraments are accepted but not all because only God can erase sin

1.3.4. Luther's ideology was spread around Europe thanks to printing

1.3.5. By 1530, Lutherans began to call themselves Protestants due to protesting papal authority

2. John Calvin

2.1. French priest and lawyer

2.2. Published a popular book on his beliefs on how to run a Protestant church

2.3. Calvinism

2.3.1. Based off of Lutheranism but had its own ideas

2.3.1.1. Predestination, or the idea God had already decided who would go to Heaven or Hell

2.3.1.2. People were either sinners or saints no matter what their actions were

2.4. Protestants of Geneva asked Calvin to lead them

2.4.1. Created a theocracy

2.4.1.1. Hard work, discipline, thrift, morality, honesty were vital

2.4.1.2. People of Geneva thought they were "chosen" by God to create a true Christian society

2.4.1.2.1. Geneva seemed like a model society to many Calvinists so people from around Europe came to visit. They brought Calvin's ideas back home with them, spreading the sect. This also caused wars against the Catholic Church

2.5. New node

3. Anabaptists

3.1. Protestant sect

3.2. Although most were peaceful, some Anabaptists believed that God's day of judgement should be sped up via violence.

3.3. Some wanted no private property and no infant baptism.

3.4. Baptists, Mennonites, and the Amish all trace back to this sect

3.5. Most called for religious tolerance and separation of church and state

4. English Reformation

4.1. Henry VIII was strongly against the Protestant Reformation until a priest denied him a divorce from Catherine of Aragon. The priest did not want to offend Catherine's nephew, the emperor of Holy Rome, Charles V.

4.1.1. Henry decided to take over the English church and change things. In 1534, parliament passed the Act of Supremacy that crowned Henry "the only supreme head on Earth of the Church of England." Devout Catholics refused to accept him as that and were executed for treason.

4.1.1.1. When Henry died, his only son, Edward VI, inherited the throne. He, and his advisors were firmly Protestant. They took action to revert England to become Protestants.

4.1.1.1.1. When Charles died, his half-sister, Mary Tudor, took over and decided to change England back to Catholicism. She ordered hundreds of English Protestants to be burned at the stake.

4.2. Elizabethan Settlement

4.2.1. When Mary died, the throne was passed on to Elizabeth, the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. She ultimately had to decide the fate of the Church of England. She decided to create a compromise and have the church be part Catholic and part Protestant. Decades of fighting came to a close.

5. Catholic Reformation aka the Counter Reformation

5.1. Led by Pope Paul III, he aimed to revive traditional catholic views and get rid of Protestant ideology.

5.2. New node

5.2.1. New node